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lE^TJiiollslaeci Is/Iontlaly, a,t 303 ^roa-ciTT^T-sty-, fox ffil.OO per "S"eaa:. 
" Entered at the Poit Office of JVw York, N. T., as leeond-elau matter:' 

H. r. KK 

, A«M>clUti 


VOL. V. NO. 1. 

llrialnnai Conla limltM to Uin« lln«i will be luaertMl 
In ihU wlutno. ono yxM tat li.SO. 

D. T. AjUEn, 

Esnnilnerot (|ur*>llonod llnudwrlllnv. 

«. II. »iiA'rTt;cK, 

Clrculnw Free to Any AJ(lr««. 


(PubllubPtm of tbc> " Mo(Ii>l Scrfnt of 
Rli niliubon and with alldliig eoplM." 


40 Court Sliwt, Brooklyn. N. Y. 


prrrsuciioH. pa, 

Eatabllalicd 1640. 


Union flqu«». Now York. 

BRv wr A Ni i( \i*ronr nit-sinEss 


30S Uronawny. 

nAviii-:w*M hijnikesk colleuk. 

J. 1(. UUUDIEK, Vli-« Pnvtjdi'iit. 

Photo- Elorttvt}-pm for niiint 


k 306 F^illou Sliv^tt, Bnwklyn. 

(Twenty ynan at 395 Pullou Streo 

s«. m<H>dr.'i 


n Strw-t. S,.w York. 


U Vi. 

K |W«. ItoeR.l 

iSttwiil Npwi 


ana Job PriulMm. 

l*»x««s s A,<T Jorn 


[R. O. FKUllKH,) 

well Hcek to win a race by occasionally talcing a 
turn in the opposite direction. 

In our previous lessons we have considered 
position, movement, unity of forre), and the cor- 
rect proportion of letten aa essential to easy 
rapid and legible writing; another esBential 
which we will specially consider in the present 
lesuon is the proper spacing and connecting of 
letters and words ; upon thcee very much de- 
ponds, us in many instances the connecting 
lines alone impart the distinctive character to 

In determining the proper spacing of 
writing, the distance between the straight 
lines of the small u may be taken as 
a space in width. The distance between the 
pnrts ol letters having more than one downward 
stroke should be one space; between the letters, 
one and one-fourth spaces, measured at the head 
line, except a, d, g and q, which should occupy 
two spaces measuring from the preceding letter 
to the point of the ovals : between words there 
should be two spaces: 


B often said that " practice makes perfect." 
This is (rue if the terai practice implies thoughl- 
lu). palieQ^ and persieHent efibrt for improve- 
ment; oiherwiM it may be quite untrue. 

Thoiiphtle«9 scribbling tends nther to retard 
than to enhance the ac(|uiaition of good writing. 
Each time a copy has b««ii carelessly repcatt-d 
incorrect, or bad habiu have been confirmed 
rather than corrected— a move backward instead 
of forward. This is a fact not suffidcntl; appre- 
ciated by t«achera or pupils. Better far not 
praoti.-o than i.i drt >.. rjinl.--*U ; one might a« 

Much care should be exercised while practicing 
to employ the proper curve for connecting let- 
ters and their parts. It is a very common and 
grievous fault in writing that a straight line or 
the wrong curve is employed in the construction 
and connection of letters, thus leaving them 
without distinctive character, or imparting one 
which is false and misleading. As for instance, 
a form made thus yf^ is really no letter, but 

may be taken for a"/'^'^/ a ^'■^^^^ 

and possibly for «-^yf^. In cases where the 

context does not determine, iu identity 

becomes a mere matter of guess, and when ex- 
tended \\i\\iypppp^\\s. significonce, aa will be 
seen, is still Qiore vague and un- 

certain ; as it might be intended for cither of the 
following seven combinations : 

With a properly trained band no more time or 
effort is required to impart the true and unmis- 
titkable characteristics to each letter than to 
make forms whose identity is open to doubt and 

Connecting lines should have a 
ilant of 30*, as shown by the 
^ „\o!^ accompanying diagram: 

Before practicing the copy for 
this le^on the following exereis« 
be practiced : 

employing purely the muscular or fore arm 
movement. It is not intended that in practice 
the pupil will make precisely four lines as is in- 
dicated in each oval, but many light lines, 
tracing each other as nearly as possible. 

The special effort to trace rapidly and aiXB- 
rately the hoes so that a whole multitude of 
them shall constitute one well defijied oval is 
the prtK-ia^' discipline thnl eivM neriir.n-v at the ' 

same time that it imparls case and rapidity to 
writing; with this us in other practice if it is 
careless and without dosign, the lines sprawling 
out in all sorta of ill-dcfiued shapes, it is time 
worse than wasted. 
We now present the following copy for prao- 

We specially urge each one seeking to profit 
by these lessons to give special attention to the 
correction of the faults mentioned and the sug- 
gestions given for improvement, in connection 
with each lesson ; attention and effort concen- 
trated upon one or two faults at a time will be 
the most effectual method for overcoming or 
removing them. 

Toil is the price of excellence. 


How to Teach, Writing. 

The successful teacher of writing will be cer- 
tain to set the bruins of his pupils to work be- 
fore he does their fingers. He will reeogoiM 
the fuel that the fingers can be skillful only as 
the ready and obediont servants of an enlighten- 
ed and active brain, thut the one can never per- 
form better than the other perceives and directs. 
He wilt therefore direct his first efforts to awak- 
ening thought and inquiry concerning the sub- 
ject. This is best accomplished by a skillful and 
free use of the black-board, upon which should 
be carefully written the copy of each exercise, 
when it should be carefully and critically analyzed 
by the teacher, before being practiced by the class, 
thus conveying through the eye to the mind of 
the pupil, a correct idea of the form and con- 
struction of the copy, which should also be writ- 
ten or engraved in the most perfect manner pos- 
sible, and placed before the pupil for study and 
imitation. By skillful black-board illustrations 
the eye and mind will become familiarized with 
the correct forms and construction of letters and 
writing, and when thus in the mind there exists 
a clear and perfect conception of writing, the 
fingers, with proper instruction regarding posi- 
tion, movements, etc., will very soon acquire the 
requisite skill for transcribing it upon paper, nor 
will they soon lose that power, since a perfect 
copy for imitation will always be present in the 
mind, while the pupil, who by much practice, 
with little study, may become skillful at imita- 
ting B good copy so long as it is before him, will 
at once lose that power when the copy is remov- 
ed. Teachers who look for permanent success, 
therefore make a free use of the black- 
Are Good Writers Bad Spellers. 

It \A oHen remarked that good writers are no- 
toriously bad spellers; that they are more so 
than any other cla.s« or profession we do not be- 
lieve. This mistaken idea comes from the fact 
that good writers impart to each letter a perfec- 
tion of form, which renders every error in spell, 
ing very conspicuous; while bad writers, who 
employ such imperfect and doubtful forms for 
letters as to often render their identity uncertain, 
and their legibility impossible, except from their I 
context, happily escape the odium of being bad 

Back Numbers. 
There are remaining a few of all the back 
numbers of the Joi'BSal since and inclusive of 
the September number, 1877, in all forty nvm- I 
6«>r«to Jan. 1st, 1861, which will be sent for I 
$3.00; with all four of the premiums for $3. SO. I 

(The following most valuable suggestions as 
to the methods of teaching penmanship wer« 
given to the teachers of the Children's Aid Soci- 
ety, at a meeting which they hold regularly for 
self- improvement. At the close a vote of thanks 
was passed by acclamation.] 

When I go into a schoolroom the teacher 
shows me the best copy-books ; I then ask for 
the poorest one. The teacher is to be judged by 
the poorest work ho does. All teaching should 
aim at the lowest, — should come within reach of 
the poorest. 

In Pittsburg I visited a school in company 
with one of its officers. He said : "If it's in a 
boy to write, he will. If it's not, he won't.' 'He 
pointed to a boy and said, " Teach thut boy, 
and ni believe any one can be taught." 

This boy was writing in a book having two 
rulings. His letters slanted every way and 
touched neither top or bottom line ; he said he 
could do it no better. I told him I wanted 
him to do me a favor by writing a single word 
and have the letters touch the top and bottom 
ruling. Instead of one word I found he had 
written four lines. I said, " I told you to write 
but one." " Yes," said he, " I did, but I didn't 
like it, and wanted to make it better." I told 
and then bring it to the 
a asked, in astonishment, 
proud of i 

teacher. He did. i 
" Did you write that 

ely pointed out a little thing ibr him 

I do. 

and he did it. Put your iuslniction within reach 
of the lowest. 

A teacher needs to impress on every pupil that 
the eye of the teacher is on him, the same as 
if he was alone. He cannot actually see every 

child, but he c 

! their work, and mark his 

To a 

plish this let us take up the practical work of 
the class-room. A common fault of heginnera 
is to bear down hard on the pen. When in pass- 
ing along I see this, I put on the top of the page 
a light mark \, incaning "write lighter." If 
they do not touch the top or bottom line, I put 
two parallel lines.^ If the slope of the letters is 
not correct, I put a slanting mark thus \. li 
the letters are too near together, or too fur apart, 
or they arc irregularly grouped, I put a dash — . 
I take their hooks at the end of a recital and 
note the characteristics. Ou tlic next day I ask 
all who had a certain mark (those slanting 
wrong, for example), to stand up and look at 
their books. I ask them for their opinion as to 
whether the mark is right or not, as I admit my 
liability to err. They " ' 

But mind. 


n't do to be 


I mttke a mark at the bottom. The s 

the bottom as at the top means improved in that 

respect. They are pleased to find such marks. 

The first thing is to hold the pen right. Trac- 
ing books are made for this. Their proper use 
is not to teach the formation of letters but how 
to bold the pen and hand, in going over the 
tracing. First let them use a dry pen until they 
can hoUl it easily, and bring the book into pos- 
ition to suit the slant he wants to give, and see 
that all understand what you are endeavoring to 
teach; next carefully go over the tracing with pen 
and ink and see that all have followed the in- 
given. Do not attempt to instruct 
le form of the letter. If you do, they 
luckte down to it with cramped fingers 
trying to make a good letter. That is, train them 

hold the pen and write over the traced letters 
with ink before attempting to teach the analyti- 
cal form of the letter. — A. Y.Srkovl JmirnaL 

"Lesaonsin. Praftiail Writing." — Is the title 
a aeries of valuable articles l)y Professor D- 
T. Ames, in his Pk.m(4.\'8 Art Jolk.\al, pub- 
lished at 205 Broadway. The number for De- 
cember has an article comparing the common 
longhand with shorthand, showing how much 
shorter the latter is, and suggesting that the 
want of the age is some relief from the unnecea- 
8.iry labor of longhand nriting. What better 
means of getting that relief than Brief Longhand 
or Sundard Phonography ? — i-tudenta' Journal. 
We agree with the Jvurital that there is now 
DO method better adapted to meet the demand 
than that it suggests. For further information 
address, A. J. Graham, author of Standait) Pho- 
nographjr, 744 Broadway, New York. 


AiDooK the Bonn of men. 

k Nrw Y»«r'« gwrtlng tmh »nd wsrrn, 

AikI ncnrspokn brfonr. 
[( offi^n Imm tbo trcasnrr 

0( Ibonitlit'* unboantleid ninrv. 

riic r«w^cu of All by -gone jrt^an* 
WItli all the Pi-ii'i kIjuI Hcirik, 

, kuiiwlodgeofl 

lilult-iitruiig metal 

All might aod maoic elumboiiug 
In latcut glow within. 

UlBoul-migl „ 
All Ubert; 1h bli 

Bonring batl 
Ight gathero li 


Cisco MlcTtMcopte Society— Detection of Forgury by 

At the regular lueeting of th« Sun Fraocisco 
Microscopical Society, licid recenUy, Mr. 
Charles H. Dcuisou, the Secrutary, read and 
illustrated the following paper on "Graphiology',' 
or a treatiie on th»> art of writing, the detection 
of forgery, etc. The use of the microscope in 
the exuminnlioii of fovgt'd or altered signatures, 
has been the study of the writer for the past six 
mouths. This exaniiuation has also extended 
into the permanency of inks, their erasures the 
disturbance of the paper fnbric, upon which they 
are used, and I have arrived at certain conclu- 
KioiiB to which I call your attention. About 
lour months since I copied froiu the Bankfr's 
Magatiiif, an article purporting to be a dis- 
covery by Its writer of a certain rhythm peculiar 
to each individual, and distinguishing one man's 
writing from that of another. A previous article 

in the New Yorli Times also presents the same 
subject, and states that writer's theory upon 
forgery. I nuole a few of hia words : " Where 
the methods of the expert {in detection of forged 
sifrnaiures) break down, the moat delicaU- 
methtjds of optical analysis represented by the 
compound microscope interfere to detect and de- 
iDODStrate forgery. If you follow the tracings of 
a letter, however rapidly written, you find when 
examined with a power of ten diameters, and 
illuminated with a good bull's-eye condensing 
lens, that besides the latter rbytfani there is 

which is imperceptible to the naked eye and can- 
not be accurately developed with a hand lens, 
or simple microscope, but which comes out for- 
cibly in the optical image furnished by the com- 
pound instrument. This secondary rhythm is 
traceable to the action of the small muscles in 
mitintaining and regulating the amount of pres- 
sure upon the pen. The men that supposes that 
the pen-pressure is uniform in writing, merely 
beouuse it appears to be so when reviewed with 
the naked eve, will be astonished to learn that 
its variation's are between 200 and 300 to the 
inch, and tlial they are regular just in proportion 
as they are spontaneous and involuntary, that is 
to say, when a man is writing in his natural 
manner, the variations in pressure upon the pen 
are perfectly rhythmical, while., on the contrary, 
while he is consciously imitating the writing of 
another they are irregular and wanting in rhyth- 
mical symmetry, and they remain so just so long 
as the conscious voluntary movement incident 
to tlie act of copying is exercised. If you follow 
(I still quote him) the margin of a well-illumin- 
ated letter in a genuine signature, with a com- 
pound microscope you will observe that it is 
every way the result of a rapidly successive series 
of muscular impulses, and that these impulses 

>d in rhythm etically symmetrical order. 

how cleverly a signature may be imi- 


thibit similar e<ige«. I 
consider, therefore, that I have established this 
fact, that there are no regular nerve impulses 
perceptible, and therefore not comparable by 
individuality with each other ; or, in other wonls, 
that this theory is not practical, and cannot be 
demonstrated before a jury, or court, and that 
the irregularities seen on the margin of signa- 
tures are caused by some other principle than 
musculur rhythm, or nerve impulses. And hav- 
ing demonstrated this fact, I beg leave to ^ve it 
as my opinion that it is a theory, and only a 
theory; and cannot be demonstrated, or at least 
has not been. On this subject I will only detain 
you longer by saying that in the report on the 
examination of the celebrated 

at West Point, a gentleman of Troy, New York, 
who ia an advocate of this theory, did not report 
at all on the examination by the microscope, but 
by comparison of the letters in the ordinary way, 
showing that the theory was not practical I 
have brought for your inspection afnt- m'milf of 
the "note of warning" said to have been received 
by that cadet, and a copy of a letter written by 
him a month subsequently. [The Secretary then 
explained and compared the hand- writings.] 
But after you have finished the comparison of 
words and letters, and begin the examination of 
the fabric upon which a signature or document 
is written, then I claim that the use of the mi- 
croscope is invaluable and certain. It is sure 
to detect any disturbance of the fabric, by era- 
sure, or addition, and becomes an important 
factor in the examination. I do not believe any 
addition or erasure can be so skillfully made that 
ihe microscope cannot detect it, seen either by 
the disturbance of the fabric or the inequahty of 
admittance of light through it. If time permit- 

duclion here, howevi 
rapidly become popul 
States, and this 


;r. New Year's cards have 
ar throughout the Unileil 
they have even crossed the 
Canada. The fii-st New Tear's 
urere published by J. C. Y. Corn. 

"It was in the winter of 18C8.'fl9 that the 
idea came to me to print some New Year's 
cai-ds," said Mr. Cornwall. "The thing was 
wholly an experiment, but it did not involve 
much" expen.^e, so I thought I would try it. 1 
prepared two designs, which were printed from 
wood-cuts, in black ink. The new cards ' took ' 
immensely from the start, and 1 hnd onler^ fur 
all I could supply. That tir*t i.-n 1 l,„.i ilie 
business mostly in my 'nm lim.!-, imi \\\r Wnv 
Year's cards had bect'iiH :i' n c ■ - I ilii> 
next year a great man> |,ij.i -i. i i i uli 

different designs, most "! tli.-m ^i ii w »i-. 

der. That year I had four designs in llio ninr- 
ket, printed from stone, two of which were 
drawn for me by Thomas Nasi. The cards hnd 
a very great run that year, and their popularity 
has been increasing ever since. The sales are 
larger in proportion this year than ever before, 
and what began as a mere experiment has be- 
come a really large and important business. 
Just now the higher-priced cards are selling best. 
The comic cards are losing ground, aud there 
are comparatively few new varieties in that line. 
Many of the new cards, like the Christmas cards, 
are bits of real art that will be pi^served lor 
their beauty long after the New Years' day has 
passed out of mind." 

Large numbers of the different varieties of 

New Tear' 


filling show windows aud covering c^ 
The prices range from %\ to $25 n hundi 
special single cards, hand painted, cost 
to |25 each, a tew specimens going up as liigh 
as $50. The latter, however, me nothiuj; more 
or less than water-color paintings with a date oi 


Their subjects are 
mostly of the flowery 
order, or represent 
fresh winter scenes. 
One of them contain- 
ed a series of medal- 
lions illustrating the 

be ushered in Ijy the 
new year. These 
ca rds, however, scarce- 
ly come under the 
head of "calling cards,'' 
but are more after the 
nature of the Christ- 

this ye 


cards, to accommodate 
parties of gentlemen 
who make calls to- 
gether, is shown in a 
large card containing 
the usual decorative 
inscription, "A Happy 
New Year," together 
with appropriate de- 
signs and emblems, 
and having very small 
envelopes attached, 
one for the separate 
card of each gentle- 
man. These envelopes 
are usually in delic 

nitatiug i 

of the hand essential to thi 
tracing the letters, just so long the margin of thi 
stroke remains irregular in the length and di.t- 
tributing of the impulses, and the forgery can be 
demonstrated, optically, to the satisfaction of a 
jury." Having read this portion of the writer's 
article, I cull your attention to his frank state- 
ment that with an objective of ten diameters we 
shall be astonished to learn that the margin of a 
niaii's writing shows these so-called rhythmical 
variiitioiis, or impulses of nerves upon the pen, 
to the number of 200 or 300 to the inch. Yes, 
it would indeed astonish us. For a better eluci- 
dation of the subject, or examination of this as- 
tonishing theory, I have the pleasure of exhibit- I e"'" 
iiig some jj.iiiiine and some imitated signatures [ h'^'*' 

I'.i s- uion. The firet one is the | ^'i^' 

ri i-natureof theSecretaryofthe i )' " 

>.. ii 1 1 . I, U^ilroad Company, which a ^"' 
|i. -,,;, 11., III. I ii ,\i- .^leat difficulty in imitating, i '''^' 
Till' nimi «lui Luii show, and count under any | '";; 
object! vc-glttss, ol any microscope, 200 or 300 ""'" 
variations in an inch of that signature, will be 
able to show us what does not exist. You will 
see variations along the margin of this signature, 
but they arc not caused by any nerve impulses or 
tremor; but, without doubt, they arc caused by 
the uneven surface of the paper fabric, assisted 
by capillary attraction. No matter how well 
rolled or calendered the fabric, under the mi- 
croscope there are seen fibres aud inequalities, 
and those depressions and swellings of the pulp 
cause the 

As a proof of that declaration, I submit speci- 
mens of ink-drops on paper, which have dried 
undisturbed, and upon the same kind of fabric 
as (be signature — the edges showing the same 
unevenneas and resembling exactly the edges of 
the signature. Tou will also observe the 
straight lines drawn with a ruler upon the same 


ind changing 

Ni.r I . iiiniii'il ilio opinion that the 

iukI 1 1 Ml 1 1'. ■ Imhi-, .iikI liin opinions and de- 
I'isinns tlinutd be uhi impartial as those of the 
Court — otherwise his conclusions might be influ- 
enced by the party in whose interest he comes 
bet'oie liu- Courl or jury. He should never lose 
^l[:!ii .1 (Im ii.r ilni liis duty is that of an im- 
|i II I , . ' I ;i Judge rather than an ad- 

\>.. <■. _ ,.. I lient or antagonist. The 

iliri I, --,,.11 M III. Ii I ..^lifd was of a very interest- 
il a late hour. The 
vere examined, and 
lommented upon with much zest. 

New Year's Cards. 


are novel and 
t of the Christ- 
England and 
Tear's cards are thoroughly 
both in manufacture and use. and owe 
in indeed to this city. Although the 


ing very pretty combinations. The same idea is 
carried out less elaborately in various other 
ways. Upon the large card bearing the motto 
any number of siiialL cards maybe fastened for 
the different gentlemen. Another arrangement 
is a number of cards of ditlerent lengtlis lied 
together with a silken cord and tassel in the 

of tablels, the outer card being decorated 
with the New 'i'ear's greetings. 

A great many of the cards have satin ribbons 
of various colors, upon which Ihe comphuients 
of the season are printed in gold letters, slreleh- 
ed across their faces ; others are heavily fitibds.*- 
ed, and some are adorned with a profusion cf 
satin bows, cords and tassels. Among the tim'St 
of the calling cards is one of heavy crcaui-tinied 
Bristol, with wide, gilt, bevelled edges, upon one 
end of which ia a representation oT a iiiininHin» 
Japanese fan, so exquisitely done that it nXnwt.*- 
appeared to be a real little fan dropjie*! down 
upon the card. Across the fan runs a diogonni 
band of crimson, upon which " A Happy Ne»' 
Tear" is printed in embossed golden letter-. 
Above the band a golden sun. upon whose fate 
are the white figures " 1881," is just rising, aw\ 
throwing out golden beams into a ground-work 
representing blue sky. Below the band is a- 
green ground, in which are golden and olive- 
brown reeds and a very bright butterfly. Tl"^ 
handle and ribs of the fan are of poised g"!'' 
lines. These cards cost $20 a hundred, and wit'" 
small pink and buff envelopes attached they cofi 
$3 more. From the left hand side of another 
card, a bright little page in a crimson cloak, em 
broidered with gold, steps out, beoring a ealv'i' 
upon which is pictured a pretty New Year's vura 
in white and gold. The same idea is illustrated in 
loinisciy. ALinougu «,c """ther card upon which an e™»>08sed wN-t' 
of making calls on jinuary ^tork stands holdmg a golden card in its bt»K 
othe Knickerbocker time.. ' A handsome steeUenj.^aved card shows a de..^^^^^ 
...»'-- ... I lookmg old owl perched upon the concave f" 

of a crescent, which typifies the new and grow- 
ing year. One of the neatest cards is a p'""' 
white with the upper left hand corner tuini r 
over. This reveried corner is of bright gold lu 

New York custo 

1, runs far back 

when all the people of Manhattan Island 

acquaintances, the custom of leaving cards is of 

comparatively recent dale, and special cards for 

the day with printed holiday greetings were only 

introduced eleven years ago. Since their 


•rhich U « nuinic itun iritli whit« rajru. Two 
rsnl triaOKl'-ii am ti«^d acroM each other with 
oilk cortin in Inir-lore knota, bo u to form a aix- 
(<oinU>d dUr, in ihc cvniir of which in » Rold 
monoj^rafD in a Man roMlallion. Aborr lhi« ii • 
^r^rifl arth bnrinfc »n imurriptioa, and below i* 
■ |>Iare for ■ name. Tfawe card* co*1$I0b 
hundred. A »qruirv white card, with a heavy 
jfold bcrelled edfte, haa a riolet stripe, with " A 
Happy New Year" atmM the comer, and bHow 
il a Hmall (m>w of blue ribbon, in which arc tied 
a ffw winpfi of a rery delicate Rraai* and a Kr*in 
or two or wheat in tha bull ; pricr |l« a htin- 
drrd. A card cut in the shape of a hand holda 
(he ntump ofan old cigar almoil burnt out, on 
which i« marked 1880. Thl« ia a good card for 
N. w Tear'* Bre. 

One firm, which MUnda high in the nUlionery 
trade, and introduce* many cr>«tlT norcltie«, ha« 
n<il laid in any utock of decorated New Year'a 
ealling cardii. A repreaentatiirc of tlie firm told 
tin- reporter that the highest style, according to 
lh»>ir idea, waa the ordinary written or enRraTcd 
I'lillint; card. He ndded, however, that he had 
Hold a painloil Now Year's card, that same mom- 
inp, for %m.~TrUninf. 

The Pen. 

A Vo-m wrttti>D b]r It«T. L. L. Ha|Ei>r. o 
iMXi: N, Y.. for. and «l«U»nwl by Pi^f. S. 

iiin>oii WrtUnit at til» icnduatinK pif>n~l» 
IBIKp. at Kf<y«tott» Hall. UoloD City. Pa. 

Whnncn wan Uiy ortntn and birtb 1 
DM Tubal Cain iwrnX th"" T My 7 

My Ji^p affllcdon* In tho rwk. 
That Ihfy ntay ll»o till Omr- lant •] 

Or thpy of NImrod'a landl by night T 
Pmm DpIim townr. whi'pn stan wrrv bri 
In studylnii tbn ZotUac ? 

1 plai 
Or thny bMtdo 1 

> NUlU fl<M>cl 

M> loDR bavo nlooit 

Or WW It 11- th« M«bly Oo 
Whrn tmubllnR Hlnal Be tr» 

TtaouKb wrapt 


thy I 

That otbiTWlw* i 

Tlio wliuloni noil Uio Iiltth r 
IncTMuilDg Il|(lit with evnry 
Atirl ibn D(«lnulnii byo and 

Educational Notes. 

church or other control, there are twenty- 
peven Sut« CniTersitie*. and forty-eight non- 
sectarian college* ; the Roman Catholic ini^titu- 
tions number iiizly seven ; The Methodist, of 
varioQs ktndn, siity-five; while other denomi- 
nation* have each a few. Michigan Cniversity 
ha-t the grvalc«'t total number of BtudenUt, 
amounting to 1,457; but, excluding the strictly 

?rofe»»iontl coune. Harvard with 636, and 
'ale with 7S3 far ezcved all others. One 
hundred and eighty -three insiiiiitions admit 
both sexes, three ore exclu^'ively for womt-n. and 
the r*»l admit gentlemen only. — Notre Damf 

<ioTvmor-elect Porter said at the Indiana 
teachers meeting the other day that he believed 
that "the beet preparation of the boy for a rir- 
I life is to inlere^l him in (lood reading. I 
remember that a few years ago, when one of my 
was a little fellow, I noticed that he wan 
reading what I thought was nn objectionable 
novel. I said, 'I don't like this business of 
lovel reading,' and thought he ought not to 
ead the Imok any more. But before I insisted 
in hif* giving it up he said, 'I wiwh you would 
read one of thoi^e books I have been reading.' 
i took up the book, and found il to be a boy's 
book about 'The Coral Inlandf).' Il chanced to 
be Sunday morning, and I did not go to hear 
any preacher that morning, or aftenioon either, 
and WOK not content until I had read the booL 
through. [Laughter.] Why, such books put 
into boy's hands are perfectly irresistible. You 
can catch the drift of a boy's mind and charac- 
ter by tumbling out before him promiscuously a 
lot of books belter than perhaps in any other 
way; and it is while a boy is reading books in 
which he is interested that he is shaping what 
his life will be. 1 know n boy very well, who is 
not far removed from my own family, who has 
developed a remarkable fondness for the sci- 
ences, and nil from rending a popular series of 
books treating on water, heat, eleclricity, and 
other mutters of that kind, each of which Id 
worked up into a story." 

The Chicago rri*un^ indulges in this fling at t 
our colleges: "Can 1 give ror son a collegiate) 
education at home?" asked a fond parent. 
Certainly. All that you want L^ a twse ball 
guide, a r«cing shell and a package of cigar- 

The principal of a female seminary stepped 
suddenly into one of the recitation rooms, and 
said: "That person who Is chewing gum will step forward and put it on the desk." 
The whole school stepped forward with one 
accord toward the desk, while the teacher 
slipped her quid beneath htr tongue, and said 
'Leally, guls, I'm surpriseld !" 

A sehoolboy got up and read a composition on 
"The Tree." He got as far as: "This subject 
has many branches," when the teacher said, 
"Stop, you have not made your bough yet." 
"If you interrupt me again," said the boy, "I'll 
leave. "You young limb," said the teacher, "If 
you give me any more impudence I'll take the 
snp out of you. Such language is the fruit of 
the spirit of insubordination which I must root 
out." "I twig," meekly replied the boy, nnd 
the regular exercisea proceeded. 

A father has been questioning hia son, who 
has just returned from an expensive school, and 
says the boy answers four questions out of every 
five correctly in every branch of his studies. 
To four questions out of five the boy says, "I 
don't know," and this answer is alwoys a true 
one. When he hazards any other it is apt to be 

"How many zones arc there?" asks a teacher. 
None of the class being able to onswer, a second 
question is propounded — "Can you mention one? 
To this one of the pupils feeling his superiority 
to the rest of the class by uplifted hand vigor- 
ously indicates that he in prepared to answer. 
"What is it asks the teacher. The pupil with 
confidence answers "The Amazone. 

Harvard University now has I.Rfil student* 
and 1B8 inslnietors. 

The Bontoti Public Library contains 377,226 

There are 60,000 achools and coltegea in 
India, with an attendance of l.SOO.OOO boys and 


Profesior Blaekie (Greek professor at Edin- 
burgh l!niveri.ity) advocates the study of at 
h'liitl two iiioderii litnguagcs and one ancient 
langunge a* il1diKpen^able to culture. 

The late- 1 p-tnii^tic* -ihnw that Nevada teachers 
ri'icivc InrpiT vnlnriiw than their cnlaborers in 
ntlirr -t:(i.-' Til-' -\\:\r\ ivvprage* tl06ucr month 
t.' n .1. I'^l -SI (o females. The lowest 
■ill 1.:,- is in South Carolina, 

ii>. I . • : I Niiiiith, and to females, in 

Miiiii. , IV ■ i-iii- hill $16.02 per month— 
■/V,..-A.r,s dui.U 

Iitwa has in her public schools an average at- 
icndnnce of 2fiB.0Ul> pupils and 21,000 teachers. 
Il i^ ciimplain»l that the standard of the tcach- 
t'i-»' examinations in the Slate i» not sufflciently 
hi^b, and that the certificates taxued are no 
evidi-nce:« of real ability. lowaV school fund 
amnunL<^ to more than |3.60O,00O. 

Says the RHt/mtiimal W«eMff: "Grammar 
is tlie wonit-taughl subject iu the schools. Out- 
itide of the graded schools too mucli time is 
spent upon arithmetic. It is arithmetic, arithine- 
lic, from six lo twenty. The height of the 
schoolboy's ambition is lo 'cipher' Uirough the 
nrithnietie three timeii. The anxious father 
r-ay*: i do want my boy good in arithmetic;' 
and so he graduates from the school in pusses- 
hion of this branch of lesming, perhaps, but 
unable to speak or write a seutt'nee ae- 

The Knglish alphabet contains Iwcnty-six 
lotlttv; French, tw^nty-five; Italian, twenty; 
Spani-b, tw only --even; German, twentv-six; 
Kii»ittn, thirlj-five; Lalin, twonty-thrre; Greek, 
twenty-four; Uebnew, twcDly-two ; Arabic, 
twenty-eight ; Perr^ian, thirty-two; Turkish, 
twenty-cighl; Sanscrit, twenty-four; Chinese, two 
hundred and fourteen. 

Therv are in the I'nited Stal«i four hundrvd 
and twenty-two colleges; of these, twenty are in 
New England ; the State of Missouri has twenty- 
three, and Pennsylvania Iweoly-nine. As io 

The above out is a fac-simile reproduction of a page of part four of the New Spenceriaii Com- 
pendium, reduced about one-half ft'om the original size. 

This is one of seven plates presenting a great variety of all the capitals. 

The copy haa been carcluUy prepared by Lyman I', Spencer, and engraved on steel by Arch- 
ibald McLeea. The work is well nigh foultless and presents the greatest variety of the most ele- 
gant forms, and will be invaluable to all penmen aspiring to a high degree of professional excellence. 

We have also examined seven of the nine plates of Part T. of the Compendium which tire 
devoted to alphabets, and which ore most exquisite in fnrni and engraving. This number bids fair 
to be one of the most valuable yet issued, and will be ready to mail about March Ist 

The four numbers now ready are mailed from the office of the .Joornai. or the publishers, Ivi- 
son, Blakcraun, Taylor & Co., New York, at Sixty cents per number. 

equaled method of instruction devised by the 
Spencer Brothers, whereby ladies and gentle- 
men in from eight to twelve le«sons ant enabled 
to change tbeir style from bad to good writing, 
receives our unanimous endorMment, and we 
earnestly roeommcDd ihe Spencer Broih«r« and 
their incomparable system of instruction to 
ladies and gentlemen everywhere as worthy of 
the fullest confidence and most libeml patron- 

A. B. Morgan, J. B. Vonscharberg, Miss M. 
J. Prandi, Fannie A. Crandall, committee; H. 
C. Powell, president of W. E. W. C; P. C. 
Mays, secretary. 

A teacher explained that "let" as a termina- 
tion indicated smallness as in streamlet, rivulet, 
hamlet. &c., whereupon a youngster in class 

asked if hamlet e 

I small ham. 

A green sportsman, alter a fVuitless tramp, 
met a boy with tears in his eyes and said, "I 
say, boy, is there anything to shoot around 
here?" The boy answered "notbin' just 'bout 
here, but there's the schoolma-ftcr t'other side 
the hill, I wish you'd shoot him !" 

We received a work entitled "The importance 
of Style in Penmanship." We shall in future 
wear kid gloves, a white cravat and a silk hnt 
while engaged in writing. — KroAfik Oate City. 

One of our Bastem colleges has a cross-eyed 
professor. A few davs ago he called out : 
"That boy at whom I 'am looking will please 
itand up." Twenty-seven boys stood up 



r Dam 


Board schonlnuuter (desiring to explain the 
word 'conceited,' which had occurred in the 
course of the readiog-liwson): "Now, boys, sup- 
pose that I was always boasting of my learning; 
that 1 knew a good deal of Latin, for insUnce, 
or that my peTM>nal appearance wa*. — that I 
wa.* pood-looking, y' know; what should you say 
I was?" Stmighiforward boy (who had 
"caught the speaker's eye"), "I sh' say you was 
a liarl" — PuneA. 

About 100 specimens from Division D. of the 
club were submitted, for examination, to a com- 
mittee consisting of Hon. J. Ormond Wilson, 
superintendent of Washington public schools, 
a gentleman thoroughly conversant with hand- 
writing, and Mr. Wm. F. McLannan. chief of 

the Treasury. These gentlemen, after 
ful examination, comparing first and last speci- 
mens, decided tlinl iho )i;icatcst improvement 

,11, tin -!:(1. f :!,<■ .'bib bad, in the 

I 1 ; I 'II livn made by Mr. 

\\ I. - I ; 111 greatest among 

1.1 ,i. ■ .. M. - I , . .:.ii^h. To each was 

-iM.iia.a .1 uUli :■ 1 .1 ;:,:: -.vm-xc of 16 lessons 
ill pniclicftl writing, U> be Inken in the month of 
January. The committee found much difficulty 
in making the decisions from the fact of so 
many specimens being nearly equal in merit. 
Among the many highly meritorious ones, Miss 
Fannie A. Crandall and Mr. K. T. Mitchell were 
pronounced worthy of special niontton. 

In making the awards, Hon. J. Omiond Wil- 
son remarked substantially as follows : 

In looking over the specimens of this club I 
was surprised to find that so much had been 
accomplished in a course of six lessons. • • • 
All of the specimens show the odvantagcs and 
excellence of the course of instruction. • * • 
I know of no one thing that yields so largo a 
return for a small investment of time and money, 
or that is indeed ao useful to the poeecssor as a 
graceful, legible handwriting. There is no place 
in this broad land where writing is acquired 
under suvh effective and practical methods of 
instruction as in the Spencerian Business 
College.— The National Vieio, Washington, 

Complunentary to tlie Journal. 

Under date of January 7th inst., Prnf. George 
M. Nicol, Principal of the Old Dominion Busi- 
ness College, Richmond, Va., says: "I often 
advise ray students to subscribe for the Jodr- 
KAL, and in ^ottint: fnrfh tin- ndvautnges to be 
gained, I prr-mt idr hf 1 iliir il brings out many 
cxceeftintils iiih'ii-i in'_' |i>.iiii-^ lliat are rnrely, if 

ever, pri'r-i'iiliil m tln' -i \ h, und the numerous 

and varinii-l_\ .liviT-ilitil ijii>'-<tion3 are so treated 
as to give pleasure and enkindle enthusiasm; 
while the lessons in writing, nnd the elaborate 
designs of lettering and nourishing, and other 
sparkling gems of pen art, greatly facilitates the 
progress of those who arc striving to excel." 

CocsTY Link, N. C, December 28, 1880. 
Editor Penman's Art Journal: 

Dear Sir — I am well pleased with the Joua- 
NAL. It would be a grand thing in every family, 
and eapeeially fjcellentior\Qaviien and teachers 
of penmanship. Find $1 for 1881. With kindest 


The other day the professor of German osked 
nn unregenerate junior what the gender of a 
certain noun was. The junior quickly replied. 

A schoolboy says that whenhLi teacher under- 
takes to show him "what is what," he only finds 
ont which is switch. 

CliirogTapliic Education. 
The Wa^hinfftoii Educational Writing Club, 
now numbering in its four divisions a member- 
ship of nearly five hundred ladies and gentle- 
men, has become one of the popular institu- 
tions of the national capital. At the last ses- 
sion of the club for 1880, at the Spencerian 
Business College, the following preamble and 
resolutions, ofi'ered by a committee appointed, 
were unanimously adopted: 

Whf^rea*, the art of writing is of indispens- 
able utility in governmental and businesa affairs, 
as well as an educational force of high order; 
and in view of the inestimable service rendered 
by the Spencer Brothers in so jiimplifying the 
method of acquiring the art of practical writing 
as lo place it readily and easily within the reach 
of all, therefore be it 

Re*olttd^ That the comprehensive and nn- 


I of their contentsconvineesmc 
I teacher, or others interested in good pen- 

scholar and business man shuuld have this JouB- 
nal. D. T. Ames, editor and proprietor; B. F. 
Kclley, associate editor.— CfffyftVfr. (Pa.) Senti- 
nel, Der^nher 2-1, 1880. 

" Ci.isros, Wis., December 27, 1880. 
Editor Prnm/in'n Art Journal: 

Mr Dear Sir — Vou have done mo distin- 
guished honor by sending specimen copies of 
your Penuan's Art Journ'ai,, for which accept 


manship, can afford to lose the invaluable i 
Btruction which these pages contain. 

The "Lesson Papers" on practical writing, 
now being conducted by yourself in the Jour- 
nal, fuminh valuable suggestions to the teacher, 
and I think might be of great practical utility if 
introduced for the guidance of the writing classes 
in our common schools. Success to you in thw 
grand field in which you seem bora to shine. 

Enclosed plea.-e find one dollar, and let my 
name appear on your subscription roll. I 
hope to keep it there as long as you continue 
the JopRNAL. Yours fraternally, 

Wu. Jones, 
Superintendent Public Instruction, Kock Coun- 
ty, Wis. 

LcCE'S SpRSCItniAS Writiso C0I.tE0E, > 
Umos CiTT, Pa., Dec. 30, 1880. f 
My Friend Ames : 

Your card notifying me that my subscription to 
tbe JotriLiAL had expired is received. Thank 
you for the reminder. Herewith find one dollar 
for renewal. We cannot do without the Jour- 
SAL. In point of real merit it far exceeds any 
publication now before the writing public. Its 
columns are Glle*!, both in theory and practice, 
with the best in thought and finest in art, and 
we wish it ft long and active life and a large sub- 
scription list- Respectfully yours, 

N- R. LccE. 

PnbliMbed noDlbl)- ac tl* per fear. 

Single coplea of tho Jouk^ai, Mut on receipt of tc; 
cvats. Specimen copies famishod to Agonta freo. 

1 Colnmn 125 00 |65 00 »I00 00 flSo 

a :: WW WM- 88M Tot 

llnch (laiinw) 3 76 8 00 8 60 16 5 



"Lord's Prayer."' 19«2* ; ■ ■ Flourinlied Eagle, 
' Bonnding Stag, " 24x33. For 61 .75 nU four vdll b 


h subecribor, as follov 

6 copies $ B 

mdUod on ttpplicntion. 


f Ornamental Penmai 


The Journal for 1881. 
With the present number, the Jofrnal enters 
upon its fifth volume. If tliere was at the outset 
a doubt in the minds of its publisbei-s or patrons 
regarding its permanence and success, we are 
authorized on behalf of 

etich doubt has long 
large and rapidly iuoi 
ere and patrous to ii 
gives evidence alike i 

:s publiBhers to say that 
iince passed, while the 
■asing list of subscrib- 
. advertising columns 
their growing appre- 

ciation and eontideneo. During the year past 
the patronage of the .Ioursal has more than 
doubled, while the indications are promising for 
even a laiger increase during the coming year. 
Letters and cards have been received from hun- 
dreds of subscribers asking extra copies, to be 
used in securing clubs to accompany their own 
renewals. On behalf of the publishers we can 
assure those who have favored us with their sub- 
scriptions, aud spoken a kind word for the 
JoUB-NAi. that there will be no backward step, 
while we have abuudaut reason to believe that 
the JonRNAL for 1881 will be muehmorevaluable 
and attractive than during any year past. The 
increased patronage and experience of iis pub- 
Ushers will certainly lend to add to its excellence. 
We begin the volume with new type throughout, 
and have reason to believe that the' Uluatrations 

during the year will be more numerous and better 
than hilberto. We refrain, however, from mak- 
ing promises, believing that works are the best 
evidence, and afford the strongest pledge for the 
future. We therefore make a simple statement 
of facts, and point to the Jodrnal's record for 
the four years past, as being, we trust, fairly 
indicative of the future. 

Answering Correspondence. 

From time to time we have stated through the 
columns of the the utter impossibity of 
replying personally to Ipttors asking favoi-s or 
Bpecimens of penmanship. It is generally sup- 
posed that a party, receiving a letler, inclosing a 
stamp, and asking a proper and courteous ques- 
tion, is bound to reply. Next to our own self- 
preservation we desire to have all persons be- 
lieve US to be courteous and honorable. And 
when we receive letters like the following, we 
wish the writer to imderstand why he does not 
get an answer. 

"Enclosed find three cents for an answer to 
the following questions: 

" What do you think of my penmanship, for 
never having taken any instruction? Also do 
you think that by purchasing some good work 
I could learn to do ornamental ^¥o^k, as good as 
some I see in your Art Journal? And what 
would you advise me to get for self-instruction? 
By answering as «arly as convenient you will 
confer a favor on Yours truly." 

Another letter covering a page of foolscap 
paper closes by saying, "I have heard you were 
a very fine penman, will you please send me 
some specimens of your writing and flourishing, 
I should be very much obliged?" These are 
two among many similar letters received in one 

Undoubtedly the writers of the above enter- 
tained not the slightest doubt that we should 
and would reply by lelter to their questions, they 
have been disappointed, and undoubtedly think 
us discourteous if not dishonorable, in not doing 
them a very simple favor for which they enclosed 
a stamp. But let us see, suppose we receive 
fifty such letters per day, which is a moder 

read, five minu 
fifteen minutes 
time required 
this requires a 

the average, to open and 

.0 each letter, saying nothing ot 
to make the desired specimens, 
agregate of sCTCTi hundred and 
fifty minutes or twelve and one-half fiours^ 
three hours aud one-half more than is allotted to 
a day.*! work, the three cent stamps enclosed are 
all used to return our answers, and fifty sheets 
of our paper and as many envelopes used for 
which we have no consideration. It would af. 
ford us satisfaction to oblige all these writers, 
but we trust, with the aid of the above statement, 
they will see how utterly impossilile it is for us 
to do so aud attend our other duties, and in fu- 
ture, we trust, they will refrain from agitat- 
ing our kind and benevolent disposition by ask- 
ing questions and favors which 
compel U8 to pass unnoticed. 

Than The Sword. 

The Fen Mightit 

" BooMth the rule of men entirely great. 

Whether or not the oft repeated saying, "the 
pen is mightier than the sword," is true, is de- 
pendent upon the circumstances under which they 
are wielded. In estimating their relative power 
we may properly treat the sword as the symbol and 
agent of organized physical force, while the pen 
symbolizes the great moral power of the world, 
that which civilizes and elevates the untutored 
savage to a man of letters, science and refinement. 
Thus viewed, there can be no doubt but that the 
pen now exercises upon the world a power bal- 
anced with which the sword weighs as nought — 
even in warfare, as conducted in modem times 
under the code observed by all civilized nations, 
the sword itself, becomes little more than the 
agent of the pen. At its command the sword is 
sheathed or unsheathed, and its blows are di- 
rected, given or withheld, at the command of 
the pen. In olden times, when the rule of the 
world was that "might, made right," the voice 
of the pen. if not altogether silent, was but feebly 
heard. The sword was the one recognized pow- 
er; under its sway kings and tyrants arrogated 
to themselves divine right to rule the masses, as 
slaves having no rights which a king was bound 
to respect; but gradually the pen has asserted its 
power and emancipated itself and the world from 
the thraldom of the sword. Its victories have 
been those of light over darkness ; truth over 

Aim JoiKvvi; 

error; civil and religious liberty over the tvranny 
of royal and priestly bigots and despots; from 
their hands it has wrested the sword and broken, 
forever, its power, and in place of empires ruled 
as ii mentd by tyrants, the pen has opened the 
way for nations founded and governed by the 
people, for the people, and in later times assisted 
by its handmaid, the press, it has at an acceler- 
ated speed led the van of progress in all depart- 
ments of human thought aud research. 

Verily, the pen is mightier than the sword. 

Special Rates to Clubs. 

To favor teachers and pupils in schools where 

numerous copies of the Journal are desired, 

we offer to mail it one year on the following very 

favorable terms : 


To each subscriber will be mailed, as a pre- 
mium, with the first copy of the Journal, as 
they may designate, either the "Bounding Stag," 
24x32, the "Flourished Eagle," 24x32, the 
"Lord's Prayer," 19x32, or the "Picture of 
Progress," 22x28. For 50 cents extra all four 
of the premums will be sent. These premii 
were all originally executed with a pen, and 
among the masterpieces of pen art. Either of 
them, to an admirer of skillful penmanship, ii 
worth the entire cost of a year's subscription. 

Has it been Worth the Money. 
Those of our readers who have a complete fill 
of the Journal for the volume that has jus 
closed, and hesitate, regarding a renewal of theii 
subscription, can best settle the question by re 
viewing their file, and refreshing their memori 
relative to what it contains of iui^truction ant 
example. If a teacher, does he not find strength 
and inspiration for his work and a greater pridi 
in his professisn? If an artist, has not the ex 
amples and instruction regarding proi'essiona 
pen work repaid his dollars? If a pupil, has hi 
not been aided and encouraged to the extent o 
a dollar's worth? IT a lover and admirer of th( 
"beautiful art," has he failed to derive ai 
equivalent for his dollar ? 

The King Club 
for the pust month numbering forty-three, and 
comes from L. E. Kimball, of the Lowell (M: 
Business College. Mr. Kimball has been ot 
the most successful workers for the Jon 
during the past year. He not only appreciates 
the value of the Journal, but evidently di 
that his friends and pupils should shar 
benefits. The club second in size numbers s 
teen names, and is sent by C. S. Chapman, 
man in Baylies' Business College, Dubuque, Iowa. \ acknow 
Clubs have been very numerous during the past work. 
month, and promise to I 
months to come. Who sends thi 

Book Notices. 

By G. A. Gaskell. author of "Gaskell's Compendi- 
um of Practical Writing," and principal of the 
Bryant and Stratton Business College, at Jersey 
City, N. J., and Manchester, X. H. Published 
by Fairbanks, Palmer & Co., Chicago, 111. This 
is an elegantly illastr.ited work of 402 quarto 
pages, embracing h complete sol f. teaching course 
in pemuuiiship and book-kecpinij, and aid to 
English composition. Including orthography, 
capital letters, punctuation, composition, elocu- 
tion, oratory, rhetoric, letter writing in all its 
forms, the laws and by-laws of social etiquette, 
business, law and commercial forms, complete 
dictionary of legal and commercial terms, 
synonyms, abbreviations, foreign phrases, poetry, 
etc. Also a manual of agriculture and me- 
chanics, with a complete guide to parliamentary 
practice, rules of order for deliberative assem- 
n and conduct of meetings, etc 
examined a more practical and 
is a library in itself. As a book 
invaluable to persons in every 
occupation and position in life. It is sold only 
by subscription through agents. Full information 
can be obtained by addressing the author, G. A. 
Gaskell, Jersey City, N. J., or Fairbanks, Palmer 
k Co., publishers, Chicago, 111. 

blies, organizi 
We have seld 
useful work, 
of reference ii 

We have received copies of "Mayhew's Uui. 
versify Book-keeping" and "Manual of Business 
Practice," The University edition is a complete 
text book on business and accounts. The entire 
science of accounts is arranged and presented in 
a plain, practical, comprehensive, and convenient 
form both for study and reference. The inanua' 
is designed more especially as a guide aud class 
book, for use in busine* colleges and schools 
teaching book-keeping, and is a deservedly popu- 
lar work. Professor Ira Mayhew, the author of 
these works, has for many years ranked among 
the leading educators of the West, and is now 
President of .Mayheiv's Business College, Detroiti 
Michigan. See his advertisement in another 

Exchange Items. 
The Short-hand Revlcio, published quarterly 
by T. J. Wolfe and Willard Frucker, Cleveland, 
Ohio, is an attroctive fourteen p^ige magazine, 
devoted to the interests of short-hand writing, 
more specially Scovil's System. It is welledited 
and filled with matters of value and interest, 
to all parties interested in short-hand writing. 
Subscription price ^1.00 per year; single num- 

during the pas 
so during somi 

Through L. B. Lawson we learn of the death 
of E. M. Hoffman, which occurred at East San 
Jose, Cal., on .Tune 8th, 1880, from pneumonia, 
aged 33 years, Prof. Hoffman was a graduate of 
Ripon University, Wis., and also of the Law 
School of Ann Arbor, Mich. He was a man of fin^ 
abilities, of exquisite taste and a most genial 
companion. Owing to ill health, he had not 
recently pursued his profession, but was well and 
favorably known in the larger towns of the 
State as a genial and most successful teacher of 

When Subscriptions May Begin. 
Subscriptions to the Journal may date from 
any time since, and inclusive of September 1877. 
All the back numbers from that date with the 
four premiums will be sent for $3.00. All the 
numbers of 1880 and 1881, with either two of 
the premiums will be sent for $1.75. With all 
four of the premiums for $2.00. 

Binders for the Journal. 
All who desire to preserve their Joiiinals in 
a convenient form for study and reference can 
do 80 by using "The Common-Sense Binder." 
It will contain at least four volumes of them, in 
as convenient and perfect form as if bound in a 
book. It is both a file and binder. Sent, post- 
paid, for $1.75. 

Extra Copies of the Journal. 
will be sent free to teachers and others who de- 
sire to make an effort to secure a club of sub- 

Vkk's Floral Guide, fo?- 16S1.— We have to 
the receipt of the above named 
the most superbly illustrated pub- 
lication we have ever examined. It contains 
upward of one hundred pages, illustrative and 
descriptive of every desirable flower and vegeta- 
ble that can be grown in this climate. Upon its 
covers and in its titled pages and headings is 
displayed a high degree of artistic skill, while 

all its illustrations are n 

ade with a remarkable 

degree of fidelitv to n 

iture. Vick is a king 

among florists. If you 

want flower or vegctoble 

seeds of any kind addre 

ss James Vick, Roches- 

ter, New York. 

Not Responsible. 
It should be distinctly understood that the 
editors of the Journal are not to be held as 
indorsing anything outside of its editorial 
columns; all communications, not olijectlonahle 
in their character, or devoid of interest or merit, 
are received and published ; if any person differs, 
the columns are equally open to him to eay so 
and tell why. 

How to Remit Money. 
The best and safest way is by post-oflice order, 
or a bank draft on New Vork, next by register- 
ed letter. For fractional parts of a dollar, send 
postage stamps. Money enclosed in a letter is 
always at the risk of the sender. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, or 
Canadian postage stamps. Dominion of Canada 
notes may be sent. 


specimen copy of the 
single dime is a trifle, hut when 
thousands it is not a tiifle. Again, 
you wish a copy of the Jodrnal, which is of 

to us. The CO 
1 trifle, but the 

. of i 


The Ethica of Art. 

Il i« « r«m«rkab1«. thoogh nc 
fict, tbtt the guild of ArtinU pre^eoU fewer ! 
kDAvcK than any other rUiu of men in the world. | 
[ Mj (he fact i.« not nolorioun, because it i-« one 
of tho*« (juiet, unirerMlIf recognized anpecU of 
ihc order of tlilnfrt which nobody erer coaceire« j 
llio idea of di^jiuling, or eren of looking at 
fwic-c. There would be ■ great ado in the world 
if ilicre wxji s reEAOnablo pon<iibi1ity of the nun 
nrtt rifinK tomorrow. Sunrise would ouddcn- 
ly trecotnc a ^eat and engrossing event In men's 
ri)ind«. They would bef^n to appreciate its 
iniportanre a.-* a fuct in the economy of life. 
Ho with other unireniBUy acknowledged factji ; 
men estimate them juxtly and at their full value 
only when somethiog oecon* to drew edpecia) at. 
t«-nlion toward them. We ucitly admit, without 
foriiiiilntlng, the proposition that BrtiHb^, as a 
ruin, arc men of honor and of noble character ; 
hut when we como to Ktatc it in an many ivorde, 
mill ihL-n go back nnd think it over, wo are struck 
with the significance of the fact ; we perceive 
ihni it meanfl a gr(>at deal, and wcnrc irrCMHtibly 
led on to invcAtignte iln meaning further. Wby 
in it, we uk, that artintji are Icsn liable lo kna- 
very than other men ? l» it hccauxe by being 
good they fit themselves lo be ariisL*, or by being 
nrtlntt they Bt themNolve)> to be good ? In other 
words, is ethics prollminnry to art, op ort prelim- 
inary to ethic* T 

We chall annwiT this qiiemiou in favor of tho 
Intler nllnrnative, and offer a few reasons for 

In the first plnee, many who have become art- 
ist*, iind who ore now recognized ai* men of high 
mnral rlmraclcr, were profligates, and even crim* 
inn1p>, when indiici-d, eilhcr by circumstances or 
the inward cntving of their nature, to dcvolo 
ihcmselvea to tho purcuit of the -lesthctic and 
ennobling ideas which art fosters in the human 
mind. How muny cxqiiij*lte creations have been 
tvrniight in the prisoner's cell, nnd how many 
minds tliurt direuicd in Ihc path which Upd de- 
signed for thcn> ! Love for his iirr, too, has saved 
muny a man from intellectual nnd moral ruin; 
The minute ho takes a step toward what is evil 
iiiid linsi', he feels a scncc of shame and regret, 
(hat gifts intended for tho highest and purest use, 
nnd voiicltHat'cd to but few of (he human rikce, 
should be squandcrad on the common lusts of 
human life. 

Tlu'sc are outward proofs. Let us look now 
ut SOUK' of the interior reasons why the artij^i 
should he au upright man. And linut, the pres- 
ence before the mind of an abiding ideal Is a mo- 
tive to right. A roan who has alwaj-s an end 
in view is never a vacillating man; he keeps the 
straight path. If now this nim of his bo in it!< 
nnliire beautiful and right, in hormony with all 
that is pure and Inspiring, it is natural that he 
should como to partake of its spirit, to grow like, 
to be himself beautiful and right in character. It 
i»said that when those who truly love each other 
have boon married many years, however disaimilur 
their features, they gradually grow to look like 
«neh other ; sympathy and deep acquaintance 
have made their thoughts nkin, and thoughts, 
after all, are tho chisels with which our fnrcs urc 
cut. Iitkewise, when a man is wedded to h con- 
ception, n high ideal, tbii family rcscmblanct^ is 
nhnoiit sure to ensue. Artists arc men of pure 
and high ideas, and these ideas, long contem- 
plated, have their eflTcct upon the life and char- 
fictcr of those who entertain them. 

Affain, always being occupied is a warrant of 
gooti rhaiacter. The old saying about Satan and 
idio hands bears lesliniony here. Now the artist 
is perhaps the only man who can be nlivnys oe- 
rupied, directly occupied, in his work. The wak- 
ing hours are all his; thought 16 hiti workshop 
and iu tools are always At hand. Indeed, I am 
mclined lo think that if all artiste spent more 
time in conceiving, nnd less in executing; we 
should have morv mastorpiooes. Kvcn in Pen- 
manship, after an hour of patient thought on the 
harmonies of form, the adaptation of certain 
styles of letten for certain kinds of work, and 
in fact the scientific environment of his art as a 
whole, I think the amateur will find that by gain- 
ing nome \-aluable abstract ideas he has vastly 
improved his techniijue. The artist, fortunately, 
is always impelled, as well as privile;^, to be 
nt work. There is a charm and fasoioation about 
the pursuit of the t>e«utiAi1 which, having once 
enlisted the oiTections, never sufTers them to lag. 
Accordingly, when his mind is not otherwise oc- 
cupied, the artist is prone to pursue his ta^k in 
thought, and often the finest touches tn bis pro- 

ductions are the offspring of ideas not immedi- 
ately put into execution. 

Finally, the true artist never forgets that he is 
a teacher, a commi«>loned man. and that the 
responsibility of superior talents rests upon bim. 
I know not exactly whence it proceeds — this 
sense of liability to a higher power. The atheist 
acknowledges it, as well as the thcist ; but pres- 
ent it certainly is in the minds of thoee intrusted 
with distinguishing gifis or acquirements, and 
specially is it present to the artist. He realizes 
that he, above all other men, possesses the power 
of impressing the human mind and directing its 
affections. To him much is given, and much 
will be required. 

All honor, then, to the guild of artisb^ — ihe 
noblemen of our free country ! Under these 
fair skies, where merit, and not caste, is the 
passport to rank, who shall stand above the hon- 
est seeker of the beautiful? He is the upright 
man among men; pure hearted, devoted, filled 
with love for bis kind, and an ardent desire to 
elevate and instruct them. He is a servant to 
whom, at the last, the Master shall fitly say 
" Well done." 

In the councils of many there is wisdom. Let 
this be verified through the columns of the 
Journal. If you Imvc a practical thought or a 
gem of pen an, «eini ii alonf: 

> lecture upon "Ciiri 

f and Comic 


At the close of the Brvant k Stration BuOislo, 
(N. Y..) Business College for the holiday vaca- 
tion, H. T. Loomis, teacher of penmanship, «as 
presented by the students with a handsome gold 
headed cane. Mr. Geoi>p> W. Davis, manager 
of the actual business department, waa then 
made the recipient of an elegant pair of gold 

0. A. Stoekwcll who for several year« baa 
been aMociated with C. T. Miller in'ihe N. J. 
Bu^incas College, Newark, X. J., has disposed of 
his interest in the College to Wm, E. Drake, who 
has for some time ps.ii been a teacher in the 
College. Sfl-. Stoekwcll retires owing to the un- 
favorable condition of hii* be«lth. We ar<> pleased 
lo learn that the College is in a highly prosper- 

The Students of Eaton and Burnett's Business 
College, Baltimore, Ud., gave a musical and lite- 
rary entertainment on Dec. 23. at the close of 
which. E. Burnett and A. A. Eaton, Proprietors, 
and W. R. Glenn, the penman of Ihc College, 
were each presented with a gold watch. Served 
them right, they should not expect to have two 
hundred and fifty students and escape being, 
"come up" lo occasionally. 

At the closmg exercises of the Brvant, Strat- 
ton k Sadler Busioesa College, Baltiirore, Md., 
on Deo. 28, certificates for distinction and ex- 
ct'llenee were awarded to a large number of 
pupils by the faculty and presented to them by 
Prof. Sadler, president of the institution, with 
congratulatory remarks. After the announce- 
ment of the closinji of the school for the holiday 

• \ Linlhii 

. t.rhaltof Iho pnpil.^ 

proirismg pen ■ 

videnced by a highly 

J. M. Bemish, one of the propnctors of the 
Island City Business Coliese, Galveston, Texas, 
writes a handsome l«tl«r. and reports an unusu- 
ally lai^ attendance of students at that insti- 

I. J. Tuck, Cranbrook, Onurio, writes a 
graceful letter, and encloses several well written 

S. A. Holmea is teaching writing to classes at 
Hydeavillc, Cal., he write* a very good hand and 
encloies a creditable specimen of fiourisbing and 

F. B. Davis, penman at Cady and Walworth's 
Business College, of this city, favored us with 
some superb specimens of writing and flourish- 
ing, which should have been acknowledged in 
the Dec, No., hut were inadvertently overlook- 
ed. Mr. Davis lately completed a course of 
practical and ornamental penmnnship at the 
Bryant & Stratton Business College, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., under the tuition of Messrs Soule and 
Kli<-kinger; having a genius and okill fomriting 
under the tuition of these raostir^ h*. aitamtd lo 
a high degree of cxullence and now^ ranks 
among our most accomplished nnters * "^ 

Pirst, for grac*. beauts and excillence among 
the specimens of anting received during the 
past month is a Utter and sivcral sheeti of 
writing from Prof L D Smith tiacher of writ 
ing and drawing in the public sibooN of Hart 
lord. Conn. TIh> go into our lup strap book 

The veteran Captain, John L. Tyler, |is still 
teaching writing in the public schools of Fort 
Woyno. Ind. 

E. L. Mcllravy is teaching a large class in 
I lain and ornamental writing, at Palmyra, Mo.. 
i>nd vicinity. He is an accomplished writer, and 
is highly eommendeif as a teacher. 

A. H. Bailey. Bookkeeper. Sheffield, Pa., 
writes a very good hand. His capitals are quite 
graceful, a little practice upon the fore-arm 
iU greatly improve his »mall writing. 

Certificates and leetimonials for various de- 
grees of excellence, were awarded to one hun- 
dred and fifty pupils in T. R. Browne's Busi- 

Geo. G. Steams is teaching writing and draw- 
ing in the public schools of Newport, Ky. He is 
a pood writer and popular teacher. We ac- 
knnwloilge the receipt of an attractive specimen 
of flourishing from his pen. 

L S. Thompson, author of the Eclectic System 
of Penmanship and Profewor of Industrial Art, 
at Perdue Cnireraiiv, Lafavette. Ind., is noticed 
in the Adrian (Mich.) High School t^ectura 

»ith n viiluuble diamond ring, 

egaid for him as a friend and in- 
structor. In accfpliiit; the gift. Prof. Sadler 
rPf*|ioiided with ploasiuK and appropriate re- 
marks, and cxtcndt'd hi,s host wishes for their 
happiuc-^a and t-njnymcnt during their short 
respite from study. This closed the duties of a 
most highly successful institution, comprising 
over three huudrcd pupils in daily attendance. 
At the annual meeting of the faculty, held on 
Dec. f{ I, Prof. Sadler presented to each of his 
associate professors handsomely bound copies 
of "Gaskell's Compendium" of Laws and forma 
of business and society. In thi- presentation, 
Prof. Sadler referred to the very efficient service 
rendered to the cause of business education by 
his colleuguea, «nd lo the generous appreciation 
of the public a.1 evinced by the largely increased 
patronage bt^stowed upon the institution during 
the year jusi closed, the total membership being 
in excess of five hundred pupils. 

0. J. Amidon teachtrof writing at Carter 
Pitlsffield, (Mass ) Business College send^ 
superbly flourished swon and an attractive ai 
well executed hird dc ign 

Answers to 


and card writing, also a creditable specimen of 

F. M. Babcock, teacher of writing and Viook- 
keeping. at Alfre-I (N. Y..1 Cniversiiy. writes a 
very graceful letter. 

J. D. Day, the inventor of "Day's Patent T 
Square^" is not only a skillful writer, bnt a 

bftvlii^ a hetaing upon any of tbo snedalllm of wfalah 
thf JoimxAL tn«tii and not iMTKonator f tlK^nBluroof 

n. A. D , London, Ont.: Prepared India ink 
does tolerably well for pen drawing and leita 
ng, but docs not flow ns readily or prod.^ 
satisfactory results as that freshly ground .ioa> 
slick of fine quality. The prepared ink can oe 
commended only for its convenience. 

D. E. J- , Oswego. N. V.: Steel pens are the 
best for all grades of professional pen work, and 
for use in the class-room, Gold or stylographia 
pens should not be used by pupils learning to 

H. E. G.. Mobile, Ala.; There is no ink, lo 
our knowledge, made, possessing all the qualities 
you mention, viz: jet-black, ready-flow and un- 
changeable, luk to be jet-biack when used 

lerfere to a greater or less dt^ee with its flow. 

M. 0. R., Buriington, Vt.: Probably, aboit 

twenty wonls per minute is the average speed 


''■ "~~ -^i^^s^fe-'^"'"^^ 

-'^<rtJrS5^v//:/v7//7y/ //.'/'-v "//y,/..? : ■ ->\^S>;wv- 

In I) Imiidrcd words pei 
iivcpiigc rate of epcnking 
words per iniimte, two hundred 
buiulrrd and fittv is nbout the 

(I. W. J., Manchester, N. H.; We rpRiird a 
lie qtiiilitv of Bristol board as the best mittcrial 
iir fiiK' pen drawing and epwiiraen work. What- 
iair» paper (hot prcascd), ib also good. 

I). E. S,, Dt'lroit, Mich.: Pen work designed 
i)r reproduction sliould be executed upon papw 
nviiig ft very hard, smooth surface with a fine 
lUiility of jet-black India ink freahly ground from 
he Biick, and all pencil or guide lines should be 
arefuUy removed from the drawing with a piece 
if soft or apouge-ruhber. All such drawings 
' ■ e the size of 

A. J. D., Kansas City, Mo.: The "Peiinian'e 
llflp " was changed to the "Album of Pen Art," 
which lias puspeuded publication. So far as we 
lire iiiroruied, the Penuads Art Jocrnal is now 
the only regularl published paper devoted to 
the art of penmanship, in the world. 

N, H. L . Union City. Pa.: We have no back 
numbers of the Journal previous to .Sept-, IS77. 

All others can be supplied. 

warded from the New York Post-Office during 
the past three montlis was twenty-five tons a day 

Now is the time to subscribe for the Joi"RNal, 
and begin the new volume. 

Fancy Cards. 
Just published twelve flourished and floral de- 
signs; one pack, twenty-five cards, sent for 20 
cents; KID cards, (10 cents; 600, ii2.5ii; 1,000 
fnr|4.60. These are all new and original de- 
signs, and are unsurpassed by any in the market. 
No sample sent free. Orders unaccompanied 
with the cash will not be filled. 

An Albany telegraph operator has received 
letters patent tor u cipher writer designed for 
detectives, lawyers, business men, politicians and 
others, who wish to correspond in such strict 
privacy that none save themselves and those ad- 
dressed can decipher the meaning. Its com- 
binations ure illimitable, and however well one 
man may understand the simple little in&tru- 
nient, it xn impossible for him to discover by 
himself what combinations have been used by 
others. They consist of four sets of the alpha- 
bet, complete, and one set of figures, arranged on 
the outer circles of a disc. 

another publica- 

ig the Pe! 
NAL, should be sure to use the 
not " Art Journal" as there it 
tion called the Art Journal, 
Art Journal. Communications intended for ui 
but imperfectly addressed, often go to one c 
those publications. 

audriihr , >* , . .,ii,ioa building half 

a mile li.n l , . ,-,1 > ii.i- made it nece?sary 

to proviilL iK V .uiuii^iiiitiit- for the transfer of 
money aiid bonds between the two establish- 
ments. The department has had constructed a 
heavy vaii-Hke wagon, a sort of vault on wheels, 
built of iron and steel, and arranged internally 
like a bank vault, with h sheet irou lining. The 
doors are fastened with tremendous bolts, and 
the locks are of the combination order. The 
body of the vehicle is painted an olive color, 
with gilt ornamentation. When drawn through 
the streets by two immense hoi-se.'s, it attracts 
considerable attention, especially as it is always 
accompanied by fiv( ' - - . ~ 

ury Deparlmant, t 
three the rear. 

"Ladies and gentlemen," said an Irish 
ager to hi.' audience of three, " as there i 
body here, I'll dismiss you all. Tlieperft 
of this night will not be performed, but will be 
repeated to-morrow evening." 


Silica, "t e 



The Common Sense Binder. 

it post paid itii rpwipt 


Jcntcy Cilr BuNincHs Collvicu. 

23 and S5 Newark Avenue, Jeret-y City. N. J. 

O. A. Oahkrix, Principal. A. H. Stepuenbon. Sec'y. 

Bryant & Stralton Colloffc, 

Written Copies. 


t flngore, J 
■ Amenta, evmrwbere. 

ampleit — stamps tab en. 


INK" -^?'''*^*P'* .^'^'" •*" colore (iacludiiiB gold. 
Stampa tiikun. W. SWIFT. Manonvillo. Onondaga 

t SALE at a l>argalu ; on cstablblied nnd paying 
JoiDUierciftl College, the only oue in tlii^ dty. For 
nUnre apply to Commercial College, Canton, O. 


e bcautlfiilly wMltoii on 1 il 


Sampl(-t> )(» cc 


Mend for Now 1S81 Priase UInI. 

New England Card Co. 

Halii. For particulars 

SpecimetiM and prii-« 

Till riNM VN S 


Superior Writing 


The Bfyanl & Stfa!lon Blanks the day spacing 


Liqald slating. I 
en tjuanlH. per gallnn 
4^ No aixnU seol b; nuil noil] culi hut I 

ouiuuin] by ojib to one-tulf ot lu ntii 
oroeni (or mercUuidiMs or work upon i 


BaoASWAT, N«« Tt»k. 

J-o-st I^xiToXiSlied- 


Sadler's Coud% louse Arilkelic 

,;^^- oo'i^@i.-/?rr: 



I would epedall)' commend. 

purtmctnt, ruid Coim 

Chab. Claobobs, 

NOTON, D. ( 

s Coiintisg Houjbo Aritbmctic 

t piibUabod, 

Sfbikovieiji I 

c, Oct. 29. nm 

ic in our Souioi 

(llor'M Counttng Bouse 

oftl oxainlnntion of iiiiiiiy of its features, IprouMui. 
nnalyncM of commercial topics not only plc{i>iii 
urod pupita. 

lolicvinj! that a commendnllou 1h only volu 

lywitlihplda - 

lonnlly witlihpid any expiWBinn 

arithmetic into 
iiivln); cbarge of t))e arltluuctic classes iu« doing i 
mplls make more rapid and satieractory progreen. 
It Ib certuinly for iu advaDc« of any other work o 

a thorough tout ol oxc«Uei 

jua laborx in perfecting, 
0. F. VriLLIAilS, Prof. 


d am highly pleased with 

•. H. Sadlcu, BaUlmore. Gai 

: Sir : It hiia been a little over two months diuoe we introduced y 
very truthfully say that we have Iwen ablo to accomplish mure 
text book In twice the time. In our opiutou it Is the Qc«l Te\i 
D published. Wlahlng you imboimdcd succtw we are very truly y 

■ Couiitiug House Ailthmet 
t completely adapted to e 

.. FBASIEB, Principal 

Hs College, 

itiuR House Arithmetic 
AC formerly did with the 
smess Co!leB(=8 that ho* 

N 4 BRO Propiit tore 

. Sept.' 20th 1F80 
Couuting House Anth 

J. W. Stone Principal 

I. CLARK, Principal 
« College 

Your Counting Hoiu 

imetic Is i*-ithoiit exception the moat complete work in Coi 
( it the more do I priw it. The exphtnritions nre so perfect a 
e rapid progress with littlp assistance from the master It ca 
i^xceUout a work 1» so richly de6er\'ing. Vou«, &<. 


.?■& co.'.'rsi 


A few of the Best Autographs, showing Improvement from Using 


(Sclf-Teaclthig Pciimamliip), rcccfjcd Recently. 


The best specimens of improvenioiit lliis ni 

Illmois, We give his portrait u 


come fi.ini Mk. TnAiiLEs J. Conner, Sterling, 
itogiuphs (both old anl new) below: 

vill Hcud r.! magnificently ^v^ 

nome for 30c. L. MADARAS2, Jersey City 1 

BKILLIAN'T BLACE INK. such as used by n 

'M'OTICE.— To pupils 
wrlilut;, being 


stvH,^vvb%«v>v... ^vmt»mvv\>sfi^■wi^m«,\^\.^tv^^^ 


S Series of 


' ^opc>i^„sr/-fi Pf^s /A/ use ' ' , , - 

yW^ia^J, /^i^z^^^Xl, 


INO, LADIES' PENMANSHIP, &c . Ac U' "u "'!• ..-If-t.n.i.i.iB ny.iiu. onv out cj>i> ucquirt 


Prof. G. A. 6ASKEIL, fnntipnl Jrrsr,, City Bi,si«as ColUgt, 

BOX 1.534, net! YORK CITY P. O. 




" Bnt^eH at thf Pmt Offitx oj A'ew York, N. T.. as seeond-elm.* tiintf'r:' 


VOL. V. NO. 2. 

D. T. AnK*< 


iTn](r1ily.laui{bl liy man or |>r-n-tniillr. Sit 
'urM for jnipllH when compi'lriit. Hrnil 

. II. NnATri/'f'K, 



( CO., 

I of C<ipy-Doolta.") 

Stm-t. Now Xork. 


I'riru lijti FiKC Wooiiaockct, It. I. 


__^ 40 Court Sliwt. BrookljD, N. Y. 

017FF*N inERrAVril.E COI.M-%li, 

I'itthhukoh. pa. 

EHUtillsliMl 1B40. 


ri'd, vi 

.: Ijv 


and studioud eflbrt. 


riliiiR IH 


a» much n subject for studv 




V other 

branch of education. 


r muflf, 


er, l>c united with practice. 




and c 

)i«truction ot writing 

One of the most common faults in slope occurs 
n the lost part of letters m, «, «, /*, p, which 



\* ». luih Rl.. PlillAil<>liihl». Pa. 

J. E. 8ori,K. Iliiprlotor. 


, Pnwlil 


f tb 











or 11. 

J. II. liAHI.(»W 

2()S Uftudwkj. 

J. It. OUOnUUt. VIm> Proaidcnt. 

must be learned by pltidy, while prnctice mum 
give tlic monnul dexterit; for \ta easy and grace- 
ful execution. Many jicittona fail to become 
good writers from not properly uniting study 
and practice. Careful sludy with too little 
practice will give writing comparatively acuu- 
mto in its form and munner of construction, | 
but labored, utifl" and awkward in its execution, 
while upon the other hand much pmctiec 
with little study impartu a more easy and flow- 
ing atyle, but with much lesa accuracy as re- 
gurds the forms of the letters and generiil pro- 
portion and construction of the writing, which 
monly have n loose and spruwly np- 
pearance. Example of writing ^ich has rc- 
ulted more from ntudy than practice. 

Example of writing in wlii.-h there ha.s bee 
lore practice than studv. 

In practicing the present copy Id special 
ttcntion be given to the observation and eor- 
cclioo of these foults. 

Kxcreine to be prucUced for movement. 

W'c find th 

• firs 


u made of writini! in 

Exodus 17: 


Vnd the Lord »aid unto Moses, 

" write this for a 

memorial in a book, and rc- 

hearse it in 


cara of 

Kxodus 24: 

4, "nud Mo< 

s wrote nil the wonli* 

of the Lord 


rosf y\\ 

and buildcd 

uu altar un.{ 

: Ml. lull .Mi.| iwclve 

pilhir)*, acio 


O \\u : 

1:1 1 l-c:iel." 

Mlid Will ^^ 

and 1,. 

■ ■ .1 'ii. '. ..:. Ml the 

1 iIk' Kurd hath 

Ii-i«t." Twelfth 

IK.' MoscEi. coma 
uMi he there, and I 

Will give til. 

■ a t 

bio ol 

.-ToiH', and a law, and 


Ut w 

ich i 1 

mayest teach them 

Kxodus ^<■ 

; I, 


the Lnrd siiid unto 

Writing, the result of i 
bined with practice. 

While tt 

e invite special attention to certain 

faults in 

ounertion with each les.'ion we, by 

nn meanrt, 

would have any one lose sight ol 

any of tho 

e previously mentioned. 





IIU4»WN nt)NIKiCSN <-4>l.l.l-MiK, 

Fort Woyiio, Indiana. 

(itlcan)) Ntiwupapcr unilJnli Prtutm, 
IVtulvra of IS fnultfort Bt.. N. Y. 

I'KWMkN'N AuJurmxAi." (ILO. Futstu.) 

Lessons in Prftctical Writing. 

Undoubtedly i<)itii> ot our clns^^ will se< 
cibly illustrated in one of thei^i- examples 
own experience; so niuuifest is the effect of ihcee 
different mode.-) of practice, that wc have only 
to glance at a piece of writing to discern the ex- 
tent to which u writer has combined study with 
praetiee while learning to write. 

Wc havo in previous Icssonn coni>idcred 
poiiition, movement, unity of form, correct 
proportion and spacing, a£ the essentials to 
good writing. We shall now direct special 
attention to a oorreet and uniform slojie as 
other essential to good writing. 

The dt^rcv of slope now adopted 
by the leading authors and one 
which we approve, is at au angle 
of AS" from the horironlal, as 

" It mu»t have been a i^peciiil gift" i« a 
niitn ubtemtion whet) au unusnal degree of 
skill i* di>pl»\-«l in the ««v of the pen. Thin 
idc« \^ not only faltacitHis, but i» rxcrfdingly 
pemiciuiiii as r^-gards the »et|ui»i(ion of guoti 
writing inaiuuuch as it tends to discourage 
pupitk who write badly by leading ihcm to bo. 
licve that, not having "tho gift" they are 
dctMrred from beeouitng good writers. 

ttiMHl writing \a no more a gift than is good 
rvnding, sjH'lling, gnuiiniar or any other attain- 

unfortunate mistake by which 

main cut in the following illustrations was 

Tted upside down, and several thousand 

copies of the January number printed before 

listake was discovered, we here repeat this 

portion of that les-oon. 

■h care should he exercised while practicing 
iploy the proper curve for connecting let. 
ters and their parts. It is a very coinmon and 
grievous fault in writing that a straight line or 
the wrong curve is employed in the construction 
and connection of letters, thus leaving them 
without distinctive character, or imparting one 
which is false and misleading. As for instance, 
a form made thus yP'py is really no letter, bu' 

may be tnk,-n for a»/^?^/ 
and possibly for &_^-^^/. In case 


The pen is first mentioned in the lliblo in 
Job 19: '24. In Job's complaint uf misery ho 
says: "0, that my words were written; (), that 
they were printed iu a book; that they were 
graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock 

I'orty.flfth PsQim, 1st verse, David In speak- 
ing of the migcsly and grace of Christ's king- 
domsays: "My heart its inditinga good matter; 
I speak of the things which I have made touch- 
ing the King; my lungue ia the pen. of a ready 

Jeremiah 17; I. "The sin of Judah is writ- 
ten with a pen of iron, and with the point of 
a diamond ; it is graven upon the table of their 
heart, and upon the boms of your altars." 

There is, therefore, umch reason to believe 
that the art of writing was understood among 
the Jews while other nations were yet without 
it, and that from them it has passed into alt 
other countries, and has betn handed down to 

Tbe Ronmr 
as the fourili 
believed thm 
of letters, ;u 


III, or the Hebrew, with 

!■ ■!, are derived the Orica- 

1 III A,-ia, written from riyht 

Lijiiil being the Syriac, Arabic 

the following examples. 

The variation in the slope of different lettvrs 
and their parts will be rendered much more 
perceptible by drawing straight extended lines 
through their parts thus : 

where the 

context does not determine, its identity 

becomes a mere matter of guess, and when ex- 
tended ibus^-^^^^jj^' its significonce, as will be 
stilt more vague and un- 
certain; as it might be ioUnded for either of the 
following seven combiuatjons : 

With a properly trained hand no more time or 
effort is required to impart the true and unmis- 
takable characteristics to eaeh letter than to 
I make forms whose identity is open to doubt and 

Andeut Writing. 

The art of writing ia most ancient, and the 
account of its origin lodt in the distance of time. 
It is clear from history that it had its com- 
moui-ciDcnt at a verv early period in some 
region of the Ea^t, and from thence was cairied 
into all parts of the world. Many have sup- 
posed that the knowledge of letters was given 
to men by direct revelation from <>od. Tbe 
Bible gives us tbe eariiest notice on the subject 
that is anywhere to be found. 

Moses, 'we are told, received the two ubies 
of the covenant on Mount Sinai, ttriUen with 
the finger of (lod ; and before that, Hoses him- 
•olf was not ignorant of tbe u*e of letters. 

Diigiual Greek was first written from 
right to Icit and then right to left and left to 
right consecutively. But inscriptions dated 
742 U. C. were written from lett to right, or in 
the wuy now prautiscd. 

One of the earliest methods of writing was to 
cut out the letters on tablets of stone. Another 
woa to trace them on unbaked tiles or brick 
and then thoroughly bum them with fire to 
make them bard and durable. 

Tablets or plates of lead or brass were em- 
ployed when the writing was wanted to be most 
durable. Tablets of wood were most convenient 
— such was used by Zacharios when he named 
his son John. Luke 1 : 69, "And he asked for 
a writing-table and wrote, saying his name is 
John. And they marveled all." 
Iu Some countries ihcy covered these tablex 
I with wax and wrote on that. The innirument 
I employed for making the Ictteiv on these tables 
was a small pointed piece of iron called a ntyle; 
hence tbe term style of writuig. 

lA-aves and the bark of trees were early 
used for writing. From the thin films peeled 
oir from the Kgyptian reed Papyrus, which 
grew along the river Nile, a material was 
tunned which answered the purpose much 

Cloth of linen and tometimefi of t-otton wa^ 
another ancifmt material for writing. 

The skins of animals, also, were prepared 
for the purpose. About 2UtJ yvan before 
Ctirist, the art of preparing them wa» brought 
to gieal perfection in the city of Tergamus, 
whence they received the name PfTgamena, 
which, in English, has changed into parchment, 
and remains still in use. For writing on such 
substances, a reed, formed into a pen, was uaed 
to trace Uie letters with ink of some sort alter 

(he fajhion that is now common, or else they 
were painte*! with a small brush, as was probn- 
bly the general ciintom at first. 

Hooks were written generally upon skins', 
linen, cotlon cloth, or papyrua; parchment, in 
later times wa8 most esteemed. The several 
piecei, or learea, were joined together so as to 
make a single sheet from the beginning to the 
end. This was then rolled roiiiid a siick, or if 
very long, two Bticka, beginning ul each end 
and rolling until they met in the middle. When 
nnv person wanted to read, bo unrolled it to 
the place he wished, and when he was done 
rolled it up again. The lines were written in 
perpendicular columns like our present style. 
Hence, books of every size were called rolU. 
Our word mluTM means the same thing in its 
originnl signification. _ 

Jci'cmiAb 30: 1. 
hook and write Ih 
spoken unto thee against Israel.^' 

The roll was usually written on one aide, 
thai which was given to Ezekiel, in vision, was 
written, both muiin and without. 

Kzekiel 1: 9, 10. -'And when I looked, be- 
hold, tt hand was sent unto mc: and lo, ii roll of 
a book WH8 therein; and he spread it before 
me, and it was written within and without ,* 
and there was written therein lamentations and 
mourning, and woe." 

From ihis account of the ancient books, it is 
I'osy to understand how they might be sealed 
Dnee or a number of times, so that a new seal 
might have to be opened, after reading a. purt 
before the reader could proceed to the re- 

Isaah 29: 11. "And the vision of all is be- 
come unto you as the words of a book that is 
itealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, 
saying, read this, I 
pray thee; i 
saitb, I cannot, for 

Then we have the 
account of the book 
sealed with seven 
seals, which no 
man is worthy 

Revelation &: 1, 
2,3. "And I saw 
in the right hand of 

the back side, seal* 
cd with seven aeah. 
And I saw a strong 
nngel proclaiming 
with a loud voice, 
who is worthy to 
open the book, and 
to loose the Heals 
thereof* And no 


The iWw York MereanUU Revirw, for Jan- 
uary, pays a high compliment to (J. A. (iaskeil. 
of Jersey City, N. J., principal of the Jei-sey City 
and Manchester, (X. H.), Business Colleges, and 
antbor of a compendium of practical pcnman^-^hip, 
and a reccntlv published work on "Laws and 
Forms of Business and Society." Mr. Gaskell is 
one of our most enterprising business men and 
authors, and is achieving an enviable success 
and fame. 

A. H. nininan has opened a business college ul 
Worcester, Mass. Mr. Hiamanis a thorough and 
conscientious teacher, and will undoubtedly give 
full satisfaction to all who may favor him with 
their patronage. 

Thos. Powers, who has for some years con- 
ducted the P'ort Wayne, (Ind.), Business College, 
has sold his school to the proprietors of the 
Maumee Business College, of that city, which is 
conducted in connection with the Fort Wayne 
College, by the Rev. Addis Aibro, M. S. Mr. 
Albro is a thoroughly competent instructor and 
will undoubtedlv build up a flourishing commer- 

:complisbed penman, 
P. R. Clcary is teaching large classes of 
1 Michigan. He sends ft clubjof fifteen u 

C. W. Rice, teacher of writing a 
Business College, Chicago, III, inclo3< 
specimens of business writing which i 
the best we have received. Mr. Rice 
our most promising young penmen. 

J. B. Moon, Powder Springs, Ga., sends 
creditable specimens of practieal writing 

II. T. Loomis, teacher of writing at Bry 
(Butfalo, N. Y.), Busine.'^s College, " 

most exquisitely written letter. For simple 

se. grace and perfection hi.s writing is not 

W. S. Bowman, Lynn., Mass., incloses several 

ipeiior specimens of lettering executed with 
the Automatic Shading Pen. We have seen no 
work of greater merit executed with these pen-- 

plished peuDi 

and teacher of ^ 


A flkilli . i I niiiien of flourishing 

has bcvii !• . ' n. I Im.iii a W, Dudley, teacher of 
writing in the Southcin Indiana Normal College 
at Mitchell, Ind. 

Oscar Stephens, a student of the Joliet (III.) 
Business College, sends u good specimen of prac- 
tical business writing. 

J. C. Miller, teacher of writing at Allen's 
Business College. Manalield, Pa., incloses sev- 
eral slips of writing executed in a masterly 

plished writers. 



to look thereon." 

Letters were gen- 
erally in theformof 

while t 

dressed to persons 
of distinction were 
placed in a valuable 
purse or bag, which 
was tied, and then 
closed over with 
chiy or wax, and 
;ampedwith the w 

J. B. R., Wheeling, W. Va.— Shaded writing 
for business purposes is not objectionable from 
the fact of its shade, but from its more difficult, 
slow and correct execution, ns compared with 
unshaded writing. 

ready for sale. No. 5 will be ready in about a 
month. All the numbers ready are mailed from 
the office of the Jouunal at the publisher's price, 
60 cents per number. 

M. E. B., Wilmington, Del, asks what are the 
special requisites for good business writing? 

simplicity and nc- 
cumcy of form for 
all the letters. No 
superfluous linos of 

will give good busi- 
ness writing. 

V. S. B., Salem, 

Bryant, Stratton J 

Business Col- 

would be derived 
fro m blackboard 
practice. Black- 
board-writing is ex- 
ecuted on a large 
scale, with a full 

k scale so email 
to employ only 
; fingers a n d 

very little in com- 

A. C. W., Lon- 
don, Ont.— The 
whole arm movc- 

tical for general use 

The Roman Scrinium, or book 
of cylindrical shape ; the rolls arc placed 
pcrpendiculttriy, with labels at the top c 

The above cut was photo-engraved from a design flourished by Fielding Scofidld, 
lege, Newark, K. J. Mr, Scofleld ranks among our most skillful penmen and 

„ , - - , « . Tj - ( shonld be used only where large capitals or wri 

H. C. Spencer, of the Spencenan Busmess ■ ^^.^ required or are admissible, such as 

College. Washington, D. C, favors us with a | ,^,fpp,. headings, superscriptions, etc. The for 

for the 

ing the titles. 

Those among the Jews who were skillful 
in the use of the pen, were of considerable im- 
portance in society. They were dislinguiehed 
from other men by having an ink-horn fastened 
to their girdle. 

Ewkiel 9: 2. "And one man among them 
waa clothed with linen, with a writer's ink-he 
by his side. And the Lord said unto him, go 
through tin- citv of Jerusalem and set a 
upnn tlu^ foili.iul- of all that sigh and cry. 

ItiU iinl p, n, I believe, is mentioned i 
I'ill-' i"i' oiirr, third Epistle of John, 13th 
vci-r "I III. my things to write, but " 
iifi « iili ink M\\\ pen write unto thee." 

Sfcimd Epipilc of John, 12th verse: "Having 
many things to write unto yon, I would 
write with paper and ink; but I trust lo cc 
unto you, and speak face to face, that our 
be full"'— ZJ. L. Mvsselman, in 

Journal from his present class, 
very graecfnl hand. 

eturn our thanks to Messrs. Miller k which 
Drake, proprietors of the N. J. Business Collcf 
Newark, N. J., for invitation to be present 
the graduating exercises of that institution 


> all that need be s 

Speucerian style. 

combination movement should be c 
ploved for all writing of an ordinory si 
F. H. Banker, of Lawrence, Kas., incloses sev- j With long and constant practice, tlie whole a 
■ul specimens of well-executed practical writing movement may beso disciplined a 
Part Thenlerr on J«n. 19. JuJging fZ".he, ""'•'' ''P'-"""™°f''™"''''°e- 
reports of the press, the exercises must have ] C, B. Ward, now with G. A. Gaskell, Jeraey | 
been very interesting and highly creditable. We City, N. J., incloses several specimens of plai 
regret that we were unable to attend. I and fancy card writing which : 

fully employed in striking the capitals upon the 
small scale of ordinary writing. 

b, W. J., Cleveland, 0., desires to know if we 

crcd- ' do not favor teaching writing analytically. Yes, 

I most decidedly. But we would avoid so compli 

I. S, Haines, who is teaching writing at Ann j Geo. Spencer, with the Northwestern Mutual 

Arbor, Mich., is highly couiplimcnted by the Benefit Association, writes an elegant Spence- 

press of that city for his fine penmanship and ' rjan hand. Several slips which he incloses are 

successful teaching. I seldom excelled. 

Moilfrn Argo. 

When Subscriptions May Begrin. 

Subscriptions to the Joirnal may date from 
any time since, and inclusive of September 1877. 
All the back numbers from that date with the 
four premiums will be sent for J3.00. All the 
numbers of 1880 and 1881, with either 
the premiums wiU be sent for $1.75. With all 
four of the premiums for $2.00. 

C. F. Pond, principal of a select 
school for ladies and gentlemen, co 
Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, has sent a large ''•' 
number of the names of his pupils as subscribers > 
to the JocRNAX. He says, in a letter of recent jj, 
date, " I tell my students that a good hand iviir- , \, 
ing combines the benntiful with the u-tli' 
That if they really wish to become good wiii. : 
the Joi RNAL will be a great help to them :ii' 
they have left school That its beautiful Imim,- ' ■ 
and practical exercises, us they there appear "" 
from month to month, will improve their taste, ?? 
preserve their interest, and tend to inspire them I H( 

authors have done, more complex than is the 
writing itself. Most of the lessons given through 
the Journal have been analytical ,We have pur- 
posly departed from that method in the present 
icial I ^- ^' J^ncll, Cisco, Me., writes a very easy, j course, with the view of presenting more effoc- 
and graceful hand; the writing, however, lacks pre- [ lively some general hints upon the teaching i 

)f writing at Moore's , 
,, Ga., incloses in an i 
k-cral slips of superb 

■ of less 
s of analytic Icssoi 

laps a 

'! I i< -in, at Musselman's Busii: 
I in [II . sends a club of seven 
iiliisi- u curd photograph of a ver 
pen-drawing, entitled " Home, 


5 will 1 

' o' I Joseph Foeller, Jr., of Ashland, Pa., 
elegant hand. 

A. W. Woods, a student at Musselman's Busi- 
ness College, Quiucy, III, is not only a graceful 

We notice that Prof. V. N. Douglas, the pop- 
ular superintendent of penman.-ihip and book- 
keeping in the Lockport Public Schools, waa a ; "'■i'^'. ">" »" ■•■"dv ". ^-wu^.u-.u. 
delegate to the Grand Chapter of the Roval evinced by photographs of two 
Arch Masons, recently in session at Albany— specmiens of pen-druwmg which he 
a compliment well be.itowed — " Doug." wos h. W. Flickinger. teacher of writing 
always a good boy. .Union Business College, Phila., favors i 

n M lite thirty words 

,u ijiu>i draw his pen through 

hand- the space ofa rod, Mjtleenand a holf feet. In foriy 
sweet minutes his pen travels a furlong. We make, on 
an average, sixteen curves oj turns of the pen in 
los an I writing each word. Writing thirty words in 
I a minute, we must make 480 to each'minute; in 
DQ hour, 28.800; in a dav of only five hour.i. 
144,000; in a year of 300 days, 43,'J0O,0O0. The 
ninn who made 1,000,000 strokes with hla pen 
kill as is I ,y„j, ,|(jt at all remarkable. Munv men, newsjia- 
iplicated ^ p^r writers, for instance, made 4.nO0,OUO. Here 
)SC8, I „g have, in the aggregate, a mark of 300 miles 

I tl,^. long to be traced on paper by such a writer in a 
with )■«*'''• 

^^^4^^^^^^ 3 JS 

THE IRO:f PE5r. 

pradmw aoat» from 8(bnia. Orloo umI Maine. 
I tfaoTUlbl tbU Vf 

U HlbnU. OyloB •Ml tUlae 
Woald gltmronr m Ihoagtu in Ibf 

Of B''>mjl«anl mlichl tH«ln. 

ftnmn n»rw of lb«? Poet who oani 
Of iho prtBonrr uxl tito p>1n : 

Th»t till* wno.1 fram Ibe frluahj'N 
MlKht writf me • rfarmo at Iwl, 

Bnt tnnllnnlraM u I wait. 
Like • Blabop Irloa Id ■lab', 

Tbon mi»l I •p'sak, anil uy 
Tbat Iho llitbt nf thai NnmniPr ilaj 
Id I bo Kardro iinittrr tb» ptom 

I Khali »M> jron iiUnillnji Ibcn', 
(:an«>^d hj the fndmit olr, 

With Itin ohaduw ini yatir faro, 
An<l tbc^ *uiMbl»» on your lialr 

1 xball Iwar fho «wrot liw t..iic 

HarlDil, ** Thta I* fmm mr to yoi 

A^dln wi 

wef , and thank f 
;lft, anfl lh«> «nf 
Ll Uulnu of Mnlni 


Two younn men liavc been sent out by King 
Knlnksun to (ieiinany for nnvul nnd miliUiry 

Tlic Sibcriiin irniwraitv id rapidly becoming 

mlilifilinl. Tlie Un»Hi»n Rovcrnnifnt, bi-forc 

f fmindntion utonc was Iniil. had expended 

The Sopboii 

01% class of 

ir>5,i)nn. A lilirarv of U.'i,iliili volunreiA bii<i 

embraces scvei 

younf; Indii 

fusal, on recciring f 

Ih* tno-t 'Jt3. I.;.! cilicpjpliy mtant. inrii- 
in^ the Tounf; lady u> ■ matinn-. ^he rcToh^d 
It the idea, refused to coosiiJer hcrarlf sacrific- 
iblc lo hin dc?"ire*, and neol a polite note of rc- 
h he procured a carbine 
knife. Hid tbat he would not now 
forj^ fetters bymenial with the queen, went to 
an isolated spot, severed the jugular rein and 
diMharged the contents of hi? carbine in hi5 ab- 
domen. The debris were reoiOTcd bv the coi^ 

S<>D)inarie«i for the training of teachers have 
existed in PruAsia for nearly 200 ycani. 

W, n. Welts, author, andcz-Superintendent of 
Public Schools of Chicago, has a collection of 
English grammarA, by varioiis aulhom. numbvr. 
JDg OTor nine hundred, and has learned the titles 
of about four hundred othcm which he is desi- 
rous of obtaining. 

Can you, dear reader, interriew \Vcb9ter or 
Worcester in regard to the pronunciation of 
etiquette, subsidences, precedence, cummandant, 
vagary or extant, and not meet with one ormoie 

In nothing is illiteracy shonii more ea.oily and 
convincingly than in incorrect orthography; and 
yd wc frequently condemn persons unjuntly who 
inadvertenly fall into errors of this character 
from reading the works of such writers hh Josh 
Billings, Petroleum V. Nashy or Artemus Ward. 
The writer of this confesses io the Iosji of a prize 
at a competitive examination, in consequence ol 
spfllint; the name Artemas as he remcuibcred it 
in the title " Artemua Ward, His Itook." And 
another grcat'man of similarly ripe scholarship, 
Thomas Jefferson, in presenting to Joseph Cool- 
idge, Jr., the desk on wbich the Declaration of 
Independence was written — which desk has re- 
cently become the property of the (Jovemment, 
— nceumpanied the gift with a note in which the 
word independence was twice written "Independ- 
ance." The exphmntion of the error is doubtless 
his faintliarity with the French language in which 
this manner of spelling prevails. 

Queen Victoria recently presented to the Pres- 
ident of the United States a massive ai>d magni- 
ticont writing-desk made from timbers of her 
Majesty's ship Resolute. 

At the dedication of the new Pardee Hal) nt 
Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., there were pres- 
ent the President of the United States, a portion 
of bis Cabinet, and the Oeneml of the Army. 
The prosperity of this college is largely owing to 
its presidcnl. Dr. ('attell. 

The College for Working-women in London, 
England, is eminently successful. 

rcactil rtT/uw uf l«chcr=." ThL- i? loo j/nice 
subject for l<7vily, or we should l>e tempted 
1 perpetrate a wicked joke at their expeuse. 

for that t 

^hould ob^crrc this tlmc-honored 
" Whatever is worth doing at all, is woTth 

jVm-mai Monthly. Tlie undertaker of that *'''''*^ **" " 

witticism better try again. — Tfoefura' Guide. i — •♦- -* 

Chawlcs," languidly drawled Josephine, j Handwriting and Character, 

looking up from her book, " 1 see one of the ' 

studies at West Point 'u trigonometry. What 
is trigonometry anyhow *" " Trigonometry," 
replied Charies, toying with an invalid mus- 
tache, "a — a — is the science of pulling trigger, 
of course." I thought so," said Josephine, re- 
suming her novel. — NorritUnen Herald. 

Richard Grant White bos a long article in the 
December North Amenean Retietr called "The 
Public School Failure." It is supposed the 
article was suggested by hearing a fifteen year- 
old pupil say to another, in front of a confec- 
tioner's window. "Say, Joe, them there cakes 
looks pretty scrumptuous, don'i they *" and bis 
companion replying, *' You betcher boots." If 
a boy doesn't talk like a first.class grammar, 
Mr. Grant thinks the public schools are a fail- 
ure. — yorrittmrn Herald. 

hand but 



s father patoloi 

11(1 saddoDcxI bia n 

"Skt" AND "Sit," — Many of the agricultural 
journals are sorely troubled to know whether u 
hen sits or sets! If some editor of dignity 
would 9et a hen on the nest, nnd the editors 
would let her »\x, it would be well for the world. 
.Now a man, or woman, either can set a ben, 
although they cannot sit her; neither can they 
set on her, although the old hen might sit on 
them by the hour if tliey would allow. A man 
cannot set on the wash-bench ; but he eould set 
the basin on it, and neither the basin nor gram- 
marians would object. He could sit on a dog's 
Liil if the dog were willing, or he might set his 
foot on it. Hut if be should set on the aforesaid 
tail, or set hie foot there, the grammarians, us 
well as the dog would howl. And yet, strange 
as it may seem the man might set the tail 
aside, then sit down and neither be assailed by 
the doji nor ihi' ^yAmmafians.— Allegheny 

showing something of your own choraclei 
very style of handwriting is an clement in the 
determination of character. The way in which 
a man dashes off a letter is very much the 
way in which the man uses his voice. Tnerc is 
a modulated case in the tones of tne hand- 
writing. Without pTOfesninp to be experts like 
Messrs. Chabot and Netherclift, we can certainly 
gather a general idea of ch.iracter from the 
handwriting. A minister was commenting on a 
very strong despatch in the presence of his 
sovereign. "The language in strong," snid the 
statesman, " but the writer docs not mean it ; 
he is irresolute." "Whence do yoii see irreao- 
lute?"6aid the King." "In his n's and ^'s, please 
your majesty.'' Only it U to be said that a 
great deal of humbug is often talked by people 
who profess to be judges of handwriting. I 
showed a professor of caligraphy n letter which 
I had received. He took a very unfavorable 
view of the handwriting. It was the hand- 
writing of a man without lenmiiig, without 
genius, without feeling. "And now. Sir," I 
said, "will you look at the signature?" The 
letter was written by Lonl Macauloy. — London 

Pitt'a Precocity. 
William Pitt was bnrn on the 'iSlb nf Miiv, 
nS9. He was the second son of that William 
Pitt, first Earl of Chatham, who, as the great 
Commoner, had ruled the House of Commons 
with an iron away such as its members bad 
never before experienced, and who, as First 
Minister of the Crown, had made the name of 
England feared in both hemispheres as she had 
never before been feared or has never since been 
feared. There are some men who, at a very 
early age, give signs of the fume they are after- 
ward to obtain. We are told that Smeaton, 
when a child of six, made a windmill; that Car< 
dinal du Perron, when only seven, asked for a 
pen to write a buck iijiuinst tin- Huguenots; 
that West, when a 1m>^ . v 1 I \ imiuter is 
a companion for kinj- << n- lads. 
Hartley delermincil i" ' ilic na- 
ture of man, Bacon ;i >- -i i iiinii.-.ipln, Mil- 
ton an epic poem. 

According 1 

iiiiiry ninety pro. 
flnulish method, 
ini;il iiifthtid, am] 

estigation of a 
■■ <'t" I'l'pil^ «ho 

touuil lu U ultli.tol ni thi.-. uiuniicr. 

The year 1881 will be a mathematical curios- 
ilv. Tnuu right to left and fiom len to right it 
>sill ivad t)ic >niuc: 18 divided bv i fiiva 9; 81 
•livid.-d by t) giveo 1); if 81 be divided by 0, the 
■jiKiiiiut will I'ontnin a 0; if multiplied' bv il. 
the j.Ti.dnrt contiii»-twn nine-. If the 18 he 



> ' ii'i (1.11 M'lir needed to 

lOL .^OR.— There arc seventeen dif- 
iKOii in the Slatua an*l Territories, 
the loi)j.'i'--i period and yeai« the 

■i,.iIh-i ,il;. :it viliich pupihi are 
. l"iMu -.U..A- ui »nv State Is 

"'■ -'";■ ' '■-" "g^ is 6-21 

iim of school 

'crage daily allondancc, viz, 77.- 

I vem-s. In mn, ~i ,i, ■ il, 
Aiid iueiiiht Si.ih. .. _l 
Ibe highest ,.e«ci.t«;:,- ui 

age enroUe<l in the »chool, vit, im, or 4 per 
i-eul. more than the whole numtior between 2 
nnd \Jt yvan of age, and also the hijihe^^t per- 

.V. 1 . School JoumaL 

The following rather curious piece of com- 
poailion was i-ccently placed upon the black- 
biMrd at a loaeherk' in«tituii< in Vennont, and a 
priie of a Webster's dictionary offered to any 
person who could read il and pronounce every 
word correctly. The book was not carried off, 
lioni\iT. ji» iwrlv.' was the lowest number of 
nil-' ■ -n iiMwIe: " A saerilcfE- 

'"1 -uffort-dfrom bronchitis. 

II .1 ! in«w, in or*lcr to make 
fj'" 1 1 to ally him«e)f lo a 
•I'lt" '■ - ....,il.- vouTig lady of the Ma- 
lay Ol Cjui.,iM,ui r-ice. He acconiingly pur- 
chascil a calliope and coral neckUix' of the 
i-hameleon hue. and securing a suite of rooms at 
a principal hotel, he engaged the head waiter as 
his coadjutor. He then dispatched a letter in 

y dear." — ErJw. 

Teacher — "Suppose that you have two sticks 

of candy, and your big brother gives you 

more, how mony have you got then*" Little 

boy, (shokiiig his head)—" You don't know him ; 


t that kind of a bov." 

A college is a place where a young int 
kept during the period he i» sowing his wild 
oats, Alid thus relieves his family of the annoy- 
nncL of having him about. — BosUm Pott. 

"Speaking of the dead languages, Prolessor," 
inquired the new student, "who killed themV" 
It is supposed that they were killed by being 

studied t 

Freshman in (.Mgebia), while the |)nire^ 
liBck is turned (in a whisper): "Say, how do 
you get that quantity out from under the radi- 
cal*" Another fVeshman, (coiisoliiigly ), "Rub 

Said a college profe-ssor to a notorious lag- 
gard, who was once, for a great wonder, promptly 
in bis place at morning prayrs, and nt the ap- 
pointed lime : " I have marked you, sir, us 
punctual this morning. What is your excuse?'' 
"S-.«-ick, eir, and couldn't sleep," way the reply 

" In what condition was the patriarch Job at 
the end of bis llfey ' asked a Brooklyn Sunday- 
school teacher of a qniet-looking boy at the foot 
of the cla-ss. " Dead." calmly ri'plied the boy. — 
UurUngton Hawkeye. 

Wc ought to spell the word patntu "Ghough. 
phtheighteau." acconling to \\ui following rule: 
Oh (itands for p, il<> you'll find from the last 
letters in hiccough; ough stands for o, as in 
douph; phth stands for t, as in phlhisi>>; eigh 
ftands for a as in neighbor ; and eau stands tor 

Scene between P^ofc!^8o^ and Freshman. 
" How dare you swear before me, sir" Fret^h., 
(triumphantly) " How did 1 know vou wanted lo 
^weBr first."' Af^er the scene that eiii'Ui-d, the 
Frvshman gathered hiniNtlf up and silenily.siole 
away. — Amhertt Student. 

Letter lo a teacher. — Miss Q. Don't teach 

my boy no more sounding of his a b b's i'll 
learn him that at home. And don't wainl your 
time over the jim::asticfi — he gits eimf of them 
over the back gate. You hav U3o much foolin 
goin OD I'm aferd your skolars dont team 
much, his mother mis M 

<>nv of our State exchanges speaks of "the 

Bnd Penmanship. 

lod penniansliip is one of the most useful 
and necessary branches of education ; yet, it is 
one, most painfully neglected, even by our best 
known cducatoi-s, as well as our profoundest 
scholars. The atrocious penmanship of the late 
Dr. Greeley, for many years the most brilliant 
editor of the United States, will probably remain 
the theme oF disparaging comment as long as 
wi41 the recollection of that good niiin. His 
writing served the purpose of many a practical 
joke, some of which, perhaps, might bear re- 
peating. One one occasion, having become dis- 
gusted with the conliiiucd blunders of a com- 
positor, he wrote an order for bis dismissal, 
which it is said the compositor used for ycar>. 
afterwards as a testimonial of his splendid ability, 
from Greeley. On another occasion, he wrote a 
long letter to a certain government official 6i""R 
his opinion, as he was in the habit of doing. 
That gentleman, after wrestling for several days 
over the manuscript, found that he had got it 
boHom Mtle up; he then called in experU from 
the various deparlmcnts, who were utterly unable 
to decipher it. He then enclosed the manuscript 
to n friend in New York, with n request that he 
call personally at the Tribune office, and get au 
interpretation, which he was requested to write 
out and forward. The New-Yorker called at 
the 7Vi'*f/n<' office in due time, and was shown 
to Greeley's office. Upon presenting the manu- 
script for interpretation, Mr. Greeley could not 
himself tvad it. It was a conceded fact by 
Greeley himself,as well as uU who were awjuainted 
with him, that he made the poorest manuscript 
of any person of his day. Some persons have 
even claimed that poor penmanship was a mark 
of genius, and cited Greeley and other noted men 
who were bad penmen as proof of this absurd 
assertion. Upon the same hypothe.-<is, it could 
be shown tbat some of our greatest statesmen 
who were remarkable for iheir fine talent.^ but 
wen? great drunkards, were geuiuncs because 
thev had the eccentric habit of getting tipsy. 
Bad penmanship is a mark of a sloven and inex- 
cusable 8biftle.'<^ne»», and it Is a grand mistake 
for any person to altribaie to any one an extra- 
ordinary amount of ability on account of his bad 

. till. 


His km 


kdge uf the cliissiiy was profound, 
acute nmlbematician. The favorite son of his 
father, ho was taught, when a child, by his 
splendid sire, how to recite, how to express his 
thoughts in severe English,and bow to regard 
any subject that interested him from its various 
points of view. " I am ghid that I am not the 
eldest son," be said to his mother, on the crea- 
tion of the Chatham pcenifre; " T wnnt to speak 

i hull ] 


I he regretted 


,.::;; \i:\ 


n vi. 

he wiu 
t lo the 
wed to 

Fwx. ultc 

»Urdhi« l.':i 

-■■ grest 

debater used to tell 1" ■ 



him and 

saying, ■' Umi 

M 1 

'\. that 

might be 

met thus," or, " 

V,.». 11. 

t he 1 

v> bim- 

self open 

St this retort." 

A boy 

Who, , 

ulcad of 


the robes of the 




of the chaniber, keenly watched how every ai- 
gument could be met ond refuted, was no ordi- 
nary character, and Fox admitted that lie was 
much struck by the novelty of the circumstance. 
— Temple linr. 

A painter having restored the frescoes of a 
church was requested to present his bill, which 
he did as follows: For having eorrcct<'d the 
Tables of the Law, $1.20; for having bnished 
up Pilate and put a gold tnsxel to his cap, $I.?5 ; 
for having put on a new tail to the roosU-r of St. 
Peter and painted again his crest, |l.r.O; for 
having straightened up the bad thief and put a 
new nail to his hand, (I.TS; for having washed 
the face of the maid servantof Caispbas.and put 
rpuge on her cheeks, $0.S0; for having renewed 
heaven, adding stare and cleaning the moon, 
$3.00; for hoving revived the flames of Purga- 
tory and reatoring a few souU, f 2 75 ; for having 
laced with gold the robe of Herod, putting in 
some teeth, and fixing bis wig, $1.46 ; for having 
lengthened the tail of the dog of Tobias and fixed 
a string to his traveling bug, $2.00; for having 
cleaned the ears of the ass of Dalaam and tnhoed 
it, |2.50: for having painted and shaded the Ark 
of Noah. $4.75. 

Back Niunbers- 

If » 

. try 1 



of I 

the back 

jensible mechanics, that a very poor work- numbers of the Joi:r.sal sinee and inclusive of 

man was a genius, we certainly would be laughed the September number, 1877, \n »W forty num- 

nt for our painss. We hvlieve, then. th«t whoever Vr« lo Jan. Ist, 1881, which will be sent for 

would thrive in penmanship, or anything else $3.00; with all four of the premiums for $3. CO. 


agIecopl«oftbeJo<m.HAi- sent on receipt of ten 
1. fip«>ptmcD copies fiimlabwl to Agents £n». 
Single Insertion 2S amw por llu« nonpareil 

1 montb. 



Ii Packard's Goins of V 


FEOiAL premium to the 

nlRHtonit in c-aal). CinnOaTS giving * 

prefer, we wtU pay oqually liberal ( 
"Ircidars giving special lint of 
o mailed on application. 

a moutii. 

I nearly m powrlblo o 

jiromply nttoudod to by tlie 

Jl Bouvcrio SI. (Flwt St.) 


Habit and Pereonal Identity in Hand- 
Diy.lrn says ; 

'■ Uabitfi Bnthiir by uUReeu (tegroea, 

Wolliiigiton obsoi'ves that 

The imperativf force of linbtl is tnnDifost iti nil 
tlio social mid hidueli'ial conditions nnd rclntion!) 
iiflifo, extending to the minutest detnils of hu- 
man thought iind action. It is observed in the 
^ulutAtion, shake of the linnd, the artisan's skill, 
the training of oratory and music. Habits 
fimned from a 1on» and frequent repetition, he- 
I'omc, ns it were, n jmrt of tlie individual and 
eunnothe at once nbiindtmcd oravoided, Prob- 
ably there is nolhiny in whieh this is more mani- 
iVslly a fwot than in n persons handwcilinp. 
Writing beiiiR a compHcAted mechanical strnc- 
luro, aoquired at first by study and practice, mid 
swbsciiiu'iitly modilii'd mid individualined by 
li>nK piiKliee, presents a roinbinulion of the hab- 
it of ilioiigbt and mechanical effort, more com- 
]ih<x and lull of habitual detail thao any other 
human ncquiremenL 

The hmidwritiiig of different individuals diflcrs 
in appearance mid characteristics an n-idoly as 
docs the physiognomy, style of dress iiud general 
personal appearance of the writers, and the writ- 
ings are os certainly distinguishable from each 
other as are the writers. 

It sometimcfl happens that in general oppear- 
ancc diffiTCnt handwritingii, as do different per- 
sons, have a marked resemblance to each other, 
in which case mistaken identity is liable; in the 
haudwriUng, except by persons familiar with it or 
those who make a careful scienti6c exaniinution, 
and of the persons except by intimate acquaint- 

ances. In cases where persons of ueurlv e<iual 
skill, have learned to write by practicing from 
the same copies and who have not subsequently 
changed their hands by practicing under widely 
different circumstances ; there may not be the 
very marked distinguishing characteristics or 
personality common to handwriting. 

It is the peculiar eccentricities of habit in 
writing 08 it is the figure, di-css, ttc in persons 
which readily and certainly deteiminea their 
identity. A person of rocdinmsize. having regular 
features, without excentricity of habit or dress, 
makes no marked impression and is not readily 
identified, while a dwarf, cripple, giant, or per- 
son exceptional in 111" Or pi.iill;!! in habit, 
challenges at'/iiiinii, mi i- n.-rn/cd en cas- 
ual acquaintiinir Ml ^ n m 'ii :^c, different 
writings coneistiiit; ui i''^m1,iiIv loi'rned letters 
combined and shaded according io some stand- 
ard system, are liable to have many coincidences 
of form and apparent habit, wliich rendere their 
indentity, when questioned, diffiienlt and aome- 

Thc following is a specimen of writing not 
highly characteristic and of the style in which 
coincidences would be frefiucnt. 


The fallowing is a specimen of writing consid- 
erably eccentric and in which coincidences 
would lie few. 

Persons are never so identical in form, 
feature.% dress, habit &c., as to be mistak- 
en by intimate ncquaiutanees, and usually 
where tt strong personal resemblance is apparent 
fo slrangei-8, it ceases to be so upon a more inti- 
mate acquaintance. So, two different handwrit- 
ings of nearly equal size, uniform slope, shade, 
&c. may us ti whole, or in its pictorial effect, pre- 
sent to the eye of ii novice or casual observer, 
much tho same appearance, yet to one familiar 
witli them or tonn expert examiner, they would 
be without characteristic resemblance. 

The himdwriting of every adult must inevita- 
bly have miiltitudinous distinctive and habitual 
peculiarities, of which the writer is more or less 
unconscious; such as initial and terminal lines, 
forms of letters, their relative propoitions, con- 
necl'ons, turns, angles, spacing, slope shading. 
(in place and degree), crosses, dots,orthography, 
punctuation, &c., &c. These peculiarities being 
habitual, and mainly unconscious, cannot be 
successfully avoided or simulated through any ex- 
tended piece of writing. No wri*er can avoid 
that of which he is not conscious, nor can any 
copyist take cognizance of and successfully re- 
produce these multitudinous habitual pcculiari. 
tics, and at the same time avoid his own habit. 
A writer muy with the utmost ease, entirely 
change the general appearance of his writing ; 
thii^ may be dune by a change of slope, size, or 
by using a widely different pen, yet in spite of 
all effort his unconscious writing habit will re- 
main and be perceptible in all the details of his 
writing ; such an effort to disguise ones writing 
could lie scarcely more successful than would be 
u disguise of the person to avoid recognition. 

Fuck and Business Colleges. 

In a reeent issue Pmlc^ to i.8e a common 
parlance, just went for Business Colleges, char- 
acterizing them as humbugs of the worst sort, 
and their graduates as being inferior to those 
of an ordinary public school, even charging that 
in most instances young men suffered pn^iti 
injury rather than deriving advtuilage fn 
pursuing a course of study in one of these 
stituUons. It is not our wish or purpose 
beeoine the special champion of Business C 
leges or of any special education, but fiom ( 
long and close observation of Business College 
work and the advantages which have resulted 
to young men, and ladies too, who have been 
graduates of these institutioha, we are prepared 
to denounce Puck't sweeping chains as being 
unjust and unwarranted. 

That there have been so-called Busincs; Col- 
leges, and college professors which were shams 
and frauds we would not deny, nor could we or 
Piuk deny a similar charge if made against 
sonieof the so-called institutes, academies, aemi- 
naries and some other institutions dignified by 
the titles of university and college, the foct is 
that each of any of the above named institutions 
precisely as they 

arc cundiicted. l.y honest inltUigence or knavi.-li 
ignorance, and we have no reason to believe 
that all the knaves who profess to teach, are 
c«Bfined to business colleges. 

As regards the practical utility of such a 
course of training as is given in a really first- 
class Business College there is no more ground 
to doubt than there is regarding all schools for 
special education. Few persons would ques- 
tion the value of a course of military training 
for a soldier, or of medicine, law, theology, or 
engineering, Ac, to their respective praoti- 

The : 



penmanship and a general knowledge of the 
forms and customs of business arc just as much 
a matter for special study and teaching as are 
any of the above named specialties and are more 
generally useful than any of them, since to a 
greater or less degree those branches are called 
into use in every other profession and purault. 

According to Pmh no business man would 
presume to entrust a Business College graduate 
with the keeping of a set of books. To our 
knowledge many have done so, and as they have 
found safely, and, we have not the slightest 
doubt, that there are quite as many business men 
who would trust a Business College graduate 
to keep their books, as there are who would 
entrust themselves or friends if sick, in the 
hands of a freshly graduated medicivl student, 
or their legal affairs to the recent graduate of a 
law school. As a matter of fact, in all these 
cases the experienced and tried practitioner is 
to be preferred; the Bu^ness College graduate 
must no more prove his fitness and ability to 
fill a position of trust and responsibility than 
the graduates of any other institution. All in 
a certain sense must serve a routine of practice 
and gain promotion or ploce as they prove their 
merits. Each will have a broader and more 
comprehensive understftuding of their profession 
from having pursuL'd a special coui-se of study 
and training. This is as true of the Business 
College graduate as of any other. 

In our opinion the day when the utility of 
special schools for business training can be any 
more questioned than any other class institution 
has long since passed, and, although, as a rule, 
Puck is well up with the times, on the Business 
College matter, he is certainly twenty-five years 
behind the uge. 

A World's Fair in 1883. 

The World's Fair to be held in New York, 
in 18S3, on the centennial anniversary of the 
signing of a treaty of peace by Great Britain, is 
now promising for success. 

The Commission has been organised with 
General Grant as its President. The Commis- 
sion is comprised of able and responsible men, 
Avhicb, together, with the liberal contributions 
of funds being made to defray the expense of 
the fair, are an ample guarantee of its compli 

The Egyptian Obelisk. 
On the 22d of January the Egyptian Obelisk 
was raised to it.t position in Central Park. 
It was first erected in Egypt 3600 yeoi-a ago. 
It was subsequently removed to Alexandria, 
where, after lying prostrate twenty-three yeai-s, 
it was erected twenty-three years B. C, before 
the palace of the Cffi.'iars. The Obelisk was 
presented to the United States by Ismail Pasha, 
and was transported to New York by Lieut. 
Gorringe, at an expense of $75,000, which was 
paid by W. H. Vandei hilt. 

The Census of 1880. 
gives the population of t!ie Uniied Statc-i at 
50,lB2,Bo4, an increase of nearly 12.iiini,oi)i) 
K year-. The five largest Statci' in flu-ii 

The Penman's Gazette. 
We learn from Prof. O. A. Gaskoll that he is 
out to resume (be monthly publication of the 
Prnmnii's Qazfttt which no doubt many of our 
readers will be pleased to Icani and will join us 
shing it success. Prof. Goskell is au able 
aud fluent writer, his experience as editor and 
author will undoubtedly enable him to condutt 
a really first-class penman's paper. We shall 
welcome the Gazette with no spirit of jealousy 
or envy, there is ample room and work for 
two penman's papers. We shall hope that every 
penman will find it to his interest to subiierilie 
for both the .lonnNAL ami Oaeftte, and have no 
doubt they will find it the best investment of two 
dollars they can make. It is safe to say that 
neither the Joursal or Qazettf will be any the 
less intoro.'iting or valuable from the publication 
of the other. 

York. uL ■■ : J . ■ r ,.,■,- i 

984; B l-.lMi. .■...'■.,--■1. ri,i.-i-. ■■.■■•\ i;,,. 

ton. 8(V>,.'>;!.i. Tl.L- p..p.i!:itioM of New V,jik 
City alone exceeds the entire aggregate popu- 
lation of the five Statt-s of New Hampshire, 
Vennont, Rhode Island, Nevada and Oregon; 
and, should we add to its population that o) 
Brooklyn, Jersey City, Hoboken and otbe 
suburbs, which are really a part of New York, 
we have a population of over 2,000,000 ; to 
equal which would require the additional States 
of Delaware, Colorado, Florida, and the District 
of Columbia. 

The Xing' Clubs 

For the past month comes again from C .W. 
Boucher, Teacher in the Commercial depart- 
ment of the Northen Indiana Normal School, 
Valparaiso, Ind., and numbers s^enty-five 
names. This makes an aggregate of three ?iun- 
dred mimes sent by Mr. Boucher within a period 
of less than five months, and by far the largest 
number sent by any other single person withiD 
that period. The second largest dub coines 
from H, T. Loomis, teacher of writing in Bry- 
ant's (Buffalo) Business College, and numbers 
titirty-aettn The third club in size comes fi-om 
Chailes B, Frailey, Lanc.ister, Pa., numbering 
eighteen. The month previous he sent a club 
of twelve. The past, has been emphaticully a 
month of clubs, for which we return our 
thanks, and sholl endeavor to reciprocate by 
sending a constantly improving piipcr. 

School JKIanagement, 
isthctitleofon hi^'hl', ii.'i --uv., n,,! vuhmhle 
little work by I'mt \ . \\ \ _■, editor 
of the The New Ynrl. - ./ It con- 
tains many valuable '•ii;.;:-iiMui- I Imi regard- 
ing school work. 

An appropriate and highly interesting intro- 
duction is written by Thomas Hunter, President 
of the New York Normal College. Prof. Kellogg 
is an expcrienoed and popular teacher and is em- 
inently fitted by his long experience as a teacher 
and olwerver of school methods to give, as he 
docs in his book, the best and most valuable 
advice regarding every department of school 

The book is published by E. L. Kellogg & Co., 
21 Park I'hu-c, New York; |)rioe, n cents. 

Special Bates to Clubs. 

To favor teachers and pupils in schools where 

numerous copies of the Journal are desired, 

we offer to mall it one year on tho following very 

favorable tenna : 

1.T6| in copins tH.lB 

1>,9S I 'ib copies 12.50 

J'.OO I 60 copiga . av.BO 

a copioa •I.&O | '00 copies... . <O.UU 

lu copies a.ou I ISO copies sT.oo 

To each sidiseriber will be mailed, as a pre- 
mium, with the first copy of the JotrRNAL, as 
they may designate, cither the " Bounding Stag," 
'M\U, the "Flourished Eagle," 24x32, the 
"Lord's Prayer," 19x82, or the "Picture of 
Progress," 22x28. For SO cents extra all four 
of Uie premums will be sent. These premiums 
were all originally executed with u pen, and are 
among the masterpieces of pen art. Either of 
them, to an admiiei of skillPid penmanship, is 
worth the entire cost of a year's subscription. 

Bxtra Copies of the Journal. 
will be sent free to teachers and others who de- 
sire to make an effort to secure a chib of suh- 

The Business of the New York Post 

•^ ■ > ' 1 1 of till- magnitude of the busi- 

I \ 1 Ml k Post Office may be form- 
■Miig figures which we have 

1 'I ■ ii'>ii III' i-wnt official report of the 

uthee l\ir ISM'. There was handled 410,781, 
780 pieces of mail matter. There was delivered 
by carriers hi the city 265,232,768 pieces. The 
mony order transactions amiuinied to $51,231,- 
74'.'. Receipts for Stamps, envelopes and postal 
cani^, $:i,lu7,;iy!J. For newspapers merchan- 
dise, &e., «84li,52ft. The toul revenue of the 
office was f3,4!lB,884. The expense of the 
office «;75.'i,5.'i9. leaving a net revenue of *2,75«,- 
717, There arc employed 297 carriera and 671 

^[ •Xliji y ZiS^-' lA^-rM ^/^ :«; 'ioXiiii' 

.' .'JUif ry.VAi. ■*'« 

-I'LL' " ,:* 




^wtm^^^, w^^^mK, 

\.f'f^ -"'t 










.^(^Hec/u.d^^Cf-f-U-c/.g'ffi Afci-Ae^ Cp.-f€^'yAfy/^,cc4/' 


' r^ 0?f (r/ir rr / /■ r/ /'f /// /^ /f.J 


(/^/\ ■ y/M •f/ff^x^xfiyUJJfeff^'J^^,' 


^ /' —^ M?g.VC\\v>CV"Vo \HC 


f^T^^Wl^twccn' coit0-dhiiaiiows. oif^ 


ImporUul office to vuHcUl^elms Uetvappomtei 


S3 S!W«iii^J>''f MH'rC !}i^ 

3(:,i5(;liiniiri'rsl^jiO- - n - A^Jfflju^ulffcmartrMi 


DuiJ^ukj\ ir Ij, 

ert>— ....... M. 


a busiDC>is us lai^'cus thai dI a " lir-ii-i'liiss ' indcii 
services pruved to bu> oi greut vnlim in unitnttimiii;; 
that of Police Justice, a post for which his qualiti 
of observing his oflicial conduct, and 19 one alike kv 

resolutions. The gilt i 

ations of the New York Post Office on his letiri". 
I' engrossed at the office of the JounsAL. 
I view to acquaint himself witli the details of the 
cw Voik Post office, seviTiil of them transacting 
md inspected by him at fi-eqiicnt intervals His 
icccniber liist, he resigned ihe position to accept 
men who had for years Imd tlic opportunily 

Ancient Cities. 

Nineveh was fifteen miles long, eight wide, 

and forty miles round, witli a wall one hundred 


fpct high, tl.icl( enough for three chariots PlOT^^/^ TlOOTT^n 
nbrea-t. Babvh.n was fifty miles within the UV NMa\ 

walls, wlii.h ueic 87 feet tlnclt, and SBO hi^h, 1 1^ l~ir\iA 
with 100 brazen sales. The Temple of Pinna, iVJwi 1 UwLJii-kJ, 


.20 feet 

l> 4t;i feet h 
vers 11 ac 

Ii ,ii.|,l,n,,] ,.;n,nn(imeninbmMiiit;. 

II ' I I iiNiiiis SOO chambei-s and 2lio 

li II I F;?ypt, presents ruins 27 

I'"" "1 \iiiiii-was 25 ndles round, and 

.(.iiuiiiu,K;,.ii,uniuitizen8 and 400,000 slaves. 
The TcBtplc of Dclphos was !io rich in donations 
that it was plundered of (500,000, and Nero 
carried away from it 200 statues. The walls of 
Rome were 13 miles round. 

Fancy Cards. 

Just published twelve flourished and floral de- 
signs; one pack, twenty-five carde, sent for 20 
cents; 100 cards, ISO cents; 500.^2.50; 1,000 
for $4.60. These are all new and original de- 
signs, and are unsurpassed by any in the market. 
No sample sent free. Orders unaccompanied 
with the cash will not bo filled. 

Binders for the Journal. 

for a specimen copy of the 

:' Distinctive Features. 


iipravcrti, Teaclter'i, nrroratorw and 

I lie added to t 

J. C. Bryant's Kew Counting House fiook-keepinif. : 
TLo Complete Accoimtimt ; 

Sftdlpr'B Nrw CnuDtInK HmiBo Aritbnirtlc ' 

Inclose ten < 

?i» for writing » 
superfluous or 

Joi'RXAL, A single dime i 
aggregated to thousands it is not a trifle. Again 
you wish a copy of the Journal, which is o 
value to you and a cost to us. The cost of i 
single copy to you is a trifle, but the cost 
many is much to us. 

The firefly only shines when 
it is with the miud; when 


SKT, New Toee. 

The Common Sense Binder. 

N'8 ABT JOl 
6 Broadway, ] 

I 'l'oachlD(t. Pago. . 

Part 4, capitals imd tjpit.iJ im-il-im-. .l^^cnb^■^^ i.:.- 
Efurli part mailed prepaid to any addrraa on rec<^ 


Silica t e 


blackboardH on Wood. WiUIs. Paper or Cloth. 




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Sole propiietore. Send for saiuple and drciilar. 9-12t. 


II\T 17' —50 reclp(« for all c 
l^iJV. aUver. whil e uid cL 

Btabllsbcd B 
Jy one in th 

j j^V^ Ji'i ' t i-fi7i> '^-»- 


Superior Writing 



>. AlUnit, 

Hew Sir.— Ill reply to your Innulry, I take pli 
lu HAyluK tit"* Ut*> ">k piirrUoHcil nniu you at t: 

Offlco ot Erio Si 

U>n-'DocpBlKfk Ink" iuAiiufik^tiutii'lir 

Pml. D. AlUuit ( 

!, 33. IBSO. 
r Scbooto.! 

H. S. JOXBB. SupL 

sp—mn ->t .'i.Tv «iu.l.'til aiil im.l.-.i.uiAl i)--miiiii i» it 

^■.m.'l* ■ I'.l' 

^,,1., -,i^li «^>^k. wholly or in part. 

n..aUln» pra.'iiiely l)i« twly of d«tnibl« kin^l* and 

J. 0. Ukiiwkk. Exprrt Pennuoi. 

uiir/i: . 

■ .■T.Tncr* rnlin- MtUfM-tlon 

IWr Mr.-l lMv« u«>l your MrmuitUs mA jonr 
J..IV.H Ink.. t,.r oome ruinr pwt. uul OnJ U»m good for 
iiv «'vinU VMM for whki th^y m ntccUdly dnlcaed. 


and Photo-Lithographs 



W. Kibbe. 

-Vo. 7 HOBAKT ST., 


CnCA. ». T 

aw fiao&swAT. Haw Teak. 

^'JiiliS Jst^t^ 

:jW^ '., jJi^ jii^' ^JuL' '^'%^ f -5 

J-ULSt F-ULlDlisIfcLed- 

Sadler's Couulinf Hise 

"SwK xf'ss£5' 

*b rv 


ilr adnptod to tbAt pn 



' flit ^w 



tlinn auy othtr 
n^comniCDd It to 

■ inqiiliT M to bow I Uko yoiir i 
bsvo v\KT iiKixl 111 my Hciiool. 
NupcTlor In any olliw Arilbnietie uow pi 
million (iMtinod t« bccoma a standan! 
a kU wbo niA)' iDtiulro rcgAnUog Its morl 

Collating Houho ; 
bM, It is Hpuciolly adapted I 
ItoBpoctfuUr y 

eountiog room. I ahull 
ti. E. HIBBAIiD. PniKCiPAi,. 


lag Boiuo AiitbiiiPtlo was BOiA within 30 days 
\ of na ArithmotJc m> well milted to tbo peculiar 
for th» piwt thrca iDOutbH liw assisted us to 

d apodsUy u>ium(iiid. 

; iibM>DC« n 
Yours ti 

' satlfftctory results 


' FrioodSndltT: Tbls I 

it Uio best BuhIqomi Arilbnift 


Door Sir : I am tisliig Sadler's Counting Hoiuo Aritliinctic la 

ton lo Htndonlfi and tcAchtirs. 

TUo oxplanatlotu and nUm aro clear, couriBo and pnitit«d. I 


H Coimtiug UousD Aj 

'. W. B. SADLEn. Baltimore. 

-Sir: I am tiHliig Sadlci 

o Htndonlfi and tcAchtirs. 

_ oxplanatioun and 

ra,\. It la a most cxc«llmt tuxt-book for 

H'hoDlH for w 

nnccd classes. It is gi\ing great satis 
;lad to give your work my hearty appro 

Pnor. ^V. H. flAnutn, Daltimoiv, Md. 

D -or Sir: Some ww-k- a«. " 
critio il o'snmlimtlon or many 
tivo .>uul>-M« of commorclal 
maiiir.-.! pupilN. 

y ospresKloD of approval 


'Iiln^ you the SI 

otily pleasing. bi: 

mdy vulunble when n 

book, merited byj 

o lutrodiiiwl ; 
I rnpki and Hattefnctory imignna' 

1 lortaluly far In advance 
'. H. Sadleb, Balllmoro. 

doing mticb better 
of the Mnd. 


iookiUK over your Artthmptlo and comparing It with 

Ilia uioBi oxcoUout in regard to mietitious f ~ ' " ' 

it, of tho various pracOcol topics. We have di 

'. H. Sadlkh, Baltimore. 

! Sir : It has boon a little over two mouths t.i 
very Inithnilly say that wo havo b<'cn nblo to occompliah i 
text book In twice the time. lu our opluloa It is the Best 
u published. Wishing you iinbouudfu aiicccas wo arc vury truly y 

IT arduotu labors in perfecting, 

0. F. WILLIAMS. Prof. Law and Math. 

JsBflBX Cmr Bl'hinkss Colleoe, 

highly pleased \ 

x>mp1cTeiy Adaptud t 

" in adding a tcatlmonial 

what IH ui<(!dcd in BusIdcm coii' /> 
oiir iuatttuto. and arc vory liiglil> i 

nromabted lo accompUiOi fornui ]>ii| i i r i ; n 
Veryn«p..-tlull> >.iiirs. 

Bryant k STnATrn 

g Houflo ArithmoHo mcwta my umiuollflcd opproval. Have 

Youra alnccnly, 

, „ „ .„ Caxada Bubimkm C 

i. Sadlfb, Baltlmont. Md. Chatham. Out., Ji 

Sir; Your Counting Houso Arilluuetlc Is without exception tbo most comnlelo \ 
o I have yet swu. Tbe more I use U the mort. do I nn». it. The .....lH.,r>fin„i «„. , 
d OS to enable tho stiideut to iu> 
Itb tho auoooM or favor which e 

, Priudpa 
copies of Sadler's Cimling House ArllhmeOc. for ttxaminotiou, wUl be sent, poat-pald. on 
-ontalniMg tlK- answers to all problruw.togotber with a key {for proprietors of achools onlj), 

--^S^,- ^««. ^M^^''^" 


L-lally for displaying Handbills 
By using those Outs. UaudbiUg 

I ^iddrcss, at low prices. Incloee 

cry Mylc oC wriliug-. 


A few of the Best Specimens of im^jrovement in Handwriting 


{Sc//-y\ac/h//^ rcitmain/iip), received the past Month. 

if publication. Port I. ^ 



i. ....-« ov-erywhcre 
- .imU with your 
1 ' > City BuiOntBH 


CMwnty, Ohio. 




To (he Public. 

list paid, t3. 


n Series of 


'^opc/ijipsTfi-t. Pf/Js /A/ use '■■ , , , 

oountrf ,/jr«« tu thoio wrldiijt Ibr IL 



FvxloUsiioci J^loxi-ttay, at 303 Sro^^ci^^ay, for SX.OO j^ex- -^-ea^r.. 
" i?n(«-«f a( the Pott OffUx of New Tork, Jf. Y., a» urorifUUw mntUr' 


VOL. V. NO. 3. 

D. T. AnE», 


t (|u<-«tloncd Handwriting:. 


Tliurouubljr laiiKbt liy moll or pcraonnUr. 
prorund for piiplla wbuo ooiniM>tAnt. s< 

ii. II. NiiA'rrrcK, 

Snnmt Aflonl HiwiiociiAo Copy BoakH, 
BI^KICMAN. TAYT^lt & CO.. Now York. 

n. Arpi.irn 

m & CO.. 

Hli niiuilwiii aud with rHiUiik 

Huriua or Copy-Doo1».") 

ond 8ln«l. !)««■ York. 



I>KtiMi:!«i**. Teaciikim* and 

lIuyrKm- SvtpixiM. 

rn™ IJ.1 Fn«. 

Woc,ij«(«:k«t. B. I, 



t. flOODIER VlcoPrwldcnt. 

iiorvPK conpAN^-, 


301 ft 9iMPttltun StnwI. Brooklyn. 

(Twcntyyoftiw >t 2Wi l-ullon Street.) 

Fort W&yna, Indluift, 
Ifl uioat tborough uid pmcUo^L 


^___ wYork. 

[ I'M) nort to uiOcT. at tb 
h (cnvl work. Valparatoo. : 
HONE PBIVriN« «». [W* 

(SlwUM) Nrwip«p«r Mill Job PrintiiTu, 
Prtntfliwof ISFmnkfoHS 

Lossons in Practical Writing. 

™ ft pronim» Ivmou we ilwclt at some length 
uiM>ii Ihc (trcftt diMih-ai)ta)tv of prarliciiig upon 
ft crpAt rttriftiy of fonnii of thp letters, as it bo 
(lT.-ai1y incrvaitod the difficulty of teaming to 
wrilcanti thf labor of writing ever ancrward. 
Wo will coiwider briellj the advantage to be de- 
rtvtM from soK-eting the most simple types as 
our »taOdKnl» for the :;<>Teral letter* of the 

The wmple fopni* ar* not only mor« eaaily 
ao*iuir«d, and more rapidly executed, but they 

are more eo^ily read than the more ornntc 
styles ; in fact, those forma that cost the most 
are worth the leflat. It is oa if a merchant 
should conatantly purchaae an inferior clasa of 
merchandise and pay the high price of the hest; 
his chnnoca for success certainly would not be 
very promising. 

Labor, whether of the clerl< or mechanic is 
rewarded according to the results it can produce. 
Tlie copyist or clerk who can write one hun. 
dred words, equally as well, in the same time 
that another writes fifty, will certainly, other 
thiags being equal, command twice as nmcli pay. 
The rapidity with which writing can be exe- 
cuted, depends largely upon the simplicity of the 
forms of letters used, and the size of ihe writ- 
inp, A medium or small hand is written with 
much more ease and rapidity than a lurge hand, 
from the fact that the pen can be carried over 
short spaces in less time and with greater ease 
than over long ones, and enn execute simple 
forms more ea.sily and rapidly than complicated 
ones. To illustrate. Suppose one writer were 
to habitually make thecapital K thus; 

Which requires eleven motions ol 
the hand to execute, and that another 
were to uniformly make it thu» : 
Riquiring only four motions of the 
hand. It is apparent that the differ- 
.' required to make each can- 
lot be lesK than the proportion of eleven to 
our ; that is not all. The complicated form, con- 
ifU of many lines, some of which are required 
o run parafel to each other, and all made 
with reference to balancing or harmonizing with 
Bome other line, and requires to be made with 
much greater care and skill than the more simple 
form, so that the disadvantage is even greater 
thau indicated by the simple proportion between 
eleven and four. 


2 complex forms of the 
rapid and legible bus!- 


The practice of thi 
alphabet, will be fatal 
ness writing. 

These i-emarks are 
especially to business and unproft 
Where show and beauty areof gn 
tion than dispatch, variety and 
forms arc quite proper, and even necessary. 

W'v here give the entire alphabet of capitals 
xuch as we would recommend for all business pur- 
poses, as combining simplicity of form and ease 

3 apply more 
iter coDsidera- 

Form and Movement in Writing. ihut •' •■i^hinta prim. .s. ;{, 2. 2; or that 

Ifie i>iirU of o are el^finenU IV, IV, II, 
III, V, and horitontal eurvef This piece 
nieal analysis, or cutting up the letters, tends 
directly to piecemeal writing, or cutting up the 
movement. The units of form are not recog. 
nized in the letters and made the direct and 
definite aim of the pupil. Take thi.t rule for 
small o: Beginning on tuite Une a»e«nd teitJi 
left rurve on eonnrctive itUmt one spaee'S join 
angularly and dewe:nd irith left eurce on 
main sUtnt U/ ba«e; turn iiliort and a«rend 
with right rurv mreting othrr» at top : fininh 
with horizontal right airre one-ha^f itpaee t,> 
right. Width of oval , ont^iaff gpare. The 
pupil is not directed to aim for the unit of form, 
the oval which is only incidentally alluded t<. 
in measuring the width. The main feature of 
the letter is thus entirely subordinated to thit> 
piecemeal movement. While the oval ia Ig- 
nored as a UDit of form and movement, the 
pupil is taught an anguUtr joining which he 
had better not think about, as it is wholly in- 
cidental. Apaui, the object placed before the 
pupil in ascending with right curve is meetijig 
the other mree» at U>p, only one of which is a. 
part of th9 oval ? 

Ought he not to be thinking of completing the 
ovaly The oval should he the governing idea 
in writing o. When writing the introductory 
curve tho pupil should njm for the top of an 
ideal oval. As soon ita ho strikes tho point 
where tho .oval should begin, he should writi' 
the ovul as a (Moie with continuous movement, 
and should not bo distracted by thinking of«H 
anguhr joining, a lejt curtf on miin slant; 
a short turn, or « right curve meeting others 
at top. His ouly aim should he to make a well- 
ehipedwal. CrilitisuN can be brought to bear 
upon the oral after it i» written. Is it narrow v 
Do the sides curve »-.,uaIlyy Are the turns 
narrow ? Do not be too precise about half-space 
measurement. Writing is an art and cannot be 
made altogether by the rule and plummet with- 
out losing its naturalness and grace. 

The simplo forms of the letters, themaelves, 
have far greater educating force thmi fine-spun 
analysis, or elaborate abatrnetions. I would not 
by any means be uixleisiood as ignoring the 
value of the simple lines of the letters in teach, 
ing. They should of course be used for pur- 
poses of expln; 

The ruling idea seems to be to cut the letters 
into pieces for beginners in order to educate the 
eye as to form, and to simplify the movement. 
I believe that the eye is better educated by see- 
ing the whole letter, and having attention called 
to thep«r(*a8 illustrated in the whole letter, 
than by destroying the unity of the fonn. It 
is very easy to educote the eye. It is very 
difficult to educate the muscles. To do the lat- 
ter, it is absolutely necessary to let the child 
strikeout for the whole form in making the 
letter. The labored and precise drawing of 
lines will never produce easy writing. For in- 
stance, what ia the governing idea in making 
small if Is it not a semi-angular form with an 
introductory curve leading up to ity These 
introductory and final huir lines arc what give 
the easy, cursive character to script writing. 
It ia really easier to write the whole letter than 
make any one or two lines of it aepai-itely, 
any one can see by trying. When you write 
small f, the idea of a senii-angulur fuim is in 
your mind all the time controlling the move- 
ment of your hand. When the pupil writes 
8"i*tl i, you want him to put the same idea into 
his mind to control tho movement of bis hand. 
Do not direct him to ascend witli a little piece 
of the letter on connective slant one space; 
then to unite angularly with another little piece 
carefully drawn down on main slant to base ; 
then to turn as short as possible without stop- 
ping the pen, and ascend with a final piece pre- 
cisely drawn upon connective slant one space. 
By the time the pupil bos this rigmarole fixed 
in his brain, the letter will be buried in the 
rule. Do you call this writing!" I do not. U 
is only a painful drawing of the letter by piece- 
meal. Do you leach the child to read in this 
way ? These fragment*— a little piece of right 
curve, a little piece of straight line, u short as 
possible turn— all break up and obliterate in 
the child's mind the vivid outline of the letter 
with its individual eharacteri-stics. 

Take small i and u. Why is it not just as 
well to call attention to the right curves, the 
straight lines, the angles and turns as illustrated 
m the complete forma, as it is to break up 
thelctterato show these parts? Tlie straight 
lines are seen to much better advantage as re- 
gards comparison and criticism aide by side 
-ith the curves. The turns have 

... „ But what 

>.^^->'^,^ /, ^ ,-^ »^urvea. Th« turo. .omc mean. I do object .o i«, c„t.i.,g them Odt f,om th. 

/y ^•s.ei'^-^^t^ oyifat; deeigimting lliom by Arabic 

^ W and teaching ttuit when a child 

They may be praeUced in connection with the 
present IcKSon, which we will precede by the 

following movement exercise: 

rhich shniilil be practiced, makic 

By an orereight, copy No. 5 was omitted 
proper order, and benoe is now given ; 

the letters. The ©ye readily 
perceives how the straight lines blend into *he 
turns, and combine with the right curves, mak- 
ing a unit of the semi-angular form. But cut 
out the turns and you have nothing to show. 
They lose their character in being disconnected 
from the main line*. It is an absurdity to at- 
tempt to show tbctn outride of the letters. The 
pnrta of a letter, and their relation to the 
xFhoU letter, are much better seen in the wlioU. 
tetter, thau in ita disronne^ted fragment: 

Take small o. U not the idea of this letter 
an oval with on introductory and final curve? 
The oval itaelf is a >*ingi« cilrve, and should be 
made with cominuoua movement If cut up 
into pieces, or made by piecemeal, it loses its 
character aa an oval. What kind of an idea of 
the letter do«s it give the pupil to tell him 

s and prinei- 

leams those elen; 
pies, he hoe the whole acien 
penmanship in a nutahell. He will find that he 
has a hard nut to crack yet before he gets to the 
kernel. After all this he will have to learu 
to make the* finy-two Ictiem of the alphabet, 
and to combine them ea.tily and rapidly ; and 
the sooner he begins to do ft, the better. 
Teach the child to have a model of the cntin- 
letter in his mind, and to strike out boldly 
for the entire tetter with his pen. In this, 
ond in no other way, cnu you produce easy 
and natural writers. 


>'ou .flight them n 
lee them ogoiii. 

and b^n th« i 

Pare w light thy » 


Qd gfiM* combUnxl— 

;bi- dfl»thlwe will. 

He»rt-¥olc« of undying roll, 
btbmm bridging time's wide w« 
Poro M light tt>y *"'•' should l» 

A Most Remarkable WiU. 

LoTui^m Society recently publishud a long and 
inlcresting nrtii:le under the above caption, a 
|,ortioa of which wc repiint, believing that it 
will be of interest to many readers of the Jodr- 
NAL. From the narration it appears that upon 
tlie ilecfase of an eccentric and wealthy maiden 
ladv named Miss Bridgita Molloy, her will was 
found undLT her pillow, carefully sealed in a blue 
envelope and endorsed : " My Will— B. M." It 
seem that ll c e 1 ad een Bomo doub and an-o 
etj as to ho e c the h e egatees 1 y he 11 
A o g those most p obable we e a fti o e 
ece named Luc s B dg ta B m and a nephew 
amed V entz St Id Ihe na ator says 

s ty that 

^ „ ., .n de Buc 

t should have be 
us ess tlatl bad 
u 1 la G I h 

■ At last !' said 1. ' I w«^« afraid we 
ing to be sent up all the chimneys before vve d 

"^^y Jupiter. Lake, just think what would 
have happened if there'd been one link missing ; 
ifoneofthesepilkr-to-po.t had been lost 
or eone out of the way ! ' . n r i, 

'It's too terrible a chance to talk of. It 
would have cost one of tliose young people near 
twelve hundred a year. Come, here s the dress- 
ing-room ; let's be quick and have done with the 
whole thing.' , ■ . i, „„ ,..„ 

' AU right, here's a loose board, just where we 
were told to go. Come, out with you ! Hold a 
match down, this is rather a dark bole. There— 
and here's — holloa ! ' 

Dr Kirwan pulled out a fragment ot an enve- 
lope to which the red sealing wax still clung, 
which I could read a part ol my own 
name. There were also some odds aiil ■luN "I 
blank paper scattered round. We pnlli ■! >ii .11 
there. Alas, the fate ot tii. k. > \^.<- 
plainly to be learned from tliu loin .un\ 
n scraps of envelope and uotc-p;iiJLi uu 

and scrambling behind the waiiis- 

jcked us with the certainty that the mice 

had swallowed the key. 

do e nov" The nice alone 
B dg ta Mo lo n onej e 
o e all 1 abet took o 

de such 

me msgivngs 


lyft . 

ousand pounds 
,n VP V w 11 

ope unfo ded 1 ( 

,„ e equul part 
bo i brok open the 
I! and ead 

And all the res due of m) p ope 
he e ea pe sonal I fe ve bequea i 

That letiei 


bos left no spaces between her words. 
Vow vou know that the commonest English 
letter is e ; so that, ten to one tl 
letter in the cipher will represent i 
is d It comes no fewer than five nines m mt 
twenty-five. So. ten lo one, d stands for e. 
You perceive? ' 

' At any rate, I follow, so far. 

'Vcy good, sir. Now look at the cipher 
well, and keep it before your eyes. We'll as 
aumeforthe moment thai d may mean e; and 
if d means e, it's likely enough a would be b, b 
would be c, and so on, and so on, taking the 
letter following. Let's try that dodge with m, 
because there is more th^n one m, and because 
n (which it ought lo stand for) is a commonish 
sort of letter. Very well. Putting e for d 
and n for m and dots for the other letters, 
we "et- e... Now, Mr. Lake, 
thf- question, as I understand it, is : Did Miss 
lnii,,v leave her money to Lucis Bridgita 

I i;iiii or to Ferentz Stetdl? Assuming that 
Hip of those e's must fall into where the name 

II rhe Icatee roust come, it will strike you at 
,nce that" there isn't one single e in the lady's 
lame. It will also strike you that the young 
rentleman is a nephew, and that we've got 

already ne-comint; to-ethcr. Let's chance 

dre n I 

hem and i 
hew 11 

I y a d ppe 
whon he n 
he office o 
WQ tie leg 

of Higgins— that ought to be a doctherof divini- 
ty aud^a member of Parliament, and could sec 
ye undher the teeblc whenever ye plasoV" Hav- 
ing thus annihilated Mr. Wither', ' Higgms, do 

I all.' 

said Mr. HiLiiin 
shuffliii':- I 


- the difficulty i 

who has found 
.g what couldn't 
second, anybody 

iuidseeif ■ 

it en e tha 
ng p for y 

Not ng 

puzzle, for mure tliau half 
but a born fool?' 

' You are pleased to be complimentary, Mr. 
Higgins,' said L 'Mr. Withers, as an expert, 
assures us that a cipher can only be read in one 

""'ft didn't want an expert to tell you that,' 
said Mr. Higgins testily. 'Of course you can 
only read a cipher in one way. How can one 
set of symbols stand for two different sets ot 

' Then you will agree with Mr. Withers ? 

'No doubt. If Mr. Withers has read the 
cipher he will agree with mc. A cipher is made 

a particular kev, and it can't be fitted with 

When old women make ciphers, they 
mostly change the letters by counting forward or 
backward ^o first 1 counted one forward^nnd 

I m urpr sed Dosn t sir ke vou 

comes n re ent that the c p! e ad 

ot b eldl bo h nd u etter bet veen 

f e te 8— zx Idl A no t r m k 

nd ed fo t nte fe es tl no for 

sunpton— z vould nean x vould 

Now look ho V t eads e nephev 

teld On y one th ng bo he 9 me 

I e dot CO es now n f ent? there ougl 

a the beq est — as clear to the s gh 

th y ve 
le mud nl 

I needed f 
car ed t c 

Kr an 
an odd old 1 dy 

: alpbabe 

;. as I ho had 

!v dence o m) o 

made g t 

,„ h that I 
1 and made g 

noth ng Then 

I 1 1 fin 

notl g ag 


ould e — tl 
fifh lette for 
and cefo yo 

dy ce ved 

u d po nd* He 

IS dua J lega ee ot Ms 

mu go to Cbanc y There 
be done 

No He all not (,o n CI 
ha e h ght and h s d e 

si e va as s ue as anj body that e er mad a 

' But what's to be done ? ' 

'Ab, what indeed? What's the effect of s 
will as it stands? ' 

' I'm just hanged if 1 know. The will's othe 
wise without a Haw. And in all my pract e 
and all my reading too, I never heard of the 
alphabet's being made a residuary legatee I 
don'i like to say, without consideration, tl at 
there's no principle a court of equity would go 

IS of a gift can t 
uit of Chance v 
lable to the gen 

Court wouia 

holloa, Luki', 
of the envelope 

found only these wo 
' If you are puz^lei 

drawing — 

place and window 

We went togctl 

late Miss Molloy 

■ I should say the 
Ll' to the loundat o 
( uuundruins. But — 
,iv^ else dropped out 

|i the carpet in tli 

and the 

jou ca ead ho e onfo ndel et e s 
nlz ** e dl I 1 pay I n e y penny 
) h art ind take the consequences 
mm te before 

good Mr Lai T en I si al read 

- ^ ent '^t Idl and « tl out m gie 

sha 1 pay Now Mr W tl e s f 

nd la ger fields < 
ee ess surp ed 
p sa d Steldl pere 

e yth ng out and 

lade me A d e c pher read 
er tor e te as follows th the peoul ar 
n^ of t e na ne of he te a x a d all 
'he e was no mo e lo b that th pher read 
tl u I at t read my d ar nephew T rent 
f n oth equal y and both at the 

ryp og £ n the world s 
d of cred b ty that a pher 

tl e 1 resence of I 

had 1 m u I d 

Good dee to ; 

and enemy 1 
a d he tho t 

wad uble dose of 
I uppo e ye ve een 

u luded he b anch 
construct on and ol 
tl ough requ ng a 

fr end M S eld has appl ed 

missing key of this little puzzle, 

barely half an hour's study to fii 

•You mean you 

, turned up the car 

drawing room. Sure ei 
sealed note addressed to me. 

' Look,' we road, ' at page HS in the second 
volume of Gibbon's "Decline and Fall." It is 
on a shelf in the break fast^roonj. — B M.' 

I was too vexed at all this folly and mystitica- 

' By Jupiter!' esclaimed the Doctor, 'this ac- 
counts lor that midnight ramble over her house 
just before, she died. She was writing these 
nrttpg and hiding them. Poor old lady— it's not 
a thing, though, for people on their 
fancv themselves Surrounded by 
'' ' sn't lunacy, though, eh y' 

Mr. Withers. How am I t 

,d this jumble into 
St be a elever fellow 
know it isn't guess 


unt I do 
a d 1 But— 

iii.'iin just that one thing 
..i.i-iiiiy. And as the discov- 

__^ __ ll logical process, and us no 

found another I cipher can possibly have more than one key, 
why, sir, solvitur amltulajtdo—t\\e result is 
proved by the process, sir; or rather, result and 
process prove one another.' 

'Then I must have your process, if you 

' But it's the cau 

grumbled I. 'Well, 

Aud there, exactly 

of lunacy 
K for Gibbon.' 

page 178 of volume ii.. 
note for me. And this 

' Key behind 

cupboard from dressing-rt 

To be sure. No patent. Any body can d 
This cipher, sir, is even absurdly simpl. 

Did you 
Allan Foe? 
shall have t 
have rather .. 

he makes hi 

read 'the "Gold Bug" of Edgar 

Mo? That's a pity, because I 

explain from the beginning. I 

lutempt for that story — the 

would b 


been found out by a child in half the time. 

this cipher before us is of precisely the same 

kind— the very simplest form of cipher known.' 

' Well.' 

' A person like Miss Molloy, presumably igno- 
rant of the beautiful science of cryptography, 
would be almost certain to adopt the plan of 
making one letter do duty for another. Of 

lui o ) lo M 
In. s had hei tl o sand poundL 

■ her thousand pounds. I wouldn't 

ive six-pense for a beggarly thousand pounds. 
Cis an insult to spake to a gentleman of such a 

'Her thousand pounds, and I'na afraid — this 
■cmlcnim, Ml-, Wilht-rs, will explain— there is 

n i,„, ■. I ,i.,\ .l..:i].! ■■{' Mi--- M-IInv's intentions. 

ope to anybody ho 

i' trouble to read them 

e I 
kes fiv 
C ea : 
of th 


H e jou st del yptolog a» a sc ence 
H g" a 1 d M W tl ers V th a V Id effo t 

at elabo at co r esy 

I m not 8U 1 an ass aa d M H ggi s w lb 
no pretence of courtesy at all. I d as soon set 
up a science of handwriting as a science of 
whims,' . , 

'You are insulting, sirl There is a science or 
handwriting— ay, and of character in handwrit- 
and I Pliouldn't like to write like you, judg- 

., be. 

of insulting quacks 
.'ins. 'It's the first 
t cipher in the way 
but an expert, and 

ic^ y^ to mc frieudHiggins- agcn- 
scholar, that'll radeyeoff Hebrew in- 
r a ?las3 of punch, an' back into He- 
, Fiiith. I'd like ye to find a ques- 

.^iii- ^^..ulrltl't answer ye off-hand. 
1 1 _ ,.11-;, what doesgpx spell?" 

' An expert ?' asked he. 
'An' pray who may you be, sir?' asked Major 
'Birn. ' D'ye mane to tell me ye haven't heard 

' Whom do you call a quack, sir? Let me t 
you that when a man deliberately insults mys 

'I ,,l.|' . |iiinciple; I shall have 

noihiiij L. i. -aidSleld!. Andlhave 

no duuUi b^i iic liuii i-vc^llent reasons for the 
only principle I ever he^ird of his having. 'I 
bring my expert; you are satisfied. I demand 
twenty-five thousand pounda for my son.' 

'\J*it,:<- -VK r JOIKNAI, 

'I<lMI.i-.^iheUw.' -hrml-'i til*- H«jor 'An 
Iri^h (C^ntlcnun doenn'l mil up with pettifogdiDg 
ra-c»I«. I wouMn't toorh the diriby thing with 
tlie «ifl of •!> oliJ boot Th m clear u d«jr— 
r,«cU Bridgiu O'Bim. 

I be comproTDi"« O' — Ch«nc«rT,' 

•fVimpmrniM— with biro?* MiH Steldl, pointing; 
to the Ukjor with hij thumb. 'Not one ponny 
f\t*\\ he rob mj *on.* 

*(;otnpromi-c with » SleMI?' Mid the Mmjor in 
hifl larn. 'Mav^ "^'l^ "''^ '^'''^*' ' woald; for 
oM N'ick'i a KentlefDan,' •'tdcd he. 

And there wm the deadliest lock I ever hctrd 
of ninec I «m horn ! So l/orJ ChnncHlor ever 
drewnpawilltliAt more cWrly mconl two op- 
posite iind irreconHUhlc thing*. And so, I ver- 
ily believe, we iihoiild have been dUindinff tl this 
tnaoguUr deadlock nt the pre«ent hour, had not 
the delay imelf brought aboni a most netural 
aoliition in the moat natural way in the world. 
■ When in donbl, do nolhinp,' I constantly find 
In be the winMt maxim that i-ver wa* made. 

My rellof, at the time, hardly ciurtlled my Bur- 
prise. Hut connidcrinfi that Mr« Steldl nnd 
Mm. fCnim had never quarrelled— coiwidoring 
itiat Ihcy had met again— condidering what sort 
of young people their son and their daughter 
were-I m,i.t own that I wa* un oflH to feel «nr. 
priKcd on learning of (he marriage of Lieiitenimt 
Sieldl to I-iiciK Bridgila O'Birn. The history of 
iho Montagues and the CiipuIeU docs not Ktand 
alone in the ofTect of the feuds of the old upon 
the heart, of the voung. But thU l9 no part of 
my Btory. Enniiirli tlinl <hnm« became his. 
whih^ hlH ri'tii iMi> I Li ouii i'mI therefore her 

■ the 

I, , II iliingH ooniforta- 
II <l irrcconeilnbic 
.- , , i..L-iime happy in 
\,i\, -iiii il itii- Court via» d«- 
', mtkI tlic profession of the 
I of Miii!) Molloy— well, the 
nwn, I profess only to tell 
VI' ilii> niyntery of Miss MoU 
l.U- Will." 


, celebrated in 
i;;i'tlier with the 
■[■ted from a re- 

,. ,.r <';,,-i.t Sol 

Il I 1^ auolinmp, Ileacham ; Du- 

iIm .< I lirdiiinc should be Beeton ; 

i;. i.'ii. ni, 1.1^ III ; Uuthvcn, lliven. lu Elgin 
iiiid ililioi iIkw/V himl; in UifTord it is soft. 

The cost of the Chinese course at Harvard 
amounted last year to 14,082. IB, and fees re- 
ceived were in all «30. 

The lime of allcndaiic^ at school for more 
than fifty per cent, of the pupils in the United 
Attica i« leas than throe ycnrs. 

There are now 11. Ji:: I,-.! .ii tiu^~ in the 
Slate of Ne« York. "1^. ■ l. - tlinn 

1,641,173, and the number of jiupils during some 

part of the year was l.OSl.flOa, Tlio average 

daily attendance per teacher rant;<'d fnun :!o lo 

48. The whole number of tnifli< i~ >i i ''■'■! 

males and 22,78* females, mnk ill. 

730, The amonnt of teachers' - :. 

638,921, and the average salnrv >- > - ■ in' 

actual expense of maintaining ili>' • <i<oii 

schools durin" the year was f 10,2aii,y;;.— 
New England Journai of fSdutatian. 

The National Educational Aaiooiation is to be 
held at Atlanta, Qa., July 19, SO, and 21, l»»\. 

Ninety-nine ott of every hundred Xorlhemers, 
will say inetiloot instead of institute, dooty for 
duty— ^ perfect rhyme to beauty. They will 
call new and newa, noo and nix»— and so on 
through the dottos and hundreds of similar 
words. Not a dictionary in the Rug[ish Inn- 
guage authoriies this. In student and stupid, the 

this notice.- -Vw York Weekly /trriftt. 

The Miniiiter of Public Instruction in France 
ha.4 ordered Mr Herbert Spencer's work on Edu- 
cation Ut be prinU-d and distributed gratuitottsly 
tbmughout the Republie. 

The Public library of Cincinnati cost $M,927.- 
2fi during the past year, but the information 
gained from three books in it. which could not 
be found elsewhere at the time, saved the city at 
least tSS.AtM^ a year for the next ten years on 
iu contract with the ga-i company. — We*tern 
Kdumti'tJUMl Journal. 

1 1her 

A Catholic college now slondi 
ancient Carthage.— JVbfrc Dnmf Seholastfr. 

One of the county teachers said that he 
had but one visit from a school officer during 
two years' teaching, and that w.-w for the pur- 
pose' of pntting up B fttovc—Jjutustrialtst. 

One of the school commissioners of the Slate 
of Kentucky .says: "lam of the opinion that 
the people of this country, bh a whole, are now 
making greater efforls to raise pigs than to edn- 

the people poy in support of the common 

The University of Berlin during this winter 
has more than ■1,000 studcnU, the largest num- 
ber ever reached by ony (Jerman univei^ity. — 
Tenrher'K Gunh. 

111. ^ ,. iI.nI u > .1 rli,> iincient iages of Egypt 
ill 1< < I I kiinwn tous from thehiero 

^h|.i ■■■■A' about 68II words. A I ,. .'. : f -ildom uses more than 

i\ni,l- in actual 

T.-«ciier: "John, what are your lK>ots made 
of?" Bov: "Of leather.'' *• Where does the 
leather come from?" "From the bide of the 
ox." "What animal, therefore, supplies you 
with boots and gives you meal to eat ?" "My 
father."- Grt/wton New*. 

"What is the woist thing about riches?" ask- 
ed the Sunday-school Superiotcndcnt. And the 
new boy said. " Not having any." 

Burglary sometimes hide under the bed, but 
the New York NeiP* has seen a cow-hide in a 

Teacher: "Feminine of friar?" First bright 
boy: "Hasn't any." Teacher: "Next." Sec- 
ond briglit bov: '"Xun." Teacher: "That's 

fe turned into a pillar of salt?" There 
was a pau.'»e, and then a small boy with a preter- 
natural growth of head piped out: "I s'pose it 
was beeauHc she was too frcab." 

" You will observe," said the ho-it, as he show 
cd a visitor through the house — "you will ob- 
serve that we have two halls." " Yes," said the 
guest — ho was a book-keeper — " I am glad to sec 
you live on the double-entry plan." 

A boy in one of our public schools, having 
been told that a reptile "ia an animal that 
creeps,"on being nskcd the name of one, prompt- 
ly replied, "A baby." 

An old fellow whose daughter had failed to 
secure a position as teacher, in consequence of 
not passing an examination, said: "They asked 
her lots of things she didn't know. Look at the 
history questions! They asked her about things 
that happened before she wna born! How wsg 

Men Of Many Millions. 

The above cut isTphoto-cngraved from a specimen flourished by Geo. J. Amidon, Teacher of wri 
ing at Carter's Commercial College, Pittsfield Mass. Mr. Amidon is a former pupil of Plott R. Spenct 
of Cleveland, Ohio. He is a pen artitit of considerable skill, and is a popular and successful teacher. 

If it is a vulgarisi 
all admit— isn't it a 
\ rtewspaper i 

until they find a word that exactly fits their 
i[ioiiiiin<;, emplov a latter stock; and eloquent 
-I- ,1,1^ iu;>y rise to a command of 10.000. 
-!, i[. ;■ in ]iri)duced all his plays with about 15,- 
< M I 11 . works are built up with 8,000; and 
:[.. !>: ; 1< -tiiment says all it has to say with 
:,,i.ii \-. :■! <h.—Stutlfn'VH Journal. 

John Har\'ard, tha founder of Harvard Col- 
lege, was an Englishman, concerning whom very 
little is known beyond the fact that be died near 
tl.ision in September, 163S, leaving by his will 
t'fOOtofoundacollegc. A reward wa.-* once vainly 
ilVored of $100 a line for five lines of authentic 
lulVirmation about him. A monument was raised 
111 his memory, in the Chorlcstown burial-ground, 
two centuries after his death, and Edward 
Everett made an address on the occasion. — Nruf 
England Journal of Edueation. 

the habit of sounding 

I to call a door a doah — as we 
. much of a vulgarism to call 
ispaper? t>ne vulgarism is 
Northern and the other Southern, that's the only 
difference^ When the London Punfh wishes 
buriesque the pronunciation of servants, 
makes them call the duke the dook. the tutor 
tootar, and a tube a toob. You never find the 
best Northern speakers, such a* Wendell Phil- 
lips, tteorge William Curtis, Emerson. Holmes, 
and men of that clas^ saying noo for new, Toos- 
day for Tuwdav. avenoo for avenue, or calling a 
dupe a doop. 
never falls into 
kind but he dosen't slip o 

The genrl adopshn of fonetie spelin wud nok 
Josh Billings him a kite. — Saturday Night. 

The advantages of spelling reform. — When re- 
form spelling becomes universal, a dime novel 
hero can write, " I kum of a prowd and holly 
rase," without giving himself dead away as re- 
gards his early education. — .V. O. Picayune. 

" Tommy, my son, what is longitude •" " A 
clothes-line, papa." " Prove it, my son," " Be- 
cause it stretches from pole to pole." 

Pupil : " I know how many days there are in a 
year — three hundred and sixty.five and a fourth." 
Parent: " Is that so? Where does that fourth 
come in ?" Pupil : " Fourth of Julx."—Ronw 

A Professor of French in an Albany school 
recently asked a pupil what was the gendrr of 
ai-ademy. The unusually bright pupil responded 
that it depended on whether it was a male or fe- 
male academy. 

Prof : '• Which is the most delicate of the 
senses?" Soph. : "The touch." Prof.: "Pn^ve 
it." Soph. : " When you sit on a pin. you can't 
•ee it — you can't hear it — you can't taste it — you 
can't smell it ; bnv if* Viere."~Sx. 

she going to know about them ? Why, they ask- 
ed her about old George Washington and other 
men she never knew. That was a pretty sort of 
1 1" — Boaton AdTter^str. 

A geographv rer 

itatinn in Nevsdn 

interesting, .I'f m 

.num.- n -.•lini.l lin\ 

up and griiv.'K i ii ' 

1,,- ..11 ;l,. (,,li,.i.iii._ 

Committee nl i' i 

, . 1 . ,, . 

milk Canyon i -i 

1 . . ■ y. 

from K'ii^ 

on the road K-mlint; from Limbiirger to Wlioop- 
'em-up. by the way of Bell-town. Lay-" 
and Hungry, and just over the inountait 
Bung-eye and Knock-'em-atifF." 

■ "William, you have again come up unprepar- 
ed !" "Yes, sir." "But from what cause?" 
"Laziness, sir." "Johnsoti, give William a good 
mark for uprightness. Bates, you proceed." " I 
have not prepared, too. sir." *' But why not ?" 
"From laitiness, sir." " Johnson, give Bates a 
bad mark for plaginrism." — Notre Dame Sc/wt 

"What did the Puritons come to this country 
for?" asked a Massachusetts teacher of his 
"To worship in their own way and make other 
people do the same," was the reply. 

Student under examination in physics: "What 
planeu were known to the ancienU?" 'MVcll, 
sir, there were Venus and Jupiter, and" — after a 
pause — "I think the earth, but I'm not quite 
certain."— The PnHfoUo. 

Our ancestors, the monkeys, were not so igno- 
rant, after alL They were all educated in the 
higher branches. — Vidette. 

How to Bemit Money. 
The best and safest way i« by posl-offiee order, 
or a bank draft on New York, next by re^ster* 
ed leitt-r. For fractional parts of a dollar, send 
postage stamps. Do not send personal 
checks, especially for email surae, or Cana> 
dian postage stamps. 

We occasionally read interesting accounts oi 
the wealth and Vxlravaganl expenditures of 
our railway kings, bonanxa kings and other 
flnaocial kings. There is a certain fascina- 
tion in these descriptions of immense posessions 
and the personal charactcrictics and habits of 
those who control them. That Vandcrbilt pays 
a small fortune for a picture, that Mrs. Astor 
wears diamonds worth $200,000 and that Mrs. 
Mackev gives a dinner at a ca^t of $2.V0O0 are 
facts which to the popular mind have a peculiar 
charm. And undoubtedly there is an impres- 
sion in some quarters that the amassing of enor- 
mous wealth and the attendant extravagances 
are things of comparatively modern growtl). 
How far this impression is from the truth may 
be seen by a glance at history, which in this 
respect is really comforting to us poor devils 
of the present day. Pythc-s, or Pythius, (he 

Lydian lord of Cela?nir, was worth *l''..inii»,i 

Cyrus returned from the conquest "l" .\>in "iih 
$BO0,O00,00O. Darius, during his rriizn, tm.i 
an income of *H.MiO,ooo u your. Tli- vniivo 
offerings of t'rn>-ii !■ iln P. ' ; i m 'jint iinunint. 

edto$4,000.i V! i. :M^^ moil eoM 

$1,700. He | . .1 ! 1 III- soMlcrs, 

amounting to ,ii i ■ ; -' "". "nd made 

a present of f 2...iin,umi u. ilt. Thessnlians. 
The obsequies of HcplKC^lioii nro said to have 
cost $1,500,000. Aristotle's investigations in 
naturni history involved an expense of $1,000,- 
000. Alexander left behind him a treojiure of 
$50,000,000. The wealth of his satraps was 
extroordinary. One of them, Harpiilus, accu- 
nmlated $5,000,000. A festival of Ptolemy 
Philadelphue cost not less than $2,239,000. 
The treasure of this king amounted to $87fl,000,- 
000. There was immense wealth among (he 
Romans. The landed estate of Crassus was 
valued nl $«.500,O00, and his hou.'<cat $400,000. 
Cfficillus Isidorus lost much, still left $(s.23B,000. 
Demetrius, a freedmon of Pompey, »ns north 
$4,000,000. Lentulus, the augur, possc^^ed no 
less than $17,000,000. Clodius paid $t)10,n(in 
for his house, ond he once swallowed n pearl 
worth $40,000. Antony squandered altogether 
$735,000,000. Tiberius left at his deolh 
$118,120,000 and Caligula s|»cut it all in less 
than a year. The extravagant Caligula paid 
$150,000 for one supper. Speaking of suppers, 
one meal cost Hellogabalus $100,000, nnd the 
mppers of Lucullua at the Apollo cost $s.330. 
I'egellus. a singer, could and did spend $40,000 
in five dnys. Seneca had a fortune of $17,500,- 
liiil. Ajiicins was worth about $5,000,000, 
arri iilh'i' he hud Spent in his kitchen and 
<iiliir»i-i- -quiindered sums to the amount of 
?'l,l(i6.<'**i), he poisoned himself, leaving a few 
htmdfpd thousands. 

Tacitus informs us that Nero gave away in 
presents K. his friends $97,500,000. The dres- 
ses of Lolliu Paulina, the rivnl of Agrippina, 
were valued at $1,664,4^0. Tliis did not in- 
elude her jewels. She wore ut one supper 

$200,000,000. The luxury of Pappie, beloved 
by Nero, was at least equal to that of LoUia, 
Pallas, the lover of Agrippina, left an estate in 
lands valued at $15,000,000 and this was only 
a small part of his immense fortune. The villn 
waa burned by his slaves out of revenge for 
Borne iiuury. — Cincinnati Star. 

How They Wrote. 

May Croly, in Dpmort»l'» Magatine for 
April, describes tlie handwriting of eminent men 
and women, The writing of Sir David WllkJe, 
the Scotch painter, was fine and pointed. Beetho- 
ven wrote a hurried, carelens and cciiifu»>ed hand. 
Haydn's writing was very small, but neat and 
clear. J. S. Bach wrote with evident didioiilty. 
Mozart's writing wo-a en>.v .md ^;riir. ful Han- 
del's was large and heavy T, . ' m i i. .ilpt U 
like a copper plate ; nil II i i , do 

facing of any kind. I" ■ ith 

scratched- out words anil ■ Iin- 

nyson's writing is small mil ■.l^. li' -ii-.. Mar.iu- 
lay's is small but forcible and drri.l. d Ki.he- 
lieu wrote a flowing, pointed band. NapoleonVs 
was rather indistinct, his letters being hurriedly 
formed. Sir Philip Sydney wrote a very stilted, 
stifT hand. Shakspeare's handwriting U i*trng- 
gly and uncertain. Robert Bum!- winte a finn, 
sturdy hand. Dickens wrote with numeroufi 
flourishc*. especially under his name, whiih he 
decorated with a scries of erratic maiks. Catha- 
rine of Ru-fsift wrote in a masnivc nay. Tha 
writing of Queen Elizabeth was very beautiful. 
Rachel, the great tragic actress, wrote a clear, 
rapid band. The writing of Charlotte Bronte 
was distinguished for its extreme minuteness — 
AlUqhenv Teacher 

Mrs. Hayes having desired to keep some re- 
cord of the entertainments at the White House, 
committed the Usk to Mr. 0. L. Prudden, the 
President's Rssistant secretary, bd-I a skillful 
worker with pen and brush. He bought a large, 
hand.4ome and thick-leaved blank album. In 
this, with appropriate points and penmanship 
for erabellifhment, Ls recorded every thing in the 
social way occuring at the White House during 
the last four years ; fancy and costly monngrnnifl 
finish each pace. If a dinner took there is 
a diagram of the tabic, with a reeord of who the 
guests were and where they sat; if a reception, 
there are the usual embellishments, with a list of 
the most prominent people who were there: tl'o, 
who received with the President and Mr» Hayeo, 
and who mnde the introductions. The date of 
each event is worked in the monogram on each 


Thirty Ea»y Lessons in English Gra 

nbllkfacd nonttalf 


SI. per Vear. 

single oople* o 


Single Insertion '25 wnW per lino nonpiuwU 

I Colanm faeoO $M 00 SIOO DO |180 i 

S, •■ 13 76 25 00 66 00 8- < 

'4 ■' 7 SO 15 00 86 00 Is I 

I inch (1311n«) 3 76 6 00 R 60 15 I 

Ad^-erUMiuenta for one and three months payable j 
ftdruice : for nix monthn and one ;e«u-, payable quart« 

Awkdlog Toattor, 60 rauta per line. 

MREitAi ImcFjem. 

W« hope to render the Jodbxal eufBdently lnt<>ref<{ 
ing and attrnctlvo. to noriiK) not only tha patronage c 
alt those who are lQ(«roeted In oklllful writing or teocb 

pondontff and aaoot«, yot knowing that tho laborer 1 
worthy of bin hms, wa ofTor the foUowiug 


To every new Rubin1bc<r, or renewal, onclotlngfl.Oi 


• tlic 

nu personal 
.„!,. by viTj 
I been a fre- 

CongdoD'a Nonni 

SpccUnoQ Sboeta of Engroaalng, c 

Oentennlal plot 


for f B. 

For twelve Hubociiptinnji and H'i we wlU send 
of " AiDBs' Compendium of Omumental Pcaiuni 

rd'a Ocinn of Ponmuubip." 

TO eiUBS. 

without BPEcui. premium to the eeuder, wo wl 
o each fiubBcriboT, &a foUowB : 

1 76 I iBcoplce 

11 pay oqunlly Uberal c 

^vlng epM 

u appUcal 

■iilnni glvlDg special 1 

promply attended to by the 

n Bouverie St- (Fleet St.) 

London. England, 


The King Club 
For Lhis mc.iilh i-omcs from L. Asire, Miiiiieapo- 
lie, Minn., auil numbers /or^-o7te names. Mr. 
Asiid sayo he is pioapering; we alimild know 
that, for the teacher who sends Ibrty-ono sub- 
Hcribere to the Joubnal from one class must not 
only have numerous patrons hut he must have 
secured their respect and confidence by giving 
good instruetion and by fair dealing; some 
teachers write us that they cannot get their pu- 
pils interested iu the Jodrsal; in eueh cases 
wc always doubt if they interest their pupils in 
their own teaching. Mr. Asire is not only an ac- 
complished writer, bu* evidently a succeasful 

The second largest club comes from B. V. Ni- 
hart, of the Atchison (Kan.) Institute, and num- 
bers ttPrnty-figM. The third, numbering twen- 
ttf-six, eomed from V. R. Cleary, Carson City, 
Mich. The Brothers of St. Joseph's School. 
of this city sends a club of twenty. A club 
of nineU-en comes from L. L. Tucker 
Providence, R. I. J. W. Poucher, of Iowa] 
Mich., studs a club of eighteen, c, E. 
Cirhart. Associate Principal of Folsom's (Albany. 
N. Y.) Business College, sends a club of B^veii 
(■een. L. E. Kimball, Lowell, Mass , puts in his 
monthlyappearance with a chib of fifteen. Less- 
er clubs have been too numerous to mention but 
lo each of th« senders we return our thanks, and 
hope that they will all try and send the Kirig 


Ofliing to the unusual pressure upon our time 
by Ihe Whittaker investigation and other cases 
of questionable handwriting in courts, we have 
been compelled to d^lay the present number 
of the Journal ncariy a week beyond the cus- 

ness College, at Washington, D. C, we were 
greatly intere.tled in a recitation in English Gram- 
mar conducted by Mrs. S. J. Spencer, I'pon 
inquiring into her plan and method of teaching 
grammar, wc were presented with a small work 
of fif^y pages, bearing the above title, of which 
Mrs. Spencer is the author. After a careful ex- 
amination wc have found it to be a work of un- 
usual merit, and one peculiarly adapted as 
clvi-book for basiness colleges, or by any tcache 
wishing lo give a short and comprehensive cours 
of instruction in grammar or punctuation. Al 
though the work was designed for special use ii 
I that college, copies will be mailed to any ad 
dreaa for 40 cents., inclosed to Mrs. S. J. Spen 
ccr. Spencerian Business College, Washington 

Which was Which. 
Henry C. and Harvey A. Spencer, of Washing- 
ton, D. C, arc Iwiii brothers, and so closely re- 
semble each other in their looks 
appearance as lo be distinguished 
intimate acquaintances. Henry h£ 
qiient visitor at, and is well-known to all the at- 
taches of our office. Harvey having been South 
for several years, was entirely unknown to any 
of them ; recently the two visited New York, 
and of course, as all good penmen do, honored 
our sanctum with a call. By pre-arrangement 
Harvey, (having been posted regarding names, 
persons, &c.,) entered a few momenta in ad- 
vance, greeting all af^er the genial and graceful 
manner of his well-known brother, and was in 
turn re<'cived with all the warmth and famili- 
arity of an old acquaintance; presently in comes 
Henry. Our readers may imagine, but we nmst be 
excused from any attempt at describing, the pe- 
culiar visages and exclamations which greeted 

Is He a Fraud P 

If not, let him rise and explain. On the 27th 
day of October last, we received a letter from G. 
R. Santiago, Jackson, Miss., slating that he was 
getting up a club of subscribers for the Jouhnal, 
and inclosing a list of names to which he wished 
ipecimen copies of the Journal to be mailed-, to- 
aid him in getting subscriptions ; since which we 
hav« received no communication from Mr. San- 
tiago. But 03 the 6th ult.. we received a letter 
from Mr. R. H. Washington, of Jackson, Miss., 
stating that ho, with several others, paid Mr. 
Santiago the r subscriptions for the JornxAL, 
and have never received any but a sample copy. 
We scarcely need to caution the public to be 
upon their guard when Mr. Santiago is around. 

We shall not hesitate to give .«uch worthies a 

In a few instances postal cards have been 
mailed to subscribers giving notice of the expi- 
ration of their subscripiion after it had been re- 
newed; the mistake occurred only where sub- 
scriptions were renewed in advance of their expi- 
ration, in which case the name was entered upon 
a new register, this fact being overlooked by the 
clerk, having charge of the old register, tne cus- 
tomary notice was mailed at the expiration of 
the subscription. 

Value of Otir Premiums. 

To any admirer of fine artistic penmanship, 
or any one desiring attractive and appropriate 
panor or school-room pictures, each premium 
which we offer free to every subscriber, is fully 
worth the price of the Journal for a year, while 
we believe that the Journal will many times 
repay the dollar it costs to any one aspiring to 
the attainment of good practical or fine artistic 

According to the Pall Mall QaeetU, the whole 
body of English readers for the press is up in 
arms against authors and their ille^ble manu- 
scrips. The war was begun by the authi 
"A Sailor's Sweetheart," who shifted the ei 
blame of the critics for blunders and contradic- 
in his last book upon the compositors and 
publishers' readers. The readers are not con- 
ent with having extorted something like an 
apology from Mr. Clark. They clamor for a 
reproduction of the illegible words and phrases 
which they are expected to decipher, and their 
urgency has induced ihe editor of the Printing 
Times to promise that he will issue a fac-simile 
page of caligraphic enigmas taken from manu- 
scripts sent to the press. From the days of Tom 
Moore, with his jest on the newly blown noses, 
which were substituted for the poetic reference 
to the newly blown roses, until 1H81 the race 

I. S. Preston 
ng at Elraira, N. Y 
E. K. Christ is teaching 

teaching large classes in writ- 
thc public 

schools of New Britain 

C. R. Runnells, with the house of John V. 
Farwell 4 Co., Chicago, is an accomplished busi- 

C. 0, Sutton is teaching writing at the N. J, 
Business College, Newark, N. J. Mr. Sutton is 
an accomplished writer. 

Thos. Powers, who recently sold his Business 
College at Fort Wayne, Ind,, is about to estab- 
lish another at Lafayette, Ind, 

The Rochester (N. Y.) Business University, 
conducted by L. L. Williams, is about to occupy 
new and commodious rooms cor. Main m " " 
ket sir 

. bear 


Send $1.00 Bills. 
We wish our patrons to bear in mind that we 
do not desire posUge stjimps in payment for 
subscriptions, and that they should be sent only 
for fractional parts of a dollar. A dollar bill is 
much more convenient and safe to remit than 
the same amount in 1, 2 or 3 cent stamps. 
The actual risk of remitting money is slight— if 
properly directed not one miscarriage will occur 
in five hundred. Inclose the hills. — and where 
letters containing money are sealed in presence 
of the post-master we will assume all the risk. 

Special Kates to Clubs. 

To favor teachers and pupils in schools where 

numerous copies of the JornNAL are desired 

wc olTcr to mail it one year on the following very 

favorable terms : 

2«>Plw »1.75' 16 coplM $825 

J copies .. 2.25 1 V6 copies . . i-> bo 

* coplee a. 00 I 60 copies . aii'fio 

5 copie* a.BO I too copies... . 4000 

1" "Plw G.00| 150 copies 

To each subscriber will be mailed, as a pre- 
mium, with the first copy of the Joprnai,, as 
they may designate, cither the "Bounding Stag," 
24x32, the "Flourished Eagle," 24x32. the 
"Lord's Prayer," 10x32, or the "Picture of 
Progress," 22x28. For 60 cents extra all four 
of the premums will be sent. These piemiums 
were all originally executed with a pen, and are 
among the masterpieces of pen art. Either of 
them, to an admirer of skillful penmanship, is 
worth the entire cost of a year's subscription. 

Extra Copies of the Journal. 
will be sent free to teachers and others who de- 
sire to make an effort to secure a club of sub- 

Book Notice. 
We have before us a 12 mo. 450 pa^e work, 
entitled, " A graduating system for country 
Bchools," by Alex. L. Wade, County Superinten- 
dent, Mprgantown, W. Va. The admirable plan 
set forth, and the many useful and practical hints 
offered in this work for conducting a country 
;chool, renders it one of the most serviceable 
Forks yet published upon that subject It is alike 
iractical in the course of instruction advocated, 
nd in the modes for conducting and disciplining 
a school. If we mistake not, the work will meet 
with a wide circulation, certainly it should be 
in the hands of every public school teacher in 
the land, and for them it will be a good invest- 
ment of #1.50, for which sum it will be mailed by 
the author. Ales. L. Wade.Morgantown.W. \'a. 

Exchange Items, 

The Book-keepn-, published by Selden R. 
Hopkins, 76 Chamber street. New York., semi- 
monthly at 82.00 per year, is a periodical of 
great interest, and practical value to every ac- 
and especially so to teachers of book- 
Its editor, Mr. Hopkins, is u practical 
and author, and treats in an able and 
comprehensive manner, not. only the science of 
accounts but all topics baaring upon the subject. 
In its problem department all manner of book- 
keeping subjects are discussed and questions 
answered, thus affording a ready and cheap 
meann for accountants and teachers to obtain 
light upon what may to them be intricate and 
dark problems. We feel assured that to every 
accountant, teacher, or pupil of book-keeping 
the Book-keeper will be a good investment of 

The Northern Indutna SchixH Journal, edi- 
ted by H. B. Brown and C. W. Boucher, Valpa- 
raiso, Ind., is an interesting educational maga- 
zine of 48 pages, mailed one year for $1.10. 

The Book-keeper and Penman, published 
monthly by J. F. Davis, Altoona, Pa., is a four 
page paper devoted to writing and book-keep- 
ing, is got up in a creditable manner and is mail, 
ed one year for JLOO. Specimen copies 10 

The Souvenir mul College Tell-tale, published 
' Packard's Business College is received, and, 
like every thing that comes from Packard's, 
the beat of its kind, chock-full of solid 
at. It will be interesting to any one, espe 
lly BO to all interested in business education, 
nay be had without money and without price 
sending to S. S. Packard, 805 Broadway, 
w York. 

■ Main and Mar- 

J. A. Mitchell is teaching the Payson, Dunton 
& Scribner's system of writing in the public 
schools of Quiney, HI. Mr. Mitchell is an ele- 
gant writer. 

W. H. Sefler is teaching writing classes in 
KnowUsville and neighboring towns in Orieans 
Co., N. Y. He is favorably mentioned by those 
who are familiar with his work. 

if writing 

pupil iiiakini,' the 

H. H, Miller has just closed a 

ssons in the High School at Ottawa, HI. 

!ar as a prize to the 

Messrs. Howe & Powers, proprietors of the 
Metropolitan Business College, Chicago, have re- 
moved to elegant and commodious rooms, Nos. 
77 and 79 Madison street. They are a live and 
prosperous firm. Success to them. Mr. Pow- 
ers is also the publisher of the Complete Ac- 
countant, advertised in another column. 

Mr. Swayze, special teacher of writing in the 
public schools of Belleville, Ontario, is highly 
complimented by the press, and, judging from a 
package of writing sent to this office written by 
primary pupils under his tuition, the compli- 
ments are well deserved. Mr. Swayze is an ac- 
complished writer as well as a populnr teacher. 

We are in receipt of several fine specimens of 
ishing executed with Alling's Japan and 

fancy inks ; ulso 

nb fin 

■al hi, 

uttering testi- 
hii have used 

• ' Arldress 

During a rei;cul visit to Washiugton, D. C, 
we had the pleasure of inspecting several well 
executed and highly artistic specimens of en- 
grossing, by J. W. Swank, who is the skilled 
penman of the U. S. Treasury. We are also in- 
debted to Mr. Swank for his courteous escort 
through the various departments of Uncle Sam's 
vast Treasure House. Mr. Swiink promises to 
favor thereadeis of the JorKNAL with occasional 
notes from the capital. We shall hope for the 
first installment in our next. 

S. G. Snell, Webb's Mills, Me., incloses an at- 
tractive specimen of flourishing. 

0. C. Burness, Albert Lee, Minn., writes an ele- 
gant business letter with no pretensions. 

A. G. Ward, teacher of writing. Union Grove 
Iowa, sends a creditable specimen of writing' 
and flourishing. 

A graceful and artistic specimen of flourish- 
ing comes from W. G. Hussey, of the Dirigo 
Business College, Augusta, Me. 

.\n ornamental design and several specimens 
of plain and fancy cards have been received 
from A. H. Steadman.Freeport, Ohio. 

W. A. Taylor, Vienna, Oliio, incloses an ar- 
tistic specimen of flourishing and drawing, and 
also several creditable specimens of card writ- 

M. B. Moor, Morgan, Ky., writes a very hand- 
some letter, in which he incloses several well ex- 
ecuted bird designs, also handsomely written 

'., incloses 

Bp^-'-i ■■ 

H ^' I- " 'he Canada Southern 

Rail«;n n. .. >,(i,, Hnibilo. \. Y., Writes a 
bandsomc letter in wliiih he incloses sevtral 
slips of good business writing. 

('. N. Crandle, teacher of \ 
schools of Valparaiso, Ind.. incloses , 
sive variety of very tastefully written cards and 
a creditable specimen of ofT-hand flourishing. 

Among the most elegant specimens of episto- 
lary writing received during the past month is a 
letter from M. J. Goldsmith, teacher of writing 
at Moore's Business University. Atlanta, Georgia. 

Among the most graceful and finished speci- 
mens of practical writing received during the 

1 the public 

R. W. robh, IVniuAn •! the SpmcMiao Bum- 
'>*-*• ^'olIi-Kc Clrrelaor), Ohio. indoAM in an eli^ 
ffstilly written Iftt^YMrrent nupf^rior i^pvdnicnfi 
of mH writjiift ""' ■" •rtialic ■pecimtm of off- 
hand flouriihing. 

One of the mo«t clegsnilj written Iclten re- 
*vtWc-J <lurinK the piut motitb can.*- from W. H. 
I'atrick. Uachrr of penmannhrp in Hadlcr*)) B«I- 

P. R. Cletty, t^non atr, Mieh., 
htncj-omr letter in which he inc1oiic« a 
Kpcrjinen of floiirithlriKantl & rhih of t 
tubwriiicm to ihr JorftKAi,. Mr. < 
hijthly &>tap]\mfnU-6 by the pri'.it a- 

■aful I 


A Dispute Botwoen the Pen and the 

(Tn»i.-Ull')n from tlin Ptnncli of Barnn <\o Sai-y, for the 

In reading the aptirle in a late number of the 
JoiRHAt. pniitlcd, "U plume ««t phis ptuManto 
ijuf I.'ep(!r,"— "The pen Is mightier than the 
p-wcrii," J woB rpmindcd of the following /»blc Of 
French hlitor;. 

Many yeant ago a dfnputc arone berwopii the 
King's minister* who wore hi* necrutaritw for the 
eieeutlon of hi» will, and the general* who com- 
mandid hig vaxt armieH. 

Tlie kiiighli* of the tiiiill mid : ■' Eloriui 
iiiir province. Wc are the heroes of deliberation 
iind (■(lunHel. 

'■ Tlie omelcn of prudence proceed from 
nifnith ; l( l» by them that wo b«vo established 
the foiindritions of the empire ; they arc the 
banito by which itn frame iB hehl together. 

"Our hand \ivUh the pen. that precioim in- 
Mtnnnent, whose jiower nothing can renist; which 
\»iut down llic mighty, and gives nnderptanding 
lo llie «implu; lliongh its form be flmall, and 
wfiik, [in<t inp-i^niHiciiiit, yd the bmve, who have 
.lnn»ii llu- ^word. jii. ...n.|.cll(>d ro rL-tre«t before 
rl. Il liriiifiB ii> iiothii)': iiriiiccs intoxieatcd with 
llifir grratneu." 

Then, taking up the pen, ihoy added : " Vcfl. 
we arc the steady mipports of glorv. 

"The pen in our hand la the omanienl of iho 
diadem. W(!h us is the dSatributlou of houon.; 
wc triiniple the slars of heaven under our feeu 
Tliey who handle the sword are but our vassaU; 
our pen penelmt«>« their hearts without resist- 

Hy this time the chief of the armies had be- 
eoine very indignant nl the seeming oudacityand 
■ borabrtsily of tlie advocates of the poetic lyre, 
and fltriiltlug to and fro with nil the conceit of 
an average military pauper, ho answered : 

" What it that you say f Are not we the lions 
<ii;,warf tho lirave of dauntless courage* We 
poui Iho Dame of battle through the shock of 
nrniiei. ; and the terroni wc inspire lay the lands 
dc-olate niid solitary; the people who inhabit 
ilieni ipiit their home* broken hearted ; children 
abandon their pan-iit,* to escape our furv. 

"To us alone belongs the sword, which, with- 
out a tongue, Bpcaks'powerfully and Irresistibly, 
and without sight, penetrates all things. 

"In itM luijictuous course, like the torrent of 
Kishon, il sweeps away all opposition. When 
the supporu of royally meet iu tho praaeoce of 
the Most High, it is exalted above Ihem all; for 
it is the crown of kings, tho diadem of the Lord's 
anointed ; il watches over the sofely of those 
who use it, and the viotinis of its vcngeuiec are 
•wept away at the sand of the beaeh." 

Now both panic* having said their "little 
^peecb," and each being c^oilstio enough, as is 
usually the case, to think that he had " hiid il 
over" the other, the Snonl and Ten prayed thai 
they might be allowed lo defend theii respective 
claima. The rc(iue«tt wu gmnted.and the SwonJ 
proccodeii ; " It is I who inspire strength and 
courage in my bcroM. It i« of me that the vul- 
turw and the young lions expect their food; 
whilst I exist, they will suffer neither hunger nor 
ihiwt ; for I feed thwa with the flesh of the 
ntighly, and make them dnuik with the blood of 
the brave. 

" How darv« the weak 1' 

pnmis and frame an answer. <o that «hft> hr-r 
time came she replied in the following elegant. 
easy and If^'cal style: 

" For once Truth hath escaped thy tips. Thou 
ha<it deilared the thing as it is. Yes, it is thou 
who sbeddest blood ; thou art known by thyvio- 
lenee oad cruelly. 

" Alas ! what blood hast thou poured forth '. 
Row many innocents hag thou maoMcred ! 

'■ From the day thy exislence began, thou ha»t 
not cwed lo depopulate the earth; to fill all 
places with the bodies of the slain ; to tear the 
infant from the of its molber. 

•' If thou boost thy strength against me, know 
thai it is not in atrenglh that my power cou- 
sinlf, but in the spirit that animates me. 

"With what face canst thou compare with 
me ? I am of pure and blameless life ; a sojour- 
ner in palaces as well aa tents ; but thou art a 
vagabond tramp of the desert, whose whole coa- 
diicl is a tiBSue of crimes, rapacity, and murder 
too vile for contemplation. 

" Thou hast no abode but among ragged 
mounuins, rocks, the habitation of the chamois 
and conies, the cavemcd channel of the torrent, 
and the gloom of ancient foresu. 

"Whoever sees thee speeds his (light. On the 
contrary, my presence otcosions joy, and my so- 
ciety inspires confidence. 

lunihon-d wjih the mire of the slough of la/ines-o, 
and be has not even the energy to shake it off* 
so be makes a sorry shift of life, and comes lo 
the end of it a wreck of wasted opporinnity. 

Especially in art the young man needs early 
to 6x bis standard. " Art is long, and time is 
fleeting." savs the poet; and one cannot decido 
loo promptly, if he intends lo he nn artist, what 
particular kind of esthetic work he ought to do, 
and how he ought to set about it. Oughtnm 
is the lever which bos lifted many an honest 
young aspirant to the highest honors of his pro- 

The art of peumanihip, everybody knowi^. is 
not acquired in a doy. A young man may decide 
to be a penman, but that doesn't make him one. 
There is work ahead, and plenty of it, before he 
can lay claim to the title of artUt penman. 
He must fix hi-i standard, and then elimh up to 
it. Suppose, now, that he doesn't think it ne- 
cessary to be BO precisely definite in his aim. 
He thinks it well enough, especially if the neces- 
sity for bread does not slare him in the face, to have 
a sort of floating purpose to make his murk on 
the scroll of time with the pen, some doy, and 
meanwhile he will take a step in the direction of 
success every time he fiuds it convenient. Per- 
haps he takes lessons intermittently, and prac- 
tises when he hasn't anything else to do. At 

Penxaanshi p . 

It is a fact, conceded by all. thai an education 
is not complete without good writing. How often 
wc hear it expressed "that penmanship is an 
art," and only those who have that " special 
gift" can become good writers; this is an absutd 
idea. Does the lawyer, doctor, merchant, or 
even a farmer, need a " special gift" to enable 
him lo succeed * No. it is study and practice. 
If so in other professions why not in penman- 
shipy Prmctice, without study, is almost worth- 
le=is in any profession ; the two must be used 
together to insure success. It is an old saying 
that " practice makes perfect," but this is not 
true if it implies only practice; a pupil may prac- 
tice and every succeeding line bo worse than iu 
predecessors, but with careful study it is iinpos- 
sible. A successful teacher will always set the 
brains of his pupils to work before he does their 
fingers, he will direct his first efforts to awaken 
thought. Every copy should be earefhUy ana- 
lyzed before being practised by the pupil ; let il 
become so fnmibur to the pupil that the correct 
forms and construction of the letters will bo en- 
graven on his mind so thoroughly that he will 
know just bow a letter should be eonslructed, 
the fingers, after proper instruction, will very 
soon acquire the skill for placing it on paper. 

many ycjirs a teacher of writing in Williamsport Commercial Uollugc, li 
Executing ornamcatal pen work. 

Thou art regarded as a man polluted and con- 
tagious ; a miserable outcast and a plague to hu- 
manity. Robbers and profanemen ; men nursed 
me, these alone of mankind seek to be thy 

doubt but you will all decide that, la lyre 
poetique cerna I'ep^c,— the poetical lyre has pen- 
ned tho sword. 

Qdikcy, III., Feb. 7, IH81. 

Having- a Standing in Life. 

difficulties of conscientious labor, has prevented 
many a promising young man from realizing bis 
possibilities in life. He pretends, perhops. that 
he doe« not object to work ; he even deceives 
himself into thinking that he is working, while 
in reality he has never broken through the dis- 
taste which separates him from real honest 
effort ;— he does not know what work is. 

.™i»ng giants are entangled 


I Ibis V 

One of ihe chief things which a life beginner 

dislike, to do is, lo form a strict personal sund- 

He dreads the yoke 

compare herself 
*iift me. «liom my fin- consumes, and whom I art. He dreads the yoke. If he put** 
rample under fool? That ftail, weak reed I H'cre will bo no alternative hut to work in good 
lie bramble ; shall she dare dUpuie pnw- | wnesi ; if he keeps it off a liule while longer. 
At the Mighle»t touch she j there will l»e a chance to work and play too. 
young to cororaenco slaving 
little older, a 

first he may seem to be getting on as well as his 
more industrious companions. Streams that 
emerge oceans apart often flow for miles after 
leaving their common source close together. 
But presently the man with the standard in life 
grows away from his headless companion. Per- 
haps they have come to the first hill of difficul- 
ty; one ascends, the other goes around it. One 
direction seems as good us another to the man 
who has no fixed aim. He wanders about quite 
likely, till he has tireil himself to no purpose, 
and then sits down lo resL fly this time the 
man with the standar<l is out of sight. 

The sooner we come to that trite old conclu- 
sion, "life is earnest," the better it will be for 
us. It may seem hum-drum enough to the 
spirited yoimg man just loosed from parental re- 
stnini, but, just like "home, sweet home," if 
he doesn't believe in it now, he will have a long 
walk round the girdle of the earth in search of 

Like all other professions it needs study, prac- 
tice and energy to make it a success. 

A. E. DitwiirRsT. 

Our moat profound Sympathy and Con- 
Is extended to our former employee Mr. A, H 
Dodge who, within a year after his marriage, is 
suddenly called upon to mourn the loss of a dear 
!y beloved wife. Mni. Dodge was an interesting 
and accomplished lady, and will be deeply mourn- 
ed by a large circle of friends. 

Part V of the New Spencerian Compen- 


eedinfrly attractive 

nd valuable number to any one seeking ex- 

mples for lettering, to which this part is cx- 

...... ... ,. I lusively devoted. This or any of the previous 

somethmg better, and .s just as sure to bnng up | p^^s mailed at .he publishers price from the of- 
on the worn old threshold of human fa>th at lost, j fi^e of ihe JoraNAt. 

as the sun is to creep back into the gates of the ^ 

east to-morrow morning. In the words of the wise ___ 

!rishraan,-".-^bure.he-d better sbtop before he ' ^*^^^ Subacriptiona Blay Begin. 


> trace of i He thinks be is I 

I now. By-and-by, when he feels 
the IVn had been taking little more reconciled to ihe serious side of liv 
rid the pauses holweon the ing. he will plan his work, and devote himself ti 

sh tarts ! 

deneo with 

crumbles away; the wind blows, and, 

her remains." 

In the meauiin 
note* in shorthand, 

" far-fetched" sentouoes of the Sworxl aUowed it heart and souL But the veare fly «^d he thi^ 
ample time for the Pen to thoroughly digest the '. grows no older in wisdom. His feet 

Not Beaponaible. 

It should be distinctly underritood that the 

*dilors of the JoraSAL are not to be held aa 

ndorsinp anything outside of its editorial 

M>lumns; all communications, not objectionable 

n their character, or devoid of interest or merit, 

received and published ; if any person differs, 

columns are equally open to him to eav so 

and tell why, 

Subscriptions to the Joij^sal may date from 
any time since, and inclusive of September 187". 
All the bock numbers from that date with the 
four premiums will he sent for |3.0n. All the 
numbers of 1880 and ]l*Hl, with either two o( 
the premiums will be sent for $1.75. Wilh all 
of our premiums for $2.00. 

Penmen m want of any style or quality of card 
slock will do well lo address the New England 
Card Co.. Woonsocket, R. I. 

The following is 
to be the Uneuagi 
gl OTW: " Ye* " IP paid by 
le Hinp one rIotc fall ; 
the plnve« are rolled in 
the hand to saj "No." 
ir you would have it 
undern'ood that you havp 
become indifferent. [>art- 
It Hiiplove your lefl 
hand. To indicate that 
vou de»ire to he follow- 
ed, strike your left flhould- 
er with the gloves. " I 
do not love you any 
more," i» pronounced by 
Btrikinir the ploves oev- 
c ra) timex acninnt the 
chin. For " I hate you," 
I urn the gloves ini<ide 
out. "I should wish to 
he beside you," is said jp^ and paper heiidin 

by nmoothinp the glovi's 

genlly. To aak if you 

are loved, the left hand is gloved leaving the 
thumb uncovered. If you wish to make the 
charming confession, " 1 love you," both ploves 
are let fall at once. To give a warning, ' 
tentive — we are observed," the gloves ar 
round thp finger.*. If you would show that you 
are displeased, strike the back of your h 
Bgainat vour gloves; "furious," you take t 

Educated Hechanics. 

Hempstkad, Long Islaso, ) 
December 2'2, 1880. f 
Editors Penman's Art Journnl 

Deau Sib8— The advocate of business educa- 
tion claims that the " educated mechanic " suc- 
ceeds the world over. To the above announce- 
ment I have a few remark? to make ; and as I 
am a mechanic, a carpenter by profession, 1 
ehall speak from a practical standpoint. My 
words shall be about the average mechanic, the 
carpenter, for instance, and in opposition to the 
above announcement. I shall stale the poor 
success (6nancially) that attends a mechanic's 
efforts. Of course there are exceptions, but I 
refer to the large majority. As regards educa- 
tion, Ac, vour remarks arc true : for, as learning 
and intelligence lift.<i the man, so it develops the 
mechanic ; and, if he reaches the topmost round of 
hie ladder, then, as far as the trade itself is con- 
cerned, he has achieved success, hut financially 
has he accomplished anything? I do not want 
it to be understood that I denounce business 
training and education ; on the contrary, I am 
strongly in favor of it and everything else that will 
tend to elevate men, and that which will help him 

(^^'^^\W^^ ^- 


I) pen and ink copy executed at the office of the Jouknal, and i 
r description promptly made. 

presented as a apecimin of displayed lettering. Cards, let 



cases, in order that the mechanic may be able 
to meet the demands made upon him, it is neces- 
sary that he should have a good surplus of in- 
telligence on hand. But I want you to tell me 
how the average mechanic of the day, in con- 
nection with many circumstances that attend his 
work, and the poor pay which many of them re- 
ceive, both skilled and otherwise, will benefit 
their condition fiDancially, by business education 
if a man receives poor pay for his work, and if 
there be no money in the business, which is the 
case with many mechanics in many places to- 
day. And, last of all, I say, even though he 
have the learning of a hundred Franklins, " 
is that to benefit his business? By answering 
the above problem you will confer a great favoi 
upon. OrcAN Wave 

The Age of the Earth. 
At ihe Midlnnd Institute, Birmingham, th. 
other day, Professor Ayrlon delivered a lecture 
in which he gave nome p&timates on the earth' 
age. In reply to the question of whether the 
earth's existence was to be counted by thoua. 
ands or by niilions of years, ho called attcntior 
to the geological evidences of organic change! 
on the earth's surface which recinired not much 
leas than a hundred n)illion years for the ei 
age. There was, however, a better method of 
approximating to the age of the earth. The 
changes of temperature belonging to the differ- 
ent sea-sons were less perceptibly felt as they 
penclmted the substance of Ihe earth, until at n 
depth of about fifty feet the tempemture was 
practically constant. If, however, they contin- 
ued to descend, an increase of temperature 
was experienced at about the rate of ono 
degree per fifty feet of the descent. Supposing 
this increase went on at the same rate until the 
centre of the earth was reached, the temperature 
there would he 400,000 degrees higher than at 

Wedding Cards. 

The latest style of Wedding Cards are en- 
graved on a card of unique and exquisite design, 
enclosed in an inner envelope of new form^ 
folded over al one end and left open at the other, 
by two folds from its centre, which meet respec- 
tively the top and bottom edge, and thus leave 
exposed the monogram on the outside of llic 
card. This is formed by the union of the letters 
B' and ' R' the initials of the bride and bride- 
groom, which letters are beautifully formed and 

ibellished with orange blossoms. The card 
folds twice. The top portion contains the usual 
at home' announcement made by newly- nmr- 
ried couples ; the centre portion contains the 
s of the bridegroom and bride, each on a 
small bevel-edged card, fastened diagonally on 
the card. What remains is the invitation to the 
marriage ceremony, from the mother of the 
bride, beautifully engraved and printed on whits 

of Patents 

require that all communications addressed ts 
them of a permanent character, such as state- 
of the peculiariti 

forth, be v 


I of tliii 

No substitute for the old- 
t-gal1s ink has been discovered. 

galls ink. 
analine inks is thus virtually prohibited in the 
cases indicated. 

The necessity and dis 

far as we have learned, which has the perma- 
nency needed in records. At the same time, the 
usefulness of the cheaper inks produced by 
modern science slioulii not be overlooked. For 
many purposes, an ink which can be made in 
twenty -four hours or less is just as good as one 
requiring one or two years, as in the writing uf 
memoranda and a good deal of correspondence- 
But, as a matter of course, every prudent sta- 
tioner keeps a stock of inks including such as 
he can guarantee to write a permanent black, 
and which are always in demand for the use of 
official and professional men. We hope our an- 
nouncements will be of service in enabling him 
to make the right choice.— Geyer'A Stationer. 







embodyiD^ [na 

As a Text Book on Book-keepin; 
■eliable ineth ds. refoniis and pk>nt; 

rk for tlie studpiit. 

■tical ideas, antlieutic and 


Has gradually gi'own into public favor until it ntiw ranks as the 

Standard and Leading Treatise 

1 this country. Diu-ing the last year there were times when it was absolutely 

impossible to meet the growing demand. The Fifth Edition came 

from the press in April last and so rapid has been 

the sale during even the dull Summer 

months, that the edition is now 

exhausted, and the 


i printed and ready foi- distribution. The popularity uf 

The Complete Accountant 

The Counting House Edition 

Retail, Wholesale, Farming, Commission Lumbering, 

Manulacturing, Railroading, Steamboating & Banking. 

It is recommended in the highest manner by the best teachers in America. 
Retail. $3.50. Sample copy for examination, $1.26. Blanks complete, net, 

The High School Edition 

Contains 164 pages. 
Merchandising. Prei 
mercial Departments. 

devoted to the rudnuents, and Retail and Wholesale 
isely the thing for Normal and High Schools, and Com 
Retail, !^1.50. Sample for examination, 75 cents. 

i that the increase did go on, or th.ii 
temperature at the centre was higher tlnn ' ■' 
of molten rock, 7,000 dcp-ee-o, or at mo-i , i 

degrees. Assuming this to be the teini 

at the centre, and knowing by experinnni jIm 
conducting power of rock in relation to hrnt. 
Sir William Thomson was able to calculate the 
present distribution of temperature throughout 
the whole earth, not only the present distribu- 
tion downward, but the distribution at any 
future and at any past time. Taking the tem- 
perature of 7,0000 ns having been once the uni- 
orm temperature of the whole body, the result 
of the calculations was that the earih had been 
A hundred million years in cooling. 

Alling'B Inka. 
Wc again call attention to the advertisement 
of Mr. Ailing in another column. These inks 
are highly rcconMnended by those who have 
tried them. A package of ornamental designs 
flourished with his fancy inks will be sent for 10 
cents., circulars free. Send all orders for inka 
* > Wza. We positively fill no order*. 

■\\.. ■]■.■. r |r;iohing. Pago. - . 

Watta <m the Mind, wltb Queetlona .... 
DwiKlifs Mythology 

Nat. Pluln'^oph.v. Astronomy, Cbemlatry 

3-lt 77 & 71) Madison Street, Chicago. 

The Common Sense Binder. I TO PENlVEli'N', 

ireliiuder f^^T^JTrounNAL^ * convemen an EngTarers, Tcndiertt, l>ecorators and 

i-nnBtnn'(*-il' ii« to wrii-B Itoth OH a file and l Auialeiir Pell ArtlwlN> 

1\I "XT —5(1 recipes for aU t 
Stamps taken. W. SWDT. : 




Crab B H&Ddy Cyclopedia. 


id DrswiuH, 

etrong. iiupiriiiR a 

Illy illuatrated title paK*-, 
;:apitalH in great variety and mIx 
ilslisg o( bllla, notes, reocipl«, 

capitals and capital 
P* T. AinES, 2 

J-CLSt IPTxTDlistLeci- 

Sadler's CouQliog' House Arimelic. 



•peElftUr tnttmoi utd adapted ■ 

CoQtalslJiC s« octoTO pMM. u» 

vlndMof AilUuiHiilc uid t 
won ta not tha nrall of 
b baa baas contamplatMl 


_ _ _ student)!. 4Dd 

BoalBCM OaU<«e*. HIch Sctiool*. 

Kha&ka. Tea£b«n and Studoi 

adnptloD tj7 a UlV^ D 

connM of aliidr adapted 

r tnan; jrv*. and cooifa fnrth at thla tlim- to anpplT a 
uD^cd bj tbo ODd^ntgned aod 

■ ■ Days aft« 

batlliH brrrt cKhanal 



a W. U. Haulkk. lla1llmon>. U>1. 

Dnw Hir : In rrpljr to jour Imialrr u to bow I Uku tout new Counting Houm Aritbmrtlc. I an 
ail anr othrr AmhmFtl<? I havo ornr tiMd In my acbool. 

It !• wlUioiit doubt anpeTlor to any otbir ArlthiD'>tli- now pubUiib<yt. II la sperUlly xUplod for C 
idnnta, and In my opinion dmllnvd ti> Imconm a atandarrl work of rvfi.<rnn(w in the cy>untlag too 
commr^aA II to any an'l atl wbo tnaj infiolra ragardlng Ito tnerlta. ttnprrtf 11II7 yotii 

;. HIBBARD, Phimcipai. 


f your Counting 1 

t variety of roC)>at bunlwwa form* 

Dsoon.rN, Dnc< 

3 well nilt«d to tbe pecnliAT 
I months bw aMlf>t«d v» to 
I like tbo book because of Ita 

uUfactory rvanlta, 


« truly. 


iptic yr-t publlHticd. 

. U. ftADLicK. BalUmorp. 
■ Sir r 1 am ludiut Sadl^a Connltng I 
o nludNitu and tMiobcm. 
PiplaDAtionii and nilm ano clear, 1 

< Artthmpilo In my m 

Ml and points. I am glad to glvi: 

I. C. aPENCEB. PitWriPAL. 

natm. It iB giving gmat aatln- 
our \»ork my hearty appro- 
l. BOOARDb'S, Principal. 

I, Ualttmom. Md. 
imental lopim 11 


iially wltbtield any nxprfmlon 

nciid your Counting tIouji« Arithmetic an a I 

turm, I pronounce tbom nsciellont. and have louna ii* vanoi m 

lot otily ploaalng. but admirably adapted to use before Urge 

only valuable wben made aftor a tborough tiwt of eireltencc. I 1 

1 your Uwk. mrrttod by y 

)arlDg It with o 

o Inlrodurett j 

l« makp morp r»p[d and aaURfartory progrc>m, 

t In o^rlAlnly tar In advance of any other work ot the kind. 

L. Daltlmore, Md. 
ilug oviir you 

a praotlcal toplnt. 

r Sir ; It ho* toxin ■ little over two montba nluoe wo Introdut-ed your now Counting House 
very tnithfiilly wty tliitt wp have itn\a able to icoomplliih more with It than no formerly did with tb 
t<>it iKMik In twlu) tbo time. In our opinion It la the Bent Text-Book for BiisineBS Colleges that ha 
a publbihod. Wliiblng you unltoumlud buocom wo aid \aty truly yours, 

J. M. MAKTIN ft BBC, Proprietor*. 

arrangvmiint, as well as th 
V. A. FRA8IEB, Principal. 

Prof. W. H. Baulkii. . . ... __,., __ _.. 

Dear Sir 1 1 take ulraaiiri) In adding a teatlmonlal nnioUoltod to tbe value of your Counting Houao Aritl 
uiPtlc. It MNuuH Ui bo Ju"l what li> iii-nbil in BuxlueM Colleam and the eountlng-room. 

We have adopted II In our iua(l(ut«, and are very hiRhly pleucil with it on a text book, but far mon> s 
with tbe auperior raulta wv are enabkwl to aooompliab for our pupUs tiiuec its adoption. 

Very roHpoctfuUy yount, C, W. Stone, Prludpol. 

luplutol^- odaptMl I 

iouMn Arithmutloia without cxoepllou 
I more I UM> It the more do I priio It. T 

r which no excvllont a wnrk la ao ricbl}' d 

OuATBAu. Ont.. Jonui 


Dperimen ooploa of Sadler's Counting Uuuse A 
. work, containing the aunwem to all problem■.tog1^thl 


examinaiiuD. will bo sent, post-paid, oc 
y (for proprietoi» of school! only), 

4j iriH:H:M,l!^ | 
n Series of f 

□CHnnL pens! 

^Ofic/iARSTrri FSA/s /A/ use *• ■ 

'<^^»s:^^5>3- ^<b ^^'^>».vv>K\»-x^v.yJ 

and Double Entry. BuKlnem Fonua cDUpU-te. Plain, 
practk^ol. unique and eomperbmsiv*. A<*>ptMl by tbr 
Itnrt Scboob and CoIkgM : li< pa^e*. Price 75 mils. 

■onieaa tbe --Coiuioii Schooi." and t« publl*b«il andn 
two UUra. for the naeoD ibal fome prefer the Utter 

Entry : priuclplot tolly defined 1 
aln ■ - -' ■ - 

- plain and pnrtlral ; 

TiaKO. Double and Sintflo Entry, 
poitmenta. AeadtnilM. Normal ai 
Buidnnn CoUagee. tOO pages : 

BLA^'K Bl 

d Bryant's Printing ai 


abnelng 8i»oL> 's 1 1 juliinte« 



By ; 


EmbroflUR the Theory aud Prartitv of AomnnU ; 

»d work m busmeas eoUeaoa and high srhoola bet- 
hon any other work now before the public, 


il Street. New York. 



consider t 
keeping a 

Incas Cottegea uidng these ogenc: 
uiplo oopies of the Unlvenlty Bot 


S i 1 1 c a "fc e 





and practice 

.'ordx per thousand, by exprees. 
i drawig-paper, hot-preaa, 16x20 li 

Blank Bristol Board Cards, per 100 

1.000. by e xp re ss., li 
Wiuftor Jt Newtou'd super sup, Ind. Ink, pr stick., 'i i 

itol Cards, \1 designs, per pui ot 39 

No onieni tor merchandise o 


aosBkOADVAr ffnr Yoik. 


PoniuanHhlp nnd 8uporlnt«i 

nd thin Ink tl'c bi>st lulaptod to i , 

OH it ^vritCN block, flotvit freely, po«««Hi 
great pcnetraf ion and permanence, nc 
er uiouldM nor tliicken)t,lH non-corr»Nlv 
and Inllr tcnImIm the aclion oC frOMt. 


Japan Ink. per pint bol 

" eboUiODjci. 

X otmco bottle by exprau 



Pcnman'ii Ink Cabluel, Not 1. 

PRICE, ja.oo. 

dDglnks: 1 oz. bottle eaoli of Japan 

Ponman'H Ink Cabinet, No. 3. 

lalnn the following lakn: 3 or., botllo each of Japan 

Icuiling tl 

kT containing "Spo- 

e and distinctly ropresc 

Intelligent opintonH o 

llociiester, N. Y. April, ! 
—Your MorcautllP and Carnii 



Pred. D. Ailing. Esq 

e and porlectly satisfactory. 

Offloe of Supt. of writing ij 

.. Fbobt, County Clerk, 


■ (E.iui 

e Building). 

Fred. D. Ailing, Rochesler, N, Y. 

Dear Sir.— In niply lo your inquiry. I take pleasure 
In saying that tlie Ink purchased from you at various 
time^ lor this olBte. has always proved itself to posseaa 
mo«t satisfactory quabtloe. 

Yours truly. Hktcky McPabuno, TreaH, 

Office of Erie School Board, 

Erie, Pa., Nov. 22, 1880. 
Having used the ■■ Deep Black Ink" manufactured by 
Fml. D. AlUng of Hochraler. N. Y.. In our Sohoola, I 

EochcHlcr, N. Y., July 9th, 18(10. 
uumonlal Writing, and ch<sorfully add my tcsllmony to 

man's Ink Cabiuot you furuish should be in tho pas- 

containa precisely the varii?ty of deainiblo kinda and 
oolors required. Very truly youre, 

Mr. t"» 

>. Ailing. 

:. Portland, I 

Lhcy are spedaily dwigned. 

PitUfleld. Mass., Nov. 3<tl 
Mr. Prod. D. AlUng. 

Dear Sir.— Wo «ro using your Inks with gf 
faction. As wo are partial to inks that flow ( 
at the sonic turn? show distinctly at once the ft 
by pw-Usht or day light, wo prefer your Dwp 


A Bories of fifteen leaaons In Plain Writing, Flourish- 
ing. Lettering of various kinds. Pen-drawing, tie. 

any school in the country to-day. and at a sniaU fnw- 

advautages offered by this course. The prices of lessons 
It is impossible in our limited space to give even a brief 


For those who wish io give particular attention to 
Plain Wnting wo give a Special Couree of 20 short 
leasons for $6.1)0. For this course we solicit corres- 

tho subject little or no attenlioL. and^those who ^"'^'' 
had little success in learning the art. 

flourishing for 26c. Engraved epfctimens free. 

Lettering Tablet, 

The Ore^at Self- instructor in Lettering. The flrsi 
only practical self-instnictor in this Department of 

ytare in learning but is at once enabled to exc 

tiie finds himself acquiring a skill gratifying ii 



More Specimens of Improvement from using 


(Private Fraotioe Without a Teacher.) 


mans hip 


ight or 


An An 





in good 

Penman's Companion. 

fully mada from our 

loe. Sent with pencil and tracing poiuttt for 81. 


Of tho most simple oonatruction but durable d 
iry useful to the penman. Maple Blade 24 incl 
ngwith movable head. It workn nicely on the e< 
)t it will work enuaUv well''on''» hn * 

Jling o 

yjuaUywell on a boa 
kIo by simply placin 

Photo and Photo-Lithographs 

H. W. Kibbe, 

.Vo. 7 HOBAKT ST.. 


ON£ DOLIiAB, pusipajd. 

Prof. 0. A. 04SKEII, Printi/al Jertty City Busimu C.M„,<. 


If yoa doD'l eel prompt relun... wrlli m«ln, «nil wo will look II up. 
Xr Tht Pmmanx OatttU. slvlog full pantcol.r* nnd olber gpeclmeDS of luiprovi.ment. wlih your numo >nd 


I=>vitellslieca :i>/ at 203 Bi-oacl-^ay. for Sl.OO per -2-eai-., 
■ /rn<<T«rf a< lU P^rt OfUi o] Nev, Fork, N. T.. <u .KmuUbwi matUr." 

M.E:V, AaMtc] 



VOL. V. NO. 4. 

DiuJiwM Cftrd* llmltoclti 

:< llDM will to iMertM] 

D. T. Ani», 

EsaiBlnrror QuMiioncd llnniltvrltlnr. 

prgitinxl I 

Hcod (or dr- 

ci. II. !iiiA'rr«Tc>K, 

XV180N. BLAEKMAN. TAYLOlt h CO.. N«w Tork. 

_Pi'*"'*!" ?^ ^ Any AddrvM, 


_ Nmt Tork. 



(PDbllflhon or Iho '■ Mndol I 

uiirrm iiiKiicAvrii,^ coi.i.kcjp^ 

rnTBBUllCill. PA. 

&<Ul>lliibM I MO. 

BnVAN-r & KTUATT4»N llimiNESS 

<^oi.i.r:Gi-% loi a. loth bi.. phiiadoiphia. p*. 

TUaiMiiRli IiiKlnioUon Id [V<nniuwlilp nntl nil BiuIdoh 
\V. H. NADI.ER, PiwrtdoTitof Ih^ 

dhyant. stbatton and sadleii. 

Biiatuiw CollcKP. BolUinoiw. Md.. ptilillohcr of 

able fnults, nod oSier a suggcstioD to aid In a 
furlhor advance toward that desirable point. 
First, — let us review briefly tbc analysis of tlie 
stem. It will he rcincmberetl that it is eom- 
poded. first, o( an unshaded left curve, which is 
followed bv a shaded right curve of equal IcnKth 
and degree of curvature, the two Iiaviug an av- 
eroRc slope of SSo. These arc followed by an 
unshaded left curve, intersecting the other curves 
at ihcir centre or point of union, forming a per- 
fect oval, whose width \b ^wo-thirds its length. 
A line passing through its centre should have a 
slope of 26o. Eiamplc — 




We fear that some of our class have failed to 
observe or to rcinernber all of these facta. We 
imagine we are looking over their work. Among 
the most frequent iUult* will be stems having a 
long, shaded left curve, joined to a short, abnipt 
and impropt-rlT shaded right curve, fioishiog 
wiih an awkward, cgg-shnped, oval stem— thus 

And should be corrected as is indicated bv the 
dotted line. Another frequent fault will be that 
they begin with a sliort, obrupt left curve, fol- 
lowed by a long right curve, and cuding with a 
left curve which fails to form a perfect oval, 

niAViii:it 111 sim:ss « oi.i.E<,tE, 

ChambiT ..f t'oi.jiii..|>v. Dotrult. Mlcii. 
niA MAYIIBW. LI.,D.. Prwldwit 

J. R. OOOUIKB, V ice Piw i ldCTit. 

nnowK'N ni'Mi^KKKN collude, 

301 ft 8u(t rulton Stnwt. Brooklyu. 

(Twenty yonw al J96 f-ulim, Strwst.) 


EiMutM ftll ktndA o 

. CRAND1.K, 

(ood wort Valpaimw, iod. 

Lirn & rKHRIKR, 

(SUwu) NowapKprr and Job PMnten^ 
Pnnlon of 1& muikfort 81 

■• PamiAJi's Abt JoDiutAu" 

I<Mw»u in Practical WxiUng. 

No. vni. 


And should be eorrectcl as per dotted line. 

The chief secret of becoming a good writer is 
in the acquisition of the habit of close and ac- 
curate criticism of one's own writing, in addi- 
tion to applying the hints above given. No 
pupil should lose sight of the su^estions we 
have previously made respecting size, slope, 
spacing, connections, proportions, &c. 

We give as a copy fur the present lesson the 
capital 8. In this the stem is somewhat niodi- 
lied by having the left curve more abrupt than it 
has been in the letters we have hitherto had, by 
being thrown forward a space equal to one-half 
the width of the loop, bo that the average 
s!opcofthc letter may be 62v. 

The lines forming the loop of the S should 
curve at the centre of the letter, and the shade 
be located entirely below the point of crossing. 
The left curve fonning the oval should closely 
Approach the stem at the point where the lines 
forming the loop cross. The upward line of the 
S should be a full right curve, dividing the oval 
through llie centre. 

S'-JSi J2^c^iU€.l^^^^y^ 

I good 

This is our eighth Iwson. In all, the capital 
stem ha* bwn the twse of the capital letters \ 
we then-fort- suppose that mo*t of our cU»s will 
now make the stem well nigh pcrfecL But lest 
there b« some who have not quite re«cbed the | 
poiut beyond which there can be no improve- 
meat, we will consider a few of ihe most prob- 

As good figures are very essential 
rriting, (Specially so to clerks and 
re here give them as a copy for additional prac- 
1 with this lesion. 

/^j //sS /r^ o 

" *T1a a IflSBoo yon should be«d. 
U at Br«t 70a doQ't mcoMd, 
Try, tiy afaln." 

Boston Schoolmarms. 



For ..01 

criticiom, but the papers, before taking up the 
quejition, demanded that the charges should be 
more specific. In reply to this, Mome gifted 
creature writes the following to the Transcript : 

One dark aud rainy night I wns hurrying 
along one of our crowded streets, when I per- 
ceived a dark object on the ground before me. 
I picked it up, and found it to be a small book, 
evidently a diary, and after endeavoring in vain 
to find its owner among the people next ine, I 
took it home, intending to advertific, should it 
prove to be of value. 

Dinner and a warm fire drove its existence 
from my mind for some hours, but sitting thai 
evening by the grate I saw it on the table 
where I had thrown it, and began to examine 
it with cariosity. It proved to be a small, 
blank-book, bearing on the first 
well-known super- 

pugo the 

visors, and beneath 
hand, of which the " 
and the " 


■ere all of the proper 
scrupulously dotted, 
pain of reprimand." 
,, but a 

That Eomewhal puzzled 
Basil of recollection solved the riddl 
ber :^i have heard that a Supervisor, on visiting 
u room in any public school, usually wrote a few 
line.* in a little book, the significance of which 
no one knew. This, then, was the very book 
whii'h had eondeiimcd and commended so 
many teachers, and probably contained a record 
of the inmost workings of a supervisorial soul. 
When I reflected that it was a record sacred to 
the board, I hesitated in opening it, but the 
thought that by reading il I might ascertain the 
owner's duties and his performance of them, 
and thuH vindicate his honor to the world, over- 
came every nice scruple. I began to read, and 
before the book was finished became humbled 
and ashamed over to have believed injurious 
repQrts of those faithful public servant*. It 
was a record of several weeks' duties inter- 
spersed here and there with Jottings and mem- 
oranda, which I will quote, as I took copious 
extracts, believing that no word of mine could 
influence public opinion as would a verbatim 
account from the gentleman's own pen : 

" Monday. Begun my visits in the dis- 
trict, and have much to criticit>e. Found Miss 
A. teaching definitions in arithmetic, and on 
remonstrating was asked by her if I would en- 
tirely do away with such drill • Answered that 
the real quest-on was whether the higher and 
more ideal ground to take was that of definition 
or nnn-definilion. Saw that she did not quite 
take my meaning, and was incapable of apply- 
ing high moral truths to mathematics, 

" S. L. 0." 

(I will say here that there wua at the back of 
the book a list of abbreviations. 1 looked for 
" S. L, 0.," and found it stood for " Soul of a 
Low Order,") 

'• Miss B. teaches penmanship miserably. 
Was writing word ' feminine.' and did not in all 
cases succeed in having letter 'f made of 
proper length. Mem. To eouHult board on the 
best method of making Utter ' f ' 

"Miss C. impreased me unfavorably. Pocket 
of her apron was lorn, and her dress covered 
with chalk dust. Mem. To ascertain her sal- 
ary, and decide whether she can dress In such a 
manner as not to offend the critical eye. 

*' Miss D. teecheH well, but is too indepen- 
dent. Argues the question of checks and 
credits with me, and at the end of the discus.sioQ 
remarked thai she had ie!>te<] the syr>tem prac- 
tically, whertas I probably had not. M. B. R." 
(Must be removed.) 

" Miss E. teaches arithmetic poorly. lias no 
conception of the laws of development o( a 
child's mind, and insists on study and prepara- 
tion of lessons. Told her jhe must reiterate 
explanations until the child grasps them uncon- 
sciously, as a plant absorbs dew, (Excellent 
expression. Remember to use it airain.) 31ie 
returned that she did not believe scholar; could 
be made wiiboul independent action of their own 
minds. U of C." (Lack of culture.) 

" MisB F. Shocking c»s« of dUcipline. Boy 
was asked to prrfomi some dutv and answered 
* I won't.' Teacher told him to consider himself 
suspended from the claaa until he was willing to 
obey. Endeavored to abow ber thai it was a 

mistaken method of dealing. Asked her to 
awaken the hoy's higher nature, and when she 
seemed unwilling to try, talked with the offender 
my.--elf. Spoke of the rewards of duty per- 
formed and the beauty of right action, and then 
mildly and politely asked if he would comply 
with his leather's request. To my great sur- 
prise he an.-ivercd, • No, I won't." This obsli- 
nacy and ^luggi^h action of his belter nature 
is doubtless owing to the teacher's previous in* 
flucnee. Lct^ him to her, to be dealt with. 

*' ' What is he doing ?' 
" ' Driving a horse.' 

'* ' Good 1 Each take five credits. How many 
cgs has a horso J' 

*' And so on for thirty minute*, during which 
time I sat enropturcd. M. H. B." (Mcnlion 
her lo board.) 

This list ot criticism was quite extended, but 
lack of space forbids further quotation. 

What followed was evidently a report of the 
sanitary condition of school buildings. I should 
say that thL« indefatigable man had visited aev- 
eral schools and kept an exhousUvo liet of what 
be found ibiro. A:< (here is a sameness in the 
Items il \iili I li iM I , ;iiy to quote a few: 

fortable. .,. : . n , l.iscd at night; also 

when op.ti. I n. li. n [,111- Advised her to 
close reyir-Uis nlieii (leat iicvamc too great. 

"Hoom -L Comlortiibie, Becomes cool when 
windows are opened, and warm when rcgistars 
are not closed. Mem. To discuss the singular 
phenomena at ne\t meeting. 

" Room 3. "■ 
mended that 

wann, teacher should ask janitor for 
Said she alwa\8 had. P. It. I." (P"son of re- 
markable intelligence.) " Knows how to act in 
an emergency." 

The report continues in like manner for aer- 
eral pages, and I give this extract, not because 
it will intere-t the general mind unused to dry 
statistics, but to show the perseverance with 
which this truly remarkable man wrestled with 
great problems. 

He then guex un with more discursive Btat&> 
meats, evidently a summary of the month's 

" Am exceedingly disturbed at the lock of 
enthusitLsm apparent among teachers. On leav- 
ing schools at the close of the session, I have 
often seen teachers going home at 4 o'clock. 
It grieves me to think anyone should be so un- 
worthy her holy vocation 
the tour walls of the school' 
dark to work. I must si 
there is always something t< 
regular duties 
tainly underlaki 

oniie system of recording advances in moral 
enlightenment. It would afford mental dis- 
ciplitie for the teacher, and bring the standard 
of seliolarship to a still finer point. I am told 
there is a mercenary spirit among teacbeni, 
ana it Is said that Ihej even remoostrate 
against the disproportion between their salariea 
and ours of the board. They do not consider 
that the few who control the mas.4es can com- 
mand advantages which would be superfluous 
luxuries to the latter; that t)ie man who 
stands by lo tec that day laborers throw the 
requisite nombcr of sborelfuU of gravel in ao 
hour is pud for bis severe mental labor a 
price which would be far loo great for the man 
who only bear* the bui-den and heat of the day. 
I miut suggest to the board the queation of 
having set to music and sung daily by the 
teachers tbc following stanza adapted from 

need quote no more. No one can fail to 
d in these extracts the record ofaconsci- 
aod noble mind, fertile in su^estiona 

to wish to leave 
■a until it is too 
st the fact that 
done, and if the 
!omplIshed, one could ccr- 
:omplicated and elab- 

< influence felt Bui 

greatest reforroei 

lesson can be dn 

and tnanyrs are never recognized in Uidr own 
age; and centuries hence, when the supervUora 
are cajioniied, their bones preserved as saored 

Awfully Lovely PhUosophy 
A few <lfty* ago a Uo^ton girl, who bad be«i 
nllCTiilinK ihv school of l»hiIow>i>liy at Cnmord, 
nrrivcd in Brooklyn on a vicil lo a jieniinarv 
fliufn. Aftpr eanrnsaing thornuplilv the t^in 
nn<) (turn dtops upon which their eiirlyscholi 
till efftirtfl " ' ** 

> you are takinjt lessons in Philoso- 

What i! 

" It's about molecules n» niuch iis oTi.vthing else, 
nml molecules are just too nwlully nice for any- 
ihinp. If theres anytliinp I ivallv enjoy it« 

"Tell mc about them, my dear, what are 

"Oh! niolpculesl They ar^ little wee things, 
mil) it takc!> ever so many of Ihcin. They arr 
8|)l.-ndii] tltinss! Do you know, there aint'i 
onvlhing but what's got molecnlc!' in it. 

An.l Mr. Cook ie just fi« sweet n« he can he, 
and Mr Em.-r«on, too. They explain every- 
thing no bciiutiliillv." 

"How I'd like to go there ;'" anid the Brook- 
lyn girl ouviouslv. 

" Vou'd enjoy it ever so much. They teach 
protoplasm. I 'really don't know which I like 
boat, protoplasm or molecules," 

" Toll me about protoplfiam. I know 1 slioold 
ailoro it." 

" 'Deed you would. It'o just too sweet lo live. 
You know it's about how things get started, or 
Boraething of that kind. You ought to bear Mr. 
Kmerjton tell about it. It would stir your very 
wjul. The fir.'^i time lu; cicplained about proto- 
plasm there wasn't a dry eye in the house. We 
named our hata afier him. This is an Emerson 
htit. You see the ribbon is drawn over the 
1 and caught with a buckle and bunch of 

bcin- but hlUe irregularitv. Br far the ' lion, and ascidiang. and will so to speak, roll 

portfon of the work to be done was in the them all about in a abvt.ntb of iesthet,c hanfon- 

Towels and not Inlhe consonants. Their towcIs ies. If he is musical, he gives a high art eon- 

* xcMd seven or eight in number, yet, few ' oe. t, at which cverybodT goes to sleep- He speaks 

gulled by flattering friends, who [ owed 
say it shows such culture ! such progression ! 
such severe and classic taste ! 

We do not know how long this cant of art 
will flourish, 
killed by itc 

^tablished the of Beethoven as "sublime, but occasionally ob- 
consoiint^'would take care of themsclve*. The scure." He attempts compositions barren of 
trouble with regawi to the vowels wen* far back | melody, 

traceahlcto the fact that they had differ- 
ent soundings in Greek and Latin from what they 

Teutonic. The prohli 
be any innovation in the types used lo represent 
these vowels ? Il might be done, without alter- 
ing the appearance of newspaper columns, in 
such a way as to tell us at a glance whether to 
pronounce those vowels long or short. The spell- 
ing reform need not be a reckless change but a 
goTng back to methods which had been once cur- 
rent in England. That reform had been going 
on for the last four hundred years— even before 
Spenser and Shakespeare. The work of pho- 
netic reform had within the last two years occu- 
pied much of the attention of English philolo- 
gists. Dr. Murray had found in America an 
ideal love for the English language, and he (Dr. 
Murray) drew the inference that Americans must 
take at no distant time the lead in English schol- 
arship. Prof March, of Pennsylvania ; M. G. 
Pcarns, of Michigan; Prof. G. W. Phillips, of the 
University ot Louisburg, and Dr. Henry Phillips, 
of Philadelphia, were also spoken of in the 
highest manner by Dr. Murray. The lecturer 
then quoted lengthily from the address of that 
gentleman, showing what had been done in this 
matter in England aud Germany, the doctor's 
opinion being that no systematic scheme of spell- 

ignificance. He who indul- 

_ ^ ^ i least, unwise ; he is of that 

class who mistakes the steps for the temple of 
Miuerva; the shrine lor the goddess herself And 
although he may part his name and hair in the 
middle, and be the df— 
world will 

Write Plainly. 
The rejection of the manuscript of n 
liliar nutlior i? ncrliap' nftr-nir nn accoi 

It of il- 

i. ;< I..- HI r.jiK.i ihan to have 

.1. I Lipt,and the 
] ii. iitly entirely 
,,.,!,, I „„,■.. ..I -M.'i. l.-liionmanship. 
.KHicv knew so well the difficulty of 
correct judgment of an article by 

lo^t ill n 

i?ir Friin 

forming _ „ 

reading in manuscript, that, wheu uk stm m nn 

first article after he had retired from the Mdin 

bvrgh Rerinc, he had an understanding 

Napier, his 

.OOb.WlO has been added to the indebted- 
U of Europe, while over $,s 70.000,000, or about 
e-lhird of the public debt of r 
■, has been paid, 
ed more than any 
except Great Britai 

In 1865 the United States 
other nation in the world 
In ISSO it owes less than 
France, Great Britain, Russia, Spain, Austria- 
Hungary and Italy. 


Portu^ — 


Tiirkoy Eu»c 

,.S1,^8 28S,000 

should not be read being made f 


This table shows that while the funded indebt- 
edness of Europe has been increasing with extra- 
ordinary rapidity, the current expenses have 
hri'n running higher and higher, the comparison 
of profound peace. In the 

Bpray of forgei-me-nots. Ain't it 
All the giH? in school have them 
"How esqulsiiely lovely I Tell 


iliflVrentiation. I 
V in love with dif- 

molecules and 

,,- nice. And Mr. 

• \Mi 


" Tills 

" I don't mean that^that other.' 
"Oh I differentiation 1 ain't it 

got something to do with species. 

you tell one hat from another, 


And we l> 


linns, too. They arc the div 

absolutely enraptured wi'h ai 

It's the wiiy 
Du will know 
nm all about 
lesl thing." ! 

"Oh 1 no; nobody 

ver saw one 

except Mr 

Cook and Mr. Emersor 

. but they are 


like annx.r,., witl, » hung 

1 think Ill.^ M- .,-. i 

n. ul\ 


s photo engraved from c 

1 pen and ink copy ind is prestnted a> spetii 

1 of ornamental lettiiing and flourishing 

ing had any chanct of immediate adoption 
cau-'C each reformer had a theory of Ins i 
Spellmg had lagged behmd pronunciation 

The practical aspects of the que lion were 
for consideration at a future meeting of th 

The DsBOlation of High Art 



that night in lliu 

Phonetic and Spelling Reform. 

High art ha i 
been 8ub>-tii 
walks o( till 
schools hi^li 
high ait indiv 
in this piosaic old t 
come «o saturated w i 
the) cannothiok up i 
bui-^tingout It 
"How uii il 
that rignt II 
of thoutan 1 

he will 

"„ ,,', « 


IK'Ilillti 1- 

.1 A. II. 

forms »M,.i 
ceulrr ol \ 
tlouo iiii.l -. 
for tlip tin 
liclic ri'tui 

II eiilira 

I- Ens 

liui, lu'i'j, 

I, II hand «ide of hla 

It appeared in the proof A few years ago | United Stntes a vcr> different pohey bus b>en 

^hto^of the 8atu,,..„n^ 0. aec. , Mlowed ^J^^l^-^^J^'f^-^'^JZ^^'^^ 

\|Knse8, and the expinditures for 

1 \iar were t;2b7,*''*2 957 This 

iini) less than I-rantL expends 

I t HI) Icstham it costs to govtinder 

iiiin\ 11h iipenses of our country are not 

only less than those of these two powers 

the editor 

tomid to have 

It might be worth acci 

fore iktiding upon it 1 

like Thoma M 
able to foiiii 
until thtv had ^y 
Biiston IleraUl 

e seldom 

International Contrasts 
These are e\ilarating davs for Americans 
hen thL leading Engh h journal declares that 
the finantt ul the Tnit. d ^itntes may excitt 
lit env> lint t '\ 1 I i It I Itnt of Euiopi 
Dothe> fulh I I iihiance of the 

and the 

wiL-i the proi 
■eform in iho characters which were to 
be employed in written and printed fpcech. The 
three grand divisions wtre orihoplionie. ortholy- 
pic and orthographic. In phonetic reform there 
wiw a clussification of greot importanci' — the 
difterence between the Teutonic av Aiiglii Siixon 

and the Latin languugcj'. Tiiv Im j^.-i |.im|,m u 

of words admittetl into Aiigh- Si\m,i ,(1, ii,,ii;iiit - 
were of Latin origin, morr ilim i>\- ilimi- m 
fact. The Anglo-Saxon woiil- \\< ■■■■ \\\-i:- \\ 
were w*ed in everyday life, and » uli ihujL' lii > tin- 

difliculty in spelling'. The language.- ol l-alio ^ 

origin all have a more correct system of spelling ary, be will talk of protoph 

t because the waIN do not harmonize with 
complexion This is stated as a severely 
]< liK t and I II bad us the droll incident 

,^ I , ,1 ( I up to whuh the 

iiu II ijiiit I |li 1 liL cl I ps hei handb m 
ei.stut>, ludttd ilii' O' Algernon, let us — 
let us, I 8a> — trj to live up to ill 

There is no end to the desolation whah these 
high art gentle folk are bnnging upon thecommu 
n\X\ Comlortable homes are being turned into 
iiiournlul receptacles of art, and violent adjec- 
tives are used to profess senseless admiration 
for that which nobody really cares a button 
about If the despoiler comes in the person of a 
house painter, he insists upon a Greek tile man- 
tel, and talks largely of the Renais>ance. He 
wishes the balustrade to be an architectural sym- 
phony, and suraests a sunset effect in the dra- 
peries to give certain lambent devices, as it were, 
and then protests, af^er the manner of Mrs. Mi- 
cawber, that he will never Tudorize Greek ideals. 
I If the high art personage is a woman, she wears 
I her dresses after the manner of an overpowering 
responsibility, and speaks of a Dresden tetc — a 
; tete as "too awf\iUy lovely!" never in "her wild- 
I est dreams having imagined such a triumph of 

from the i 


, and diflerentia 

I Id « Do they 

J \ I I h then country 

:h. onh dibt paying nation 

the face of the earth ' We feai they do not 

i U l^ in the hope of helping them to do so 

of these 

Great Britain Rusbia Austna Hun|.ai 

and Italy hut they are proportionaltlj less than 
those ol am countr> in Euiope 

To the Unittd Staki therefore must be ac 
couled the fir«t plan among thu nations in econ 
oniy of administration as will asm dtbt paMnj, 
ability The American pc i 1' 'n'** not "nl> 
lived within their mtoiM i i ii i i " 

liitely cut down their c \ i i e 

and rapidity withwhich tli '' t 

financial obligations ha\t i i i ' i in 

tor) one of the mar\el3 ot mo leu- iinu \ ir- 
ih it 18 a good thing to be an AiueiiLun — 7 rib 

The SigTUJficance of a Billion 
one of the baik numbers of Tni. Abt 

. bif.ii 

the I 

This table shows that England and the Neth- 
erlands are the only European countries that 
have reduced their debts since 1866, and that 

NAL lb an article with 

the above 

the writer gi^ts „. 

. \triurJ 

hhow thCM til 1 

mtfrumth. l 

the pie tnt tm 

seconds has 1 | 

nioie than 31 {,-- 

S that on*. 

paper eaeh 1 333 of 

an inch in t 

.mid tiikt 

. a bilhnn 

] sheets of 

thickness, would 

reach an altitude of 48 348 miles 

Let us see if this la correct In one day there 
are 86,40u seconds and in one year of 3B5 doys 
31,657,600 seconds, and the number of )ears 
necessary to contain a billion seconds la one 
billion divided by 31.557,600, which gives u lit- 
tle more than 31 years. 

One billion sheets of paper, each 1-333 of an 
inch in thickness, would make a stack 3,003,003 
and 1-333 inches in height, and this reduced to 
miles equals only a little more than 47 miles. 

The writer hos evidently counted one period 
too many for a billion. 

Ve3. C. Bloot. 
In the article referred to above the writer evi 
dcntly based his calculations upon a bilhon by 
the English method of numeration, which con- 
sists of one million of millions, instead of our 
(French) method, by which a billion i.-' one thou- 
sand millions. — Euitob. 

'' ±ini '^j^sM ^ff'^ "^^ 

Educational Kot««. 

The inoooM of ColurobU CoUef:e tut yt^r 
from cn'Jowtnnitii and tiiitioo wu $32l,917,Sft, 
And, still, the eipcoaes run abcad of the iD' 

Mn. JcMic Fremont hu organiwd clUMS in 
hiilorj vnon;; llic p««ii-up soni &od daughters 
or poor Bcttlen ia Arizona. 

ProfeMon Jordan. Braxton, and Gilbert, of 
the Butler L'niTcnitr, at IndianafwUs, and Mi 
Cornelia M. Clapp, professor of zoologjat Mount 
Holroke Scminarj. Ma»v., with a partr of fwclre 
iludcnu of natural historr. including two ladic^, 
have roccnlljr completed a pedentrian tour 
through M;r(-ral of the Southern States. The 
party iraIkH about 450 milCH aad " roughed it " 
for about oiB weeks. 

The progrwa of language* Hpokf>n by different 
peoplea It* Mid to he as folloir* ; English, which at 
the commenoeincnt of the century was only 
apokcn by 22/K)O,000, is now ipoken by 9i),- 
OOO.fHX); RuKHiao, by 0»,OOO,(}OO, instead of 30,- 
00«>,000 ; Ocrroan, by 66.000,0<K>, instead of 88,. 
000,000; SpaniHh, by 'M.OOO.IXX), inntead of 
82.000,000 ; Italian, by 80,(io(i.OOO. instead of 
lA.OOO.OOO; Portugem?, la.OOO/MiO, instead of 
8,000,000. TfaiH is for Engli<<h an inereoae of 
810 percent.; for Ku«smn, 110 percent.; for 
German, 70 per eont. ; for Spanish, 36 per cent.; 
etc In tlio case uf French the increase has 
been from 34,<iO0,O*)0 to 4fi.oini.000, or 36 per 
oenl. — Western Kdueationai Jmtrnal. 

schools. — N. 7. lndep»ruUnt. 

The University of Michigan has at present in 
actual attcndnnce 1,517 students — thus lar its 
largest number. 

An important cipcrimcnt is being tried in the 
Boston public HchooU, where booka biive been 
excluded from thu primary departments, nnrl 
oral eicreiites and object Ics.onns subatiLutod. 
The young pupils are ecpecinlly taught to ex- 
prcsH idcftd in thoir own liingu.igc. The teachers 
lecture, or tulk, dully about ^ucil knowledge a^ 
tittle cbildron may best rciiuirc. 

The greatest prizes of English clerical life, 
IVom a pocuniury point of view, are the head 
mafltorsbipi of the great public schooU. Those 
of Eton and Harrow arc worth from $2fi,000 to 
|8B,no0 a year, and those of Weatminster, 
Wlnchoslor, Uugby, Chnrti>r House and Mor- 
choDt Taylors are worth from $l:>,uOO to $20,- 
000 a yoar, including the spacious iibodus iittueli- 
cd to them. The heads of colleges at Oxford 
and Cambridge do not, for the moul part re- 
o«iTe nearly so much. The master of Trinity 
CoU^, Cambridge-, the "botm" college, bus 
about 1 11,000 a year, and the Dean of Christ 
Church, who is also Dcuu of tlic Cathedral 
Church, over |lil,000 The next most lucrative 
position in Oxl'ord is President of Magdalen, 
which is worth about $10,000. Mugdulcu being 
a very wealthy ooUege. 

AuKitiCAN Schools. — President Eliot, ofllur- 
Tnrd, makes the statement that " there arc scat- 
tered over the United States about three huo- 
dred and sixty colleges or universities, exclu- 
sive of iustilutioDs wliicb receive only women. 
Of these nearly two hundred have been organic- 
od since 18ftO; only twenty were in existence 
before this century, and only twentr-eight wore 
in existence In 1H20." It will be observed that 
all but twenty-eight of our colleges have been 
foundeil within sixty years, and more than two 
hundred of lliom within thirty year*. All of our 
theological seminaries have been ei^tablished 
during this century. Andover, the oldest, was 
founded in 1807; iMncclon, iti 181:!; Hamilton, 
1820; Jlochester Theological Soniinary, 1862; 
Chicago Ilaptisl Seminary, 1807. 

Ooc of the boliefs stated at the recent meeting 
of the Rhode Island teachers wius that the time 
has come for deposing arithmetic as the moat 
Important study for ohildren, and substituting 
the study of the English language. 

Under the now laws of the State of Vermont, 
women are eligible to the olliee.s of town Clerk 
and towa Superintendent of schools in that 

Albans, Vermont. 

VanderbiU Univoraity rocejitly received $200,- 
000 in Louinrille and Nashville ruitroad ^tock, 
fh>m Mrs. Maggie Kmbry. 

ti School in Boston. 


Youup hopeful : " pa, do you know what is 
the difference between you and the moon * " Pa- 
rent : " Ko, my son 1 do not" Young hopeful : 
" Why. >ou see the moon gets fulloDcea month 
but you get— ■ That little boy has stopped 

askuig coDundroms. 

It took a Harvard !!tudent only two yesrb to 
conquer Latin, but he was four years karning 
bow to throw the laiiat ao as to enable him to 
earn thirty dollar* per month on a Texas ranches 
—Detroit Frat Preu. 

Johnny wanted to go to the circus, and his 
father said, "Johnny, I'd rather you'd go to 
school and study, and maybe you*tl be president 
some day." Said Johnny: *• Father, there's 
about one million bovs in the United States, 
isn't there?" "Well, dad, I'll sell out ray ■ 
chances for a circus-ticket." — OU City DerrieJe. ' 

" When a Freshman went into the registrar's I 
office to get his marks he was evidently aston- 
i.^hed on being informed that he got G. in by- ' 
giene. ' Hygiene," said he, ' why I never studi- 
ed hygiene.' " Yes, you did," was the rcsponnc, 
'under Prof. Parsons,' 'Oh!' said the Fresh- 
man, and a smile of childish joy beamed from 
his countenance, ' was that hygiene* I never 
knew what that was.'" — Brunoman. 

A company of Tossar girls were found hy a 
professor fencing w^th broomsticks in the Gym- 
nasium. He reminded the young ladic»s that 
such an accomplishment would not aid them in 
securing liusbands. "It will help us to keep 
Ihcra in order," replied one of the girls. — Ez^ 

Miss H (who has chosed medicine as a 

profession) to professor, who has given the 
class an ox's heart to dissect : '* 0, professor, 
can't we have forks to handle il with ?" — Vaavir 

Valuable Suggestiona. 

The fcllowing circular has been sent to every 
school in Chenango County . 

After carefully studying the needs of our 
schonU, and becoming convince*] that there i" a 
lack in the work of preparing our pupils for in- 
telligent cilist.'nship, we have prepared the fol- 
lowing questions as a partial •niiite to loavhers. 
to assist them in this very desirable undertak- 
ing : 

First— Xame the different offices in each 
town, and the duties of each. 

Second — Kamethe different county officer, the 
term of office and the duties of each. 

Third — Give the number of Stato officers in 
New Voik, the duties of each, the length of time 
each holds office ; also name the present incuni< 

Fourth— TcW how the President is elected ; 
give title and name of his cabinet officers. 

FfJthSuiic the number of Judge* in the 
Supreme Court of the United Sute<; how 
they obtain their position, and how long 
they continue in office ; also name the present 
incumbents and the States they are from. 

Sixth— What are the various courts of the 
Slate of New York ? 

Seventh — In what judicial district of New 
York is Chenango County; what counties com- 
prise this district ? Give the number of judges, 
term of office, present iDcumbeuts, and what 
counties thcv are from. 

We trust DO teaeber will fret this a burdoi. 
hut on the contrary, that each will uke pleasure 
ill presetting tbe?e topics which Kre so intimate- 
ly connected with our every day life, 

how .^uccessfiil the teachers haw been in this 
new departure. Wishing you all a pleasant 
term of school, and great success in your work, 

Yours Very Truly. 

L C. Havbs, 
Norwich. Oct. 15. I8fi0. J. K. Bahtoo, 

Srhool CommiMuontrt, Chriutngo Co. 

The Education of the Presidents. 
There have been twenty l^sidents of the Uni- 
ted Slates; tliirioeu of whom have i-ccelved a 
college education, seven were not liberally edu- 
cated. Below we givv the names of the Presi- 
dents in their order, in conneolion with the 
name of the college from which they have grad- 
uated or the extent of education they havo 
each received : 

-tudied the 
J eff.-rson— William and Marv. 
Monroe— William and Mary. 
Adams, J. Q. — Hiirvard. 
Jackson — Limited education. 
Van Buren — Academic education. 

The above cut was phott 
Normal College, Whitehall. Ind. 

the Northern Indiana 

Said a school teacher, " If 1 have ten apples 
and give you five and your big brother live, 
what will he left?" "I'll be left," responded 
the younger brother, "for ho will get away with 
all of them." 

I'll teach you to lie, and steal, and smoke, 
use profane language," said an irute Galves- 
parcut to his eldest offspnng. at the same 
time swinging a good siecd sapling, " Pll teach 
you young scamp." "Never mind, father, 
ow all them branches already." 

is a beautifully starry night, and two 
3rs are out singing, the first Senior who 
atotronomy— "lA>ok up there, and see 

itreak of Irish blood—" Is that O'Hyan ? Thuuk 
the Lord, then there is one Irishman in heaven, 
lyhow!" — Ci/rneU Era. 

A Professor wa^ explaining in a young ladies 
school in France the theory according to which 
the body is entirely renewed every seven years. 

Thus, Mile. F " said he, addressing a 

blonde with a wide-a-awake face, " in seven 

yeara you will be no longer Mile. F ." " I 

hope not," replied the unsophisticated damsel, 
casting down her eyes. — Notre Dame Seholaatic. 

In Vixo ViERiTAS.— BaiIlieVerintosh(sc>Avo/ 
truatee., uho wijAed to addreM Uu eAUdren 
aftfr tuw-hfon) "Xoo. bairns, aw'll jcest tall 
c're a' like sheps— some's en poarrt, some's 
oot i' med-oeeao, :^me's near the haven. 
■ jeMt Icuvinc poarrt. Ash f* me, aw 
thenk oinn aboot hauf sheash over." [Affrced 

College professor (to Jonior. who has been 
taking advantage of his absvDt-niitidednes.'i : ) 
" Young man, I find on looking over the re^.■o^d^ 
that this makes the Mb time in two years that 
you have been granted leave of absciKe to at- 
tend your grandmother's funeraL — ^lu^n's C<A. 

Eight — Slate Ihe duties of the Grand and 
Trial Juries. 

Ninth — What are the necessary (|ualifica- 
tion!« to become eligible to the office of President 
of the United States, United States Senator and 
Mcnilici' of the House of Keprcsent^itives y 

Ttrnth-Oi what two houses does the State 
Legislature consist? Tell how many members 
in each House ; also how often the Legislature 

Elecfntfi — In what congix'ssional district is 
Chenango County? How many counties com* 
prise it ? Who is our present representative? 

Ttoelfth—Moyi many U. S. Senators bus each 
State? How arc they elected? Name the pre- 
sent Scnulori) from New York. 

Thirteenth— \\\\i\X is the constitution o( a 

Fourteenth — Into what three departments is 
our ;:overnmcnt divided y 

Fifteenth — What becomes of a law passed 
in violation of the Constitution * 

SiJ^terntit — What is the veto of the eiecu- 

Srventeenth— How many Mints in the U. S? 
Where are they loi-ated? 

Eighteenth — Explain the postal service of the 

Nineteenth — What is the name of the Super- 
btvndent of Public Instniction? 

Twentieth — State when the school year c«m- 
mence^, and how many days of schuiil nmst each 
diAtricl have annually in order to dmw public 

Two copies of the above qui-^'tions will be 
si-nt to each school district in the County. We 
rett^est the teachers to have one copy poste<l 
permanently in a conspicuous place in the 
school room, where the pupils may have free 

We al^ rvqucst that oral inslruetinns be 
given from time to time as the opportunity pre- 
sents itseit until the pupils beeome familiar with 
each topic. Wc feel confidiut titat much know- 
li-dge may be gained in this nay with a small 
amount of time and labor expended. 

Harrison — Hampden Sidney College 

Tyler— William and Mary. 

Polk— University of North Carolina. 

Taylor. — Slightest rudiments. 

Fiiraore — Not liberally educated' 

Pierce— I J„wdoin. 

Buchanan— Dirkiiison. 

Lincoln— Edunition limited. 

Johnson — Self educated. 

Grunt— West Point 

Haves- Harvard. 

Garfield— Williams. 

M(.iinir.M,.iFi,,ul- i;.l M.I _', n!' Monroe 

lelteoil, .. .irrny. R- 

nafu-iii! n <. ..r a full 

cour>.'. I'n.i. « I- -I aI,, ,, _., iiiriiiting, bc- 

iiigiw.'ut>.ihi.. , T.1,1. li,. ,..l;u.. ... .-rvenleen. 

The majority ^r-idiijud at l«in[y, llits being the 
average age. Jefferson probably had the most 
liberal education and broadeot culture. It is 
sa:d that hi* range of knowledge would eom- 
pan- favorably with that of Burke. The drill at 
West Point msy be considered e<|ual to a col- 
lege course, and in many respects superior. Id 
discipline and maiheiitatiual training, it is not 
efiualled by any American college. It will he 

Multum in Parvo. 

A short hand com p. til ion wa* recently opened 
in Engtiind, the system bring Pitman's and the 
object to inscribe as mrtny words as possible on 
one side of an English pos^ca^d, the writing to 
be legible to the naked eye. The first prize in 
this competition was awsrdcd to G. H. David- 
son, chief short-hand and correspondi-noe clerk 
to Me^r>. Pe^k, Kr««n k Co., whose post-card 
cooiaineO 82.363 words including the whole of 
Goldsmith's "She Sloops to Conquer,'' an essay 
on John Morlev snd half of Holcroft's " Road to 
Ruin." Id theDi-cIaratiODOflndependence there 
is 1,873 word», it could, therefore, have been 
written upon the postal cud over twenty-baso 

InMTtlcm 35 oentu per line nonp&reU 

nooth. 3 iDo». tnos. 1 tmi 
- - ' --- " siori 00 llBoo 

1 Colunut IS5 

H *■ 

1 mcbllSUDM).. 

Heading nuttlrr. E 

MIM.iai, IMiimiKVTS. 

iJ> and one year, paj-ftbie quarter 


oadofllng Sl.fK 
of PropW"." 22x28 ; oi 

■' I/ird'H Prayer." JOxM 
12 ; Oie " Centennial Plotni _ . 
'■Bniiii<Iliui8ta«." 24x32. For SI 

B8' Compoudium o 

ui ti PucJiar<l'§ OonkH of i'oamiuiflliip." 


1 8p£ci\i. premium to tbo sender. w« wi 
each subscrtbor, an foUovs : 

..«] 1 


< 8t. (Fleet St. 1 

Loudon, Hiiglnnd, 


Renewing Subscriptions. 
Miinv of our olil subscribers compluiii lict-miae 
their paper lias stopped when tho term of their 
siihstriptiou expired, considering it as an Indica- 
tion of an unwillingness on our part to trust 
thorn for the small sum of ?1.00. This is 
ahogethcr a mist^iken view of the matter. The 
fui-t that the paper stops is without signiflcance 
respecling our wiJlinRiiess or unwillingness to 
trust anybody, as it does so in accordance with 
a pi-ni'ral rule, which appliis alii<e to all buI). 
scribers, and without even any upccial knowl- 
cilf-e oil our p;trt. Many persona would seem to 
think that we actually wrote the wrappers, fold- 
ed, stamped the papers, and performed all the 
details of the mailing office, and was personally 
cognizant of just when each subscription ex- 
pired, and dealt with each subscriber just in ac- 
cordance with our calimate of his trustworth- 
iness, while, as a matter of fact, these are all de- 
tails of which we personally know nothing. In 
accordance with our instructions, the mailing 
clerk gives notice by postal card to every sub. 
scriber the month previous to the expiration of 
ihi'ir subscription, and invariably ceases to mail 
the paper thereafter unless the subscription is 
renewed. We are frequently reciuested to mail 
the .JorRNAL on credit, which we invariably de 
cliuetodo; not so much from an unwilUngnesa 
to trust as from our desire to escape the labor 
and harrassmg detail ot keeping and collecting 

Mailing the Journal. 
Previous to November last, when the printing 
Office of Thb .I..UHSAL was destroyed by fire, it 
was our effori to mail the JorRXAL between the 
first and fifth of each month, but the issue for 
that month was delayed until towards the end 

of the month, not wishing tt> [naii iio numbers 
within a few days of each other, we purposely 
delayed mailing succeeding issues until about 
the middle ol the month. The last number, 
however, owing to the unusual pressure upon 
our time, was not mailed until afterthetwentieth 
of the month. The present issue we mail about 
the 12th inst. We shall endeavorto mail the May 
number about the 10th, and all subsequent is- 
sues during the first week of each month. We 
have hitherto requested all subscribers not re- 
ceiving their paper on or Oefore the 15th of any 
month, to give notice. We would no«v suggest 
the 20th of each month as the date, after which 
such notice should be given. In mailing many 
thousand papers there is necessarily some delay, 
altift some inevitable mistakes, which cause mis- 
carriages nnd losses of papers ; a name is skip- 
ped in addressing, a wrapper misdirected or 
lorn off in the mail, kc, Ac., so that each month 
more or less complaints ore received; in all cases 
we endeavor to correct the error and remove its 
cause. No subscriber can be more desirous that 
their paper come promptly and certainly, than 
are its publisheis. 

Judging Character by Handwriting. 

Itis of common occurrence that advertisements 
for help oppear in our daily papers directing ap- 
plicants to address in their own handwriting, 
and by the character of i 
the applicants are judged, and fairly 

The experienced man of business, the astute 
lawyer, or other professional, reads in these 
almost unerringly, the talent, 
and general character of their au- 
thors. Such letters revea\, first, as a matter o 
observation, the artistic skill and litciary attain- 
ments of the writer; gecondlj/, by inference, his 
general taste and judgment. This inference is 
drawn from all the attendant circumstances, 
from the selection of writing material to the 
superscription and affixing of the postage stamp- 
Perhaps there are one hundred appHcants for 
a position; one is chosen; just why he will not 
know, while ninety-nine are left to wonder why 
their application was unsuccessful. Some were 
bad writers, some were bad spellers; one made 
a fatal revelation of his lack of good taste and 
judgment by selecting a large sized letter or 
foolscap sheet of paper, which he folded awk 
wardly to go into a very small sized envelope . 
anotlier used a page to express, in a loose, un- 
grammatical way, that which should have occu- 
pied no more than five or ten lines; another 
manifested a want of knowledge or taste in the 
arrangement of Iho several parts of his letter; 
thus every act and circumstance coimected with 
the letter speaks for or against its author, and 
accordingly he has been accepted or rejected. 
We dare say that in a vast majority of these 
cases the handwriting has been the chief indica- 
tion, and was alone sufficient to determine the 
fate of the applicant. 

The quality and style of one's wriUng not only 
shows directly of itself the writer's ability in 
that respect, but indirectly it goes much fur- 
igly indicative of the whole 
general character of the writer; for it is reason- 
able to infer that the same good taste, judgment, 
skill, patience and persisience which has given 
a thoroughly accomplished handwrit- 
ing will be eciually manifest and equally potent 
elements of success in any other direction in 
which they may he employed. 

Business vs. Professional Writing. 
EditoTH Penmaii'a An Journal. 

Will you oblige one of your many readers bv 
defining in the columns of'thc Jol-rnal, the dis- 
tinction you would make between business and 
professional penmanship ? and obhgp, 


Business is business, says the practical man of 
aflairs, and nothing more vcses him than un. 
necessary details. With him everythmg is 
viewed from the basis of dollars and cents; that 
which produces the greatest result with the least 
expenditure of time and labor, he gladly adopts. 
The necessary records, and correspondence of 
business are at best, tedious, and consume much 
time and labor, and when complicated and oruate 
styles of writing oro employed, this becomes 
doubly so ; no one more fully understands aud 
appreciates this, than does our practical business 
men, hence are they wont, to not only discard in 
their own practice, but to discourage every line 
or movement not necessary to the legibility and 
facility of executing writing. What we would 
then define as business writing, would be that 
which employs for all the letters those tpyes 

which combine in the large:*! degree, legibility, 
simplicity and ease of construction without su- 
perfluity. What we would define as professional 
writing, is that which is executed especially with 
the view of producing a plea^fing and artistic ef- 
ie<^,, in which grace of line, form and shade are 
o. far greater consideration than is speed and 
ease of execution. Tnder this head would come 
all engrossing and displayed penmanship. 

Writing in Public Schools. 

Considering the iinporUnce of a good hand 
writing, either as a business qualification, or as 
an accomplishment, it is always a matter of sur- 
prise that it receives, as a rule, so little consider- 
ation at the hands of public school boards and 
officers, as well as by teachers. 

It is rare, if ever, that a candidate for a posi- 
tion as teacher in a public school is questioned 
regarding their style of writing, or knowledge 
and capability of teaching it to their pupils; we 
believe that it is largely due to this indifference 
on the part of the responsible school officers of 
the country that writing is so poorly and unsuc- 
cessfully taught in our common schools. If a 
good hand writing and some analytical knowl- 
edge of writing and the proper mode of teaching 
it were made an essential feature in the examin- 
ations of candidates for teaching, aud certiK- 
cates were resolutely withheld from all who were 
in this respect deficient, and were subsequently 
held responsible for a fair proficiency by their 
pupils, we should very soon see a marked change 
for the better in this imporcant branch of educa- 
tion ; and the pupils of our public schools would, 
as a rule, become good practical writers, instead 
of, as ul present, very bad writers. 
The old, and very prevalant notion, that only 
■rtain ones having a "special gift " could he- 
mic accomplished writers, and that tJiey were 
bound to do so anyhow, is about played out, and 
should be so entirely, for nothing can be more 
false and pernicious. The same ability and 
effort that will enable a pupil to attain to pio- 
icy, in any other branch of education, if 
properly aided by skillful instructors, will enable 
him to become a good writer, and the sooner 
s recognized as a fact, and so treated by 
teachers and school officers, the sooner will writ 
assume its proper place in the curioulum of 
public schools, and will be treated both as 
irt and science, to be acquired iis much by 
ly as by practice, and as being fully within 
the power ef every pupil to acquire. 

King Club. 

This King this month is small, numbering only 

'ne, and comes from C. S. Chapman, Professor 

of Penmanship in Baylie's Business College, 

Dubuque, Iowa. Clubs have been numerous, 

but small. Many large ones are promised for 

month. Who will send the King ? 

Teachers Wanted. 

tention is invited to an advertisement in 
another column by Frank Goodman, Princijial of 
the P. & S. Business College, Nashville, Tenn. 

re pleased to learn that Mr. Goodman is en- 
joying an unusual degree of prosperity, lie is 
full of energv and apparently a good business 

ger, and is Vice-President of the "Business 
Educators Association of Ameriea." 

Writer's Cramp, or Pen Paralysis. 

M. T., of Philadelphia, says: Will you kindly 

oblige a new subscriber to your valuable paper 

by noticing in your column of "Inquiries " any 

lions tor relief to sufferers from " Writer's 
Cramp," or aa is better known "Bookkeeper's 
Paralysis," and oblige. 

(s. We believe that paralysis of the fingers 
results from one or a combination of two causes, 

from too tight a grip upon the penholder 

cramped finger movenicut. We have never 
yet known anyone holding the pen lightly and us- 

muscularorforearm movement to beafHict- 
ed with the cramp. We would advise you to use a 
very large-sized penholder, and endeavor to 
make use of the forearm movement while writ- 
ing, and omit all shade from your writing. We 
shall be pleased to know more fully the circum- 
stances of your case and the result of our 

A. H. Hinman paid us a visit a few days si 
He reports tliat his Business School rec 
ly opened at Worcester, Massachusetts, is 
cessful beyond his expectations, and now n 
bers upward of eighty pupils in atlendajice. 

Special Bates to Clubs. 

To favor teachers and pupils in schools where 
numerous copies of the Joi'rnal are desired, 
we ofler to mail it one year on the following very 
favomble terms: 
2mpl«« 11.75 I IB copies 18,15 

lOcoplM .... 6.00 I ISO copiea 6T.00 

To each subscriber will be mailed, as a pre- 
mium, with the first copy of the Jocrnal, as 
they may designate, either the " Bounding Stag." 
24x32 ; the " flourished Eagle," 24x32 ; the 
''Lord's Prayer," 19x82; or the "Picture of 
Progress," 22x28. For 60 cents extra all four 
of the premiums will be sent. These premiums 
were all originally executed with a pen, and are 
among the masterpieces of pen art. Either of 
them, to an admirer of skilled penmiinship, is 
worth the entire cost of a year's subscrtpUon. 

Send $1.00 Bills. 

W^e wish uur patrons to bear in mind that we 
do not desire postage stamps in payment for 
Bubscriplious, and that they should be sent only 
for fractional parts of a dollar, A dollar bill is 
much more convenient and safe to remit than 
the same amount in 1, 2 or 3 cent stamps- 
The actual risk of remitting money is slight — if 
properly directed not one miscarriage will occur 
in five hundred. Inclose the bills, and where 
letters containing money are sealed in presence 
of the postmaster we will assume all the risk. 

Value of Our Premiums. 
To any admirer of fine artistic penmanship, 
or any one desiring attnictive aud appropriate 
parlor or school-room pictures, each premium 
which we offer free to every subscriber, is fully 
worth the price of the JoDR.vAi.for a year, while 
we believe that the Jodrsal will many times re- 
pay the dollar it costs to any one aspiring to the 
attainment of good practical or fine artistic pen- 

Not Responsible. 
It should be distinctly understood that the 
editors of the Jodrsal are not to be held as in- 
dorsing unythingoutside of its editorial columns; 
all communications, not objectionable in their 
character, or devoid of interest oi merit, are re- 
ceived and published; if any person differs, the 
columns are equally open to him to say so and 
tell why. 

When Subscribtions May Begin. 
Subscriptions to the Journal may dale from 
any time since, and inclusive of September 1877. 
Alt the back numbers from that date with the 
four premiums will be sent for $300. All the 
numbers of 1880 and 1881, with cither two of 
the premiums will he sent for ?1.75. With all 
of our premiums for $2.00. 

How to Remit Money. 
The best and safest way is by Posl-ofRee order, 
or a bank drall on New York, next by registered 
latter. Fur fractional parts of a dollar, send 
postage stamps. Do not send personal checks, 
cspcciuUy for small sums, or Canadian postage 

Exchange Items. 

Tlif Stu(Unt«' Journal, published monthly 
by A, J. Graham, 744 Broadway, is devoted 
primarily to short-hand writing, and is one of 
our most interesting and valued eschangcs. 

Professor Graham is the author of "Standard 
Phonography," which is the most complete and 
practical system in use. Any person interested 
in phonography will find the journal specially 
interesting. It is mailed one year for §2.00; 
single copies, SO cents. 

Th« Uluati'ated Scientific iV«c«, published 
by Munn & Co., 67 Park Row, is a splendidly 
illustrated monthly, devoted to the sciences, and 
their applications in the arts and industries. In 
the March number is a series of fine illustrations 
ofCapt.Eada' great ship railway between the At- 
lantic and Pacific oceans. It is mailed one year 
for tl.St); single copies, 16 cents. 

The Pcmnan'a Oaeette now puts in its 
monthly appearance, and is well filled with en- 
tertaining reading matter and attractive illustra- 
Mr. Gaskcll evidently has not forgotten 
conduct an interesting penmah's paper, 
and at the very low price of 76 cents per year, it 
should certainly have a wide circulation. 

Tlic N. J. Buainesa College Annual, pub- 
lished by Messrs. Miller j: Drake, proprietors of 
the New Jersey Business College, Newark, N. J._ 
js one of the most readable, best printed, and 
college papers we have received. 

The nboTP cm waji phuto-ei)(;ravi-d by llic Mo: 
by John D. Willinma. 

K. B. II. IIoivo, Texns: (1) Wlml U a Ktroke 
in pniiimiiHliip ? ('-') When dow a atrtike icr- 
iiiiiiQlc V (S) How would you dwncribc the cnpi- 
(iilii aa funued by th« fifth prioviplc? 0. E. D. C. 

.In*. I. A fttroko of the pen Is any distinct 
iijtward, downward or lateral movement of the 
(H-ii. 2. This quwitlon wo cousider m iipplyinK 
to i-onnectcd wriiing, in vhic-h ca»e n stroke 
cnd« at the eentre of a turn, at the point o( 
nn angle, or at the terminal point of any Uuo. 
:i. The tirtli principle, according 10 Spencoriao 
>intilvsis, is (Icirrilied ai« nn oval, which aUo dc- 
nrribes ali-(tvr O. The A' id composed ofa sniall 
oval for Ihoiop part, joined by a loop to another 
liircor oval for the bottom. Tho bmly of the I) 
iy. also an oval. The C haj* a ^mall, direct ovul 
for iu initial, and lor it» body the left half of a 
larger oval, 

W. M. T., Easton, Ta., wishes to know if there 
ia any other color than bTaek for indelible ink. 
An*. We know of none. Can any of our 
ink manniaclurera inform u» upon that point ? 

r.L.R.,Grw!D»ootl,Mii**.: Will you be so kind 
la. to inlorm mc whether it is osscntial that the 
Inst two fingers should eoinc together. When I 
eornmuDco to write nty tingcn coinv together all 
right, but aa »oou as 1 make a loop letter then 
tliev parU If vou can give me any information 
..I. ihw point. It will be gratefully received by 
— Your» truly. 

Ans. By reference to the cuU at the be- 
ginning o( our writing lewon, on the first page 
of the JoCRSaL, you will «cc illustrated the cor- 
rect position of the hand while writing. The 
ihird nnd fourth fingers should be in eouUet, or 
nc«rly so, ami be hrwughl sufBeiently under the 
hand to permit the naiU to re»t upon the paper, 
ihiis fuminbing the hand a strong support, and 
the smooth surface of the nail* to glide upon th^ 
paper while wriling. 




Ans. Unshaded writing is most rapidly 
ftnd CAsily written, from the faet that it i^* es- 
eeuted with a light and uniform pre»>urv of the 
pen, while shaded writing requires a coa»tantly 
varying degrve of prus&ure, causing a oontrac- 

■>-Enprflving Co., No. 553 Pearl Street, New York, fVom a pnt?c 

tion and rclnzatiou ol all the muscles of the 
fingers with each upward and downward istroke 
of the pen, whiirh soon tires and someiime.s even 
purslysccs the muscles of the fingers. 

Jacob Sohwarti!, special teacher of writing in 
the public i^chools of Zane>villo, Ohio, writes a 
bamlsome letter. 

r. R. Cleary is teaching large writing cla!>ses 
at Carson City, Mich., from which place be 
vends a large club of subscribers for the JotiR- 

D. n. Parley, for many years past teacher of 
writing in the State Normal School at Trenton, 
N. J., is an accomplished penman and a popular 

Cards are issued by the students of the Spcn> 
eerinn Business College, Washington, D, C-, for 
their Twt*nty-nintb Annual Keuuion, which is to 
uke place on the 21st iniit. 

n. J. Williamson is teaching writing in the 
Vniveniity of North Carolina, at Cbapel Hill, 
N. C. He incloses several superior specimens 
of written cards and ofT-hand writing. 

W. S. James is Superintendent of Penman- 
ftbip in the Bishop Scott Grammar Sthool and 
the St. Helen's Hall (Female Seminary) at Port- 
land, Uregan. He is au easy and graceful 

J. G. Crost>, author of the " Electric" .'•ygtem of 
shoruhand writing, is t4-aching in the' lUinots 
Weslevau TnivctNity at Bloomin^Ue, 111. Mr. 
Crf«s enjoys the reputation of bemg a surcc&S' 
ful teacher. 

U. F. Smith, of Northeast Pennsylvania, was 
lately awanlcil the first prii« for gr«iii<sl im- 
provement in writing during the pa.«I winter at 
BryanlV Buffalo (N. Y.) Business I'ollcge. The 
priie eon^i^tcd ofa very handsome specimen of 
penmanship, cxo^'utcd by Messrs. 11. Loomi5 
and Geo. W. Davis, who arc the penmen of the 

Did you ever bear a cockney spell saloon* 
Scx'e : — There's a hes« an' a hay an* a hell, two 
hoes an' a hen ! — AUaf%ta (Oa.) Pott- App6al- 

,nd Packard's Gems of Penmanship. The original was flourihhed 

rnman^s Art Journal. 
:: — Will you please givo me your idea 
■egard to the respective position of the Eng- 

A. G- Ward, L'nion Grove, Iowa, scndti a hand - 
soinely flourished bird- 

N. L. Richmond, Bascom, Indiana, seiids i^cvc- 
rul creditably written copy slips. 

Au elegantly written letter comes from S. W. 
Swank, U. S. Treasury, Washington, D. C. 

J. W. Waterman, Belfast, Maine, sends a pack- 
age of finely written card specimens and flour- 

J. T. Collin.'*, Utoka, Ontario, encloses a hand- 
somely executed specimen of flourishing and 
several specimens of' copy writing. 

W. S. Downian, of Lynn, Massachusetts, sends 
a specimen of lettering and a drawing of a very 
artistic floral and bird design for album. 

U. S. Brewer, Vnlporaiso, Indiana, enclo-tes 
two highly artistic specimens of off-hand flourish- 
ing and several well written curd specimens. 

A gem of flourishing and an elegantly written 
letter comes from A. A. Clark who is teaching 
at Spenceriau Business College, Cleveland, Ohio. 

C. W. Bobbins, principal of the commercial 
department in Chrintian University, Missouri, 
sends a gracefully executed specimen of flour- 

W. H. Gibbs, penman at the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, Starkville, Mississippi, en- 
closes several creditable specimens of vard writ- 
ing and lettering. 

L. L. Tucker, Providence, Bhode Island, sends 
an attractive epccimen of flourishing iu the form 
ol a flourished wreath, in the centre of which is 
a bird design and old Btglish lettering. 

Maxwell Kennedy is teaching writing and 
bookkeeping at the UcDonough Normal, Scien- 
tific and Commercial College, at Macomb, Illi- 
nois. Mr. Kennedy writes a good hand. 

H W. Wannenwcclfich, a student at Sadler's 
Business College, Baltimore, Maryland, sends a 
letter written in a good practical hand and en- 
closes a creditable specimen of flourishing. 

V. A. W. Salmon, who \s ticket agent and tel- 
t-graph operator at East Bloorofield Station, 
Maryland, encloses in a handsomely written let- 
ter several fine specimens of card writing. 

J. R. Goodicr, teacher of penmanship in the 
Mayhem Business College^ Detroit, Michigan, 
writes an elegant busine.^ letter, in which he 
^ral specimens of grncetul ofT-hand 

flourishing and bu^i 


£xtra Copies of the Journal 
will b« sent free to teachers and other? who de- 
sire to make an effort tu secure a club of sub- 

of holding the pen ; 

liddle finger straight 

letting it drop 

lish and Ai 

the English holding the 

against the pen, and the J 

down. Itcapect fully, >. S. 

As to which of the above mentioned methods 
of holding the pen is preferable, depends upon 
what movement is employed ; where the finger 
movement is used, a more free and easy action 
will be obtained by bringing the end of the mid- 
dle against the pcn-holdcr, but when cither the 
wrist or arm movements arc used, less is required 
of the fingers, and the more easy method of 
hohling the pen by dropping the middle finger 
may well be adopted. 

The Penman's Art Journal for March opens 
with the seventh number of D. T. Ames's " Les- 
sons in Practical Writing," and the stress which 
this chief among artistic penmen here lays upon 
the advautiigcs of itystematic plainness in busi- 
ness writing would surprise those who know him 
only through his artistic pen-work. Lyman D. 
Smith contributca an ai-tlclcon ** Form and More- 
mcnt in Writing," in which sonie of the leading 
features that have of late worked themselves in 
as indispensable accessories to leading systems 
of penmanship are laid uj)on with such vigor 
that we have no doubt a newspaper war will be 
the result. The Jovusal editors evidently spare 
no pains to make the publication a valuable and 
interesting one to all who have any regard, not 
only for the artistic in penmanship, but for im- 
provement and excellence in plain business writ- 
ing. To those particularly, who wish to acquire 
a correct system of peumanship, and who have 
nut time or means to take lessons from a teacher, 
the Pkxman's Art Jodb.val will prove of inval- 
uable asaisUnce. Anyone who reads the Pen- 
man's Art Journal for a year and continues to 
write a poor and illegible hand may be set down 
as incorrigible; the editors seem to pos^eas the 
faculty of communicating their enthusiasm to 
their readeia, and the contents of the paper are 
so varied that evia the most indifferent reader 
will always find something U> ioterest him. The 
department of " Editortal Notes " and " Fancies," 
cditet] by B. F. Kelley, arc spicy, and the reader 
will inevitably find here some nuts to crack as a 
^miZf to the more solid repast. Tiix JointKAt 
is a monthly, and the price of subtcription only 
$1 a year. Office of publication, 205 Broadway. 
New York. A'otre Dame SeltoUuUe. 

An ink is popular in Paris, termed by the 
Parisians " Indies' Ink."* This is a fading ink, 
intended (or tender corrnpondcnce of a dabious 
character. All traces of it disappear completely 
in a month's time, or at about the same date, 
cynical bachelors might ^^ay, as ladies' fandcK 
themselves undei^ a change. Such inks have 
been used iu signing bond.i, I V*. and similar 
documents, with con^-quences that can better 
be imagined than described. They are made of 
an acqucouB solution of the iodide of starch. 

Ames' Compendium 
of Practical and Ornamental Penmanship is de- 
signed especially for the use of professional pen- 
men and artisU. It gives an unusual number of 
alphub(jt«, a well graded series of practical exer- 
cisea, and specimens for off-hand flourishing, 
and a great number of specimen sheeta of en- 
grosjied title-pagee, resolutions, certificates, 
memorials, etc. Zl is the most comprehensive, 
practical, useful, and popular work to all classes 
of professional penmen ever pubUahed. Sent, 
post-paid, to any address on receipt of $4.50, or 
as a premium for a club of 12 subscribers to the 

The following are a few of the many flattering 
DoUces from the press and patrons ; 

We have never seen a work containing so 
many iilphahets and desi^^ns of exquisite beauty. 
The' volume becomes at once a standard com- 
pendium of practical and ornamental penman- 
ship. We heartily commend this great work to 
our friends who seek the beat designs. — Na- 
tiurial Journal of Eilucatioji. 

We believe this work will more fully meet the 
wants of all classes of penmen and lovers of 
fine art than any other book ever published. It 
is more than a summary of all the works hereto- 
fore published pertaininc to ornamental penman- 
Bhip. — Sta/r of Hope, WillCamsport, Pa. 

It gives us all the old chirographic effects and 
Dew patterns. Whoever wishes to learn the 
mystery of fine and heavy lines, flourishes, and 
all wonderful pen arabesqnes will find as much 
as he is likely to master, — 2^ew York Trilnme. 

Penmen and artists have here specimens of 
almost every kind of work that can be done 
with the pen, Cousiderable artistic power and 
remarkable skill is shown all through the work. 
— PubUaiars" Weekly. 

It exceeds in extent, variety, and Rrtistie ex- 
cellence, as well as in its peculiar ad ptation for 
tho use of the penmen and artists, any work we 
have ever examined. — New York School Jour- 


■ li^ndbook of orna- 
Iii the preparation 

The entire volume is a model of beauty, and 
deserves the admiration snd esteem of all who 
appreciate perfect penmanship Ht its proper 
wovth.—Daili/ Telegram, New York. 

We have no hesitation in pronouncing it to be 
in advance of all the works on the subject ever 
produced. No penman or student can afford to 
bo without it, — The PenmatCa Help. 

The work is got up in ueat and classic style, 
and is valuable to artists generally for its art- 
tistic merit and designs. — Tkt Mothem* Maga- 

It is the most complete and practical work on 
practical and ornamental penmanship we have 
ever seen, — EUsubetk {N. J.) Dally Journal. 

It is one of the finest publications of this 
class which has ever come under our notice, — 
The Manufacturer and BuiUler. 

It is one of the most elaborate and artistic 
works illustrative of this art Kvcr published. — 
American Bookseller. 

You have certainly taken a long step in ad- 

oncc of other authoi-s You have furnished 

h mo 1 1 lut f 1 m 1 irt St c de ignt. for rtso 

I 1 title pngi ttc 

I otl (.rs hat ha^ 

in spLUul advanta^i over other publiaitions 
of writing 18 m the proce»ts through which you 
exhibit {\\f* penman x in tetd of the enqracei ■< 
art It I V " t I preparati in and 

thorouf,! I 1 Id you OLtupv — 

ProJ s ! k 

It 1!) t mstructive — 

Prof LSI u Ui Pa 

I consider vour tOMPkMHtu a valuable con 
tribution to the li^t ot penmanship publica u 
ont which justlj exhibits, not only the au ho 
taKut but the prevmling taste and ^enms o ou 
tmics —Pnf H C bpencer, Wa«hn gU> 

It is tt work of great practical merit, pecu a y 
adapted for the use of penmen and artist 1 
covers the field of pen art more luUy than any 
other work I have ever examii.tfd, — Prof. Tho« 
£. Dolbear, Nm York. 

1 think it far .superior to anv work of th kind 
yet published. It meets the wants of every live 
penmen ; no ouergcUi: worko i ;iu afford "to be 
without iu—Prqf. A. A. Cktrky Nemark, N. J. 


^^LiSi^'^ ■-Jt,»&(* 

lf^^miinBl\ip^ [ 

This work is univen^ally conceded by the press, profi 
be the most comprehensive, practical, and -■'-■" — :j- • 
Sent, postpaid ' " ' 

address on receipt of $4. SO, 
above cut represents the title page of the work, which is 11 x 14 

?f^sional penman, and ^.., ^^..^ ^ 

) otnamciital penmanship ever pub bed 
premium for a club of twelve sub cr bersj 

t express my opi 

■an only say 
I progressive penman in 
be without it, — Prof. L, 

Amerita can afford 
Autre, Red Wing, Mi 

It contains an almost endless collection of 
designs adapted to the practical dep: 

'aluohU' work' It 
t expectations, — Prof. 

I am delighted with it. It is the most com- 
plete work of the kind I have ever seen— Pro/. 
W, C. Sandy, Troy, N. Y. 

I have never before examined a work of so 
much practical value to penmen. — Prof. H. W- 
Kibbe, Utim, N. Y. 

It is certainly the book of all books upon the 
art of penmanship, — Prof. O-CStockwell, Neic- 
ark, N. J. 


I find it even more than I anticipated h 

was something excellent. — G.C.Cannon.B to 

It is a work worthv of high esteem amo 
\^\M.—Prof. M.E. Blackman, Worcestci V 

It is a work that no penman in the land h 
be without.— Pro/. E.L.Bumett,Elmir V Y 
languine expects 
iter, Uc' 

It has enabled me to do more and bette k 
— Edwin Brower, Hartford, Conn. 

The CoMPENniDM is a beautiful thing.— i* / 
D. L. Mmsebnan, Qui'ncy, HI. 

It is a perfect model of penwork. — E. H V 
tera, OarretUville, 0!m. 

How to Get up Writing Classes 
A correspondent asks; "What is the 
way to get up a writing class, by canvassin m 
house to house, visiting the public sch 
both ? " 

The best method will differ according h 
reputation, taste and peculiar ability or 
plishmcnt of the person endeavoring to g 
the class. 

Persons with fine address and great p b 
ity and a taste not repugnant to doing so 
well and probably the best to canvass for p p 
Others whose forte is in their ability to 
specimens ond write effective circulars m gh d by exhibiting specimens and a libera d 
bution of circulars. We should by all m 
advi e visiting the public schools, and h 
dcavoi to enlist not only the teachers, b 
S(.hool othters in the interest of the cla d 

if practiLiU, secure the use of a public h 
room in which to ^ve the instruction 
meiitonous teachers will seldom fail to 
Wc know isome teachers who make use'o h 

above named methods and who seldom 

e. d upon nfin m d a n ha b 
meut he would see that here were the b 
the "orld simmered down into a compou 

A Few Apt Definitions 
Tennyson can take a worthless sheet of paper 
and by writing a poem on it make t wo th 
$5,000. That's genius. Mr. Vanderbil canwrte 
fewer words on a similar sheet and n ike t 
worth §511,000,000. That's capital. And he 
Unitod ytates Government can take an ounce 
and a quarter of gold and stamp upon t an 
"eagle bird" and "Twenty Dollar-^.' T 
money. The mechanic r,iM \ X. v.. 
worth $50 and make it ini. , i . !: 
That's skill. Thumenli,,, i ■ , 

worth 25 cents and sell iu ■- , . 

business. A lady can |;iiii,],a,c .in 
bonnet for §10, but prefers to pay §11 u 

s of earth lo $1 



BOOK I.I!<iT. 

The followme ib a an lUy compilwl Itet of popular 

Townsend 8 AnalfsiE of Letter Writlns fl 5 

of Ciil Go erument !S 

bhorter Co rue of C il Government '*& 

Bigli School Book l^eoplng 
J C Bryant 8 hew C «n ng House Book keepmi 
Hi kok s ij ence of the Hhnd 

Higgin on 8 \ unt Fo k His ory of United S a < 

A Pod Full of P'a 

PS d h 

ABhmwb g Yk 

h hhd b mhB hM 
h b C Th 

h Y k h ra m 

B g dp N h 

d k tf h mm h 


un Iiip Mar 


E gra r* r a i>i D a on and 


Th C nm n Sen e B nde 


tamps ok 


O BBE XR poiaiB In 

"^;^:.' '^ •" '"'t^:iM' ' x^^'S?^ "^"'^^ 

J-u-S-t E'-u.tilislLed- 

Sadler's Coiling House Aritkelic. 





J^ School or hoj olhpn wiKhlnK to Impmi 

iD|t, XttiBg urttbrr te*chw» nor unktoiir> of mr mn, 

DlKxM to W. P. CCKIPKR. Kln8«rvlU<>. AiOiUhuU 


S Series of 



Superior Writing Inks, 

Wrllin«-, Coyfinff, :narkinir. Indelible, 

HUmplnir. Japan, Stfloirrapblc, 

Sfinpathelhic, Gold, Silver, 

n'hlle. and Xran»rer 


EmbTarinff fluH 

Flow freely, rendnrim; tho Ugblfeil Btrokos 

plojed in Poo Flonriflbtuff. VLHlttug, Prio« or Sli 
Ckrd wrlUug. 

Allinr*« Aimortcd Colorci) Inka* 

Black. Thcwo co'lorw aro aU bnUlan't. doddod, an^ 
perfect unlfonnltj. 

Superio tender 
M it nrrlMw black, flutvut ffreelF, 
r tiilck? 

8cboots nill Bnd IhlH ink III'? hcsl adapted I 
aM it tvrlMw black. flMtvi* ffreel; 
neat nenctrnilon and ncrnia 

uldw nor tlilck< 

iillr reMiofo llie 


r pint botlte by espr^w 

i ounce bottle bj express. . 
Uereontile Ink, 


I. per bottle, ' 
Peniuan'M Ink Cabinet, 1 

Three quarter oil non bottle Wbite ink, 

Penman^ai Ink Cabinet, 

PRICE. ti.OO. 
Contains the following Inlut: S oe. bottle 

ttle ea^ h of Japan 

Mercantile. Deep-Block. 

Thna quart«r ounce bottle \V1ilte Ink, and H ounce 
bottle of botb Gold and SUver Inks. 

Special IVotIco to AgentH. 

To Card Write™. Studenta, or Teaclieni of Ponman- 

dal Ratca to Aftentfl," Address 


kT coDtainlag "Spe 

N. T. 

a prosenllug the following commendations, the man- 
pubU cation of but a few ot the numerous compll- 

ablo and dlBtiocUy roprc«entat|i 
petonl Judges of Writing 

Fred. D. Ailing, Es q : 

Mucilage, introduced int 
and since oonatantly la ui 
and (or General Writing o 

Office of Supt. of writing in High a 
Mr- Fred. D. Ailing. Bocbesler, N.' 

. April. 2Sth, I8B0. 

Union Padflc Railway Comiiany (EquiUble Building). 

Fred. D. Ailing, I 


i«ply to your Inquiry, I take pleasure 

Japan Inks, for soiuo time post, and ftnd them good la 
Yours, W. K. Oonuj, CosuIm'. 

Carter ■ CommeiviAl College. 

Pltlsflold. ; 

., Sol 

at tlie Mme time sbow iliatinctly ai once me nnest iinc« 
by goa-liiibt or tlav-lisbt, we prefer your Deep Black, oi 
Japinotd UerconUre Inks mlied. Tour Fancy Into 
M« tbn llDMt »Dd moat brUlUnt we bave used. 

Vi At Q, J. Akd»o>> Taooher of Penmanahlp. 


m um 



style for J2.00. Wo bave the 

tioD of this cl&M of work and guarantee the full 
Correspondence solicited. 


Eibbe's Conree of InBtmction in 



A series of fifteen lessons in Plali. Writing. Flourish 
ing. Lettering of various kinda. Pen-drawing, j;c. 

any school in tho country to-day, and at a small frac 
advantages oflorcd by this course. The prices of lesson 

wiU be sent on application. 


We will send small speclmans of our writing i 
ourisbing for 'JSc. Engraved Bi.t<.imens free. 


Lettering Tablet, 

melf ac^quiring a skill gratifying i 

in teiacblng lettering, and yet it I 
? accomplishment in the d piirtm 

n engaged for several yoam in ten 

Penman's Companion. 



t tockiDg to a drawing boanl. 
ehead by 

> by simply placing a 

moling Penmen^nd o1 

rapidly and hand- 

Photo and Photo-Lithographs 

H. W. Kibbe, 

Xo. 7 BOBART ST., 


il appropriate and attractive cuU designed and engraved especially for dUplajing Handbills 
pies issued by Teachers of Writing, Schools. Colleges, etc. By using these Cuts, HaitdbiUs 

« and Specimen 

t Specimen of each 
>. Kew Vork. 


ceipi of 10 ccnis. IviMiin, 
Blakcnian, Taylor & Co., 755 
Broad«va>', New York. 


Specimens, showing Improvement in Handwriting from Using 


(Sclf-Tcaching Penmanship), received l/ie pail Monlli. 

OMSll-H-; I KraSljl.! 

The best improvement this month comes from F. W. IIammokd, SinRcr MnnnfactininK Co., 

241 btalt. bt Chcago \Veg\(. lis poit a t in 1 uulogrtiphs (both ol I ar 1 ncv) belov 


evci;[,iitj'a* ilie ■■ sianilarl ■'''pR1Ce''onE ^cToV" ARrp" '""^ * '"* " " ' "^^'^ 

■=" Prof. G. A. GASKEIL, PrindpalJcrsey City Business College. 


promptly II 

It prompt rctumi, vrite > 

fttin, and w* wfU look U up. ' 

utcvTee win 

Fv^i3llslaoci IvIoaxtUly. «t 303 Bro«ciw«:^. for Sl.OO jrex- To 

- r^ft^^t oi fht P-'»t Opre oj Nae T<rrk, If. Y. (u »tn>nd-ehiM mntUr." 


VOL. V. XO. ",. 


nf «|n<!«llonrd llnndwrlllnv. 

pronirvd liT iiiJi>ll» « 

107 C 

1 nnmbt-w i> 

Ai*i*i.f;TO'« * r«.. 

Tof Oopy-Booloi." 
I. Now V^k. 

P«).«K«'. Tii;*flHii.iw' AMii Piiivrxiw- Suppliw, 

PrtMLlKl 1 

<I.A«II«K?l»ll*BKVAVrA JTrnATTOfn 


i-nTMBiTium. PA, 

ExIaMtotiMl 1840. 


& K-rUAT-rOK niiSIKK.HN 

,Ki;i:, 1'" s i"ti. St . I'hU^iHi.Uta. I'a, 

. II. NADI.KH, Pn-l.lrut of Uio 

ail. In 

I),' wnit.i. and fent ttirougti tli 
M»LT lo llie «)ui-*lion we wouW say ihnt we huw 
to a^itumc that most of our pupils, notwiihstand- 
infi all we may say oboul llic mwcuUr and 
(oreftrm moTcmcnt, will coittiouc lo write with 
tin- fi.iger movement ; it in used generally in 
iiiir ptihlie »clioola and by the great majority ol' 
tliosc who write, and very few practicing by 
themiiclves will uequire or even eomprehcnd Uic 
muncnlar movement. Kor a free nod ra[ud 
finger movemeni llie position of ihc pen as 
given iibore !;> the be«t poitsihie, but when une 
acquires the mu^culur movement and U!*es it 
conKtiinily, lew is required of the fingcro and 
the hi)Ider mtiy then, .-.nil we would advise, that 
il bJ droppei liGlow llie knuckle-joint, ntt it 
will he held with Ics* i-ffort, and from hnvinj; a 
diminished anale or slope iliv pen will glide 
much mure ciwily upon tlic paper. 

Another pupil asks whv the sniall r and » are 
iillowcd to occupy nioie space than the other 
conlmctcil letters ? Tills is beeuiise the dhoul- 
Ayt of the r .inii the tip of tlic * are mere pro, 
jok-tiooA and if lironght witiiiu the s]>ace of the 
otlivr contracted letters, they will appear by 
conlrafit quite diminutive in aiw. 

The following copy may be practiced as the 

Tenmanship, however beneficial, is pi'rhaps ol 
all other artx, the most ni^lccted, beyond what 
U necwwnry for ordinnrj occasions ; notwiih- 
standing, none ia moro tinsceptiblo of genuine or- 
nament, and real perfection ; or afford* n more 
ample scope for the display of genius and correct 

A eompK-tc and finished piece, is calculated to 
yield high pleasure to every mhnt, that basnbili- 
tv to discriminate between un ingenious cut and 
a' cAnual dash of the pen ; or can perceive the 
beuutiea of torm aii<l disposition, in a wild hut 
harmonious order of flourifihes and decorations. 

Regularity and 

of beauty in figure; bii 
tiM in the exhihitiou of Ibc^e tw( 
ciplvs, to the be?t udvantitgc, ;i( 
ulaim uncontested superiority. 

The waving line of Hogarth m 
by a maxtcrly penman, in sm-li 
gtaoeful forms, as to escii'' il"' ' 
of the most ciii-clcss obxn. i n 

'd the chief 
it is curtain, 
imwerHil prin- 
mianship may 

pure and original principles — rrinclples found- 



i of I 

Liculatcd to re.itraiu that arhitrury practice, 
and to prevent tho*e deviations of capiiee so 
inimical to the elegance and utility of writing. 
Tlie lettcn* of the alphabet are thereby reilueed 
to nn few elements a« poMible, consistently with 
a practical application; and Che pupil is thence 
conducted by regtdar and steady advances, to the 
most complex and refincil vrnnmeiitc. That ac- 

of tbo 

, may also be 

When wc conaidei the cumpaiative 
which due excellence is atlamod in ' 
the value of this will proportionabl; 
In the kindred art of drawing, an ex 
blalice of tlic original is produced by 
touches of the pencil, and frequent re 
meehanic-i, there 
slow and gradual progress 

Habits of effeminacy, sllfthcjis, and the like, 
howevei' firmly fixed, aro effeolually conquered, 
and followed by a surprising manual fuiilif, iit 
forming the most correct, masculine ninl i.. ,iiiti 
' ful strokes There Is another Itiiportaiii .lU m 
resubing from tlii- plan, wiiieh ileMrv,-« t. 
u'tui t. Tli.i.ii i< required in a very in 







From Uoanl».Annlytl'al Oiit'l" I" Hi 



PBiorro-Ei'KcriiitTVPK companv, 

ao Olio Stivul. New York. 
Photo ElN!K\<(n"'« (or lllUNtntloiui Arc rhoapor auil 


« BI'NI^-|->N COI.I.ECSE, 

(TwcDlr yvn at Wl Fultcni StMU 

The remote anriquity, indispensable benefit, 
iind when giaccfullyand correctly executed, just, 
ly admired beauties of the art of writing, cannot 
fail to recommenil it to the particular attention 
of an enlightened public. 

Ko one denies its importance in the busy 
spheres of life; and so intimately is it connected 
with the attainment of polite and useful knowl- 
etige, that wherever science is cultivated, it ia 
nece»sanly considered an essential introductory 
acquisition. Professional and commercial char- 
Bclers not only, but all rank; .ind eondilinn< of 

is tc thisinestimabU- iiti ' ' : 

for the learning of foMii' I ' > ■ i ''' 

century; and although \\^- ■ vr, - 

-•chicle of pllblli inl.uiu.mul., iv.i Uj. n 

.ion. In 
adv.intage« of a 
is poe^y behind- 
hand i« this respect.' The poet may lay aside 
\C\% composition for a month or longer time, 
wttboutany iovoiivenicnce; and then, resuming 
the subject', transpose ilie words, sujiply defii-Un- 
eies, and correct redundancies, until the wiml. 
meet his npprobaUon. But the penman eii.j' v 
no sHoh liberiv.or leisure forimprovcmcnt. I'l i 
Icetiou must be produced in the first attemi'i. i 
not at all. Designed emendations seldom fail i>i , 
issuing in contrary effectti. In what arc called 
the round-bands, particularly, aueh accuracy of I 
conception, and such command of the pen, at I 
the same in^-tant arc rcpiiiLHl. ..s will mnhh- Imu > 

strokes. Tho figui 

blrhjnd. lti'm-|. 

process, US a sine ; 

^Sl'lll K 

Id, i 

lid liberty, it may be fondly anticipated, that at 
o distant period, the art of writing, by a gcner- 
lis imtromin.- ol iiM>iriii>u idigilde. 

d by luying down iicumj)endiousset 
lie? it within the reach of iliose, 
situation, or other circunistaiu-es, 
I from the advantages of the beet 
•Hj^t parents and teucben', who have 
liii;; a study, yet who, from natives 
I uiul a regard to public utility, 
irv to teach it along with other 

1 otben 


r. K. CBAKDM!, 

Lessons in Practical Wntm<: 

eded i 

We arv asked by a member of our ela» if he 
may nut drop the pen-hohlcr beVuw the knuckle* 
jtiinl while nritiug. We atv pleased to have 
ibis question ^-ome to u« and would be ple«s«d 
to have others ronie. It is the interested and 
thiukiug pupil «bo avks question>. Especially 
i^thiotbeca when their question requires to 

lafc and convenient medium « 
and a fuitbhil renicin. t 
braucer of events, involving the interest ciilier ] cluir 
of individuals or communities; the blessing,-- to 
which it gives rise, exceed all imagination. 
Nothing furnishes a surer safeguard to the 
h.inkin:.' and commercial iutervatsofaSttteagainst 
: _ ilrin a finely engraven piece of pen- 

i-.trnpanied with elcguut and grsce- 

, .i, intricately wrought and skillfully 

I'hi- rea^mi \* obvious, because few 

.1 i.i.itlty ls,thatiium- 
ii"i.', are deterred 
■ iiti -uch miscliiev- 

Religion, literature, o>i i". -<'.■. 

together with tho rcfiuvd .iud itudvr nlaituuj ol 

polished life, would be siw-dily sucewded by the | 

vit.>nnrv indob'iiee, and r>arbarit\. of the savage 

, I II I iiiii parent, — Uc viev 
. la iiiidissciubled fondnei 
i liui.-i. as a pleasing speciiii 
ixjviioeJil; while, at the same 
I lake up the copy bimk, le^-^t 
stupidity of his child, by 


exhibits it to 
1 of skill and 
ne, he blush- 
e should be- 
colleclion o( 


The frequent morliticalion of pareni 
account, is. no doubt, a printnpal cause of that 
contempt. In which penmanship, as a pnlite ac- 
vompUshment, is too generally held. Hul the 
blame is ill charged, as well on the infertility 
of the art, aa the dulnusa o( children; for the 
true sounje of failure is the mode of instruction, 

In the present day, the art is acquired by 

prelenaing t 

nuii.-.- arc discernible, whichmay probably olleiid 
tile eye of a nice critic; but he hopes tbv rules, 
while thfv point them out, will at the s,>iiie time 
instruct the learner how they may bi* avoided. 

Ornamental writing is properly the province of 
adcpta in tho art. Indeed it is in Ibi» <)epart- 
mcDl, that the greatest latitude is given rr>r (he 

display of gciibib ; «l 
performance.;; nf tM !:;n 
exhibit manv ,.!■ i ._ 
very great •■ 


eeii till* best 


vu-rity; not 

but olsoinrh.iirttiil III ir in.] .,i i .-npng the dif. 
ferent branclirTi andliiilr.iHiTigib.- g.-neral effect. 
In fine,when wc lake into the penman's province 
theartof striking, and consider tltc eminent beau- 
ties which raav be produced ).^ ;i -U<- int.noix- 
ture of tho various ormin.M, * i.-. 
setoffwilhsmwIft(ortlM-, ukI 
judiciously placed, wc -li ■ "' 

who km 
i|)l. on which the science 
t because he can delineate 
ingl*, or pBTallelogram. 
m of the currvnt method of 
[iipletvly obviated upon the 
OS resolves the art into it> 

and the rolling pres.- : and that it h 
rited the golden and silver j>en-, whii 
ji-iiiiH'-' tx'.'tj ^ivi'D by the public, for i 

^- jLixg y-^m^r.. 

J;ifel' A/JUiUtx-X 

We are fjuitc sure tlml our rcudcrs will slinre 
our siitisfaction nt being oblc to present in tlicsc 
columns the portraits of two of the fnmcd 
Spencer brotlicn), since, by beholding the por- 
traits they can much better appreciate the 
anecdote related of these gentlemen in the 
Miiich number of the Jouhsal. Wc here re- 

"Uonry C. and Harvey A. Spencer, of Wash- 
ington, D. (',, are twin brothtTS. and so closely 
resemlile each other in their looks nml iitrsinml 
appearance as to be distiii^'n-ii 'i "ii - '■• ^'^ 
intimate acquaintances. 1 1 ' i < '. 
qucnt visitor at, uud is >>' i : < ' 

oi; c 

II, LI-. 

Sonlh for several years, was fmiri.'ly mikmnvn 
to any of them; recently llic two visited N«w 
York, and of course, ns all Rood penmen rto, 
honored oiir ennctum with a call. By pn^ 

arrangement Harvey, (hiiviii'.- I n jui-K"!! i-c- 

gardinp; name^, persons, .V' i nt-i..! ,i ir w 
moments in advance, t;M ■ n . . iIh' 

genial and Rraceful manm i ■ i ii i : i ..imi 

brother, nml was in turn mU ill i In- 

liters muy 
Iron I any 
visages luid 

CXcliiliiiilion^ wliirli ■;if(-li.-<l Ui-rirj 

The two brothers arc now associated in coii- 
dweting the Spencerinn Business College, Wash- 
ington, D. C, and for many years have been 
among the most noted und popular instructors 
in (he "true Spencerinn" in the country. In 
fai-t the Spencer Brothers, including the equally 
famous Lyman P. aUo of Wti3hin(;ion, Piatt K. 
of Cleveland, Ohio, and Robert C. of Milwaukee, 
Wis , possc-'is a fame as authors and leathers 
of writing more to he envied than any other 
equal number of penmen in the world. The 
father, P. ft. Spencer wm firet among the pen- 
men of his day and generation and all five of 
his «oi)s and several dau^htei^ seem to have 
inherited the full measure of his artistic geniuf, 
and wliut is rarely the t-use, the sons have re- 
!<umcd the labor begun by the father, and added 
new fame and new lustre to the name of 
" Spencer." 

During the past yeitr the Brothers H. C. & 
H. A., have been instrumental in orguniating in 
the city of Washtngtun nn a««ochition known 
as the " Chirographic Club," which has for it« 
object the euUivotion of u tasU' for and to 
populariKe writing as uu ucconiplishnicnt. The 
club has become quite popular und very re- 
cently, through the efforts of W, H. Sadler, 
President of Sadler's Bryant & Stratlon Business 
College of Baltimore, Md., the Brothera have 
assisted in organizing a similar ehib in that 
I'ity, respecting which we copy the following 
lioni the Baltimore papers. 

The closing exk-rcises of the Baltimore Chiro- 
grophic Club took place at the Bryant, Stratton 
and Sadler Business College last evening. 
The first and last spentiieii^^ of the eliirography 
of the members ot t^c rlnii iv,m.- -tilimitted for 

lamination to n -■ M„.,.of Prof. 

H. E. Sheplui i Baltimore 

schools; Janice i; v . mu-tident of 

commeixial dfpatti,,. ,,■ i: Jm,, ,,, i ity I'oUcgi. ; 
John B. Piet, the wtll-knowii bfiokselier; (k-orge 
N. McKcnue, hardware merchant, and John 
Ryan, type foundry. Prol. Shepherd presented 

the report on behalf of the committee, remark- 
ing that a very careful and thorough examina- 
tion and comparison of specimens had been 
made, and that on account of the great progress 
exhibited, it had been diHicuU to arrive at de- 
cisions. He reported, however, highest excel- 
lence in penmansiiip by Mr. R S. Collins, great- 
est progress among ladies by Miss Sallie L. 
N'orris. greatest progress among gentlemen by 
Mr. K. W. Tate. The members of the com- 
mittee each iu turn briefly addressed the club, 
congratulating them upon the advancement 
which had been made in practical penmanship, 
reSccting great credit upon the Spencer broth- 
er.-, insinutors of the club, and all the ladies 
ml _i ;ifl' ih, [1 ^^llo had enjoycd the advantages 

I i I running. The members of the 

:■■■■'■ iik] unanimously adopted reso- 
iii-iii\ coinplimcatary to the Spencer 
Innilie.N I'nii, \V. H. Patrick and the Bryant, 
Suattun und Sadler Business College. — Balti- 
more American of May 4t/i, 1881. 

at its closing exercises last evening reported 
and unanimously adopted the following reso- 
lutions : 

Whereas the Baltimore Chirographic Club 
having been established through the enterprise 
ot the Bryant, Stratton & Sadler Business Col- 
lege; and whereas to them we are indebted for 
securing the services of the Spencer Bros., 
originators and founders of Chirographic Clubs, 
who have fully demonstrated by the results ob- 
tained in this club that the art of writing can be 
well learned in a short course of lessons under 
their skillful management, be it, 

Reaoloed, That we heartily recommend the 
system of pemnanship as presented by the 
Spencer bros., not only for its simplicity und 
bwiuty, but for its* facility of easy and rapid 

Be*olved, That we tender our thanks to the 
Spencer Bros., for their uniform courtesy and 
kindness, and cordially recommend them to all 
who desire to improve their handwriting as in- 
structors of the highest skill and most unpar- 
alleled success. 

Jienolred, Thnt the Spencer Bro^.. have so 

simpiifie'l, ■/r'l'ipl I -^r-t.-tiiiitl I tlir- [u'nn-.--- 

olIcan.H,,- I. II,, t i..!n - ,, ,1 " , 

their praetienl ami able instruction. 

HfiKflved, That the club recognizes in Mr. 
W. H. Patrick, professor of penmanship of 
the Bryant, Stratton & Sadler Business Col- 
lege, who has 90 ably assisted the Spencer 
bros., un instructor in penmanship ol rare abil- 
ity, and earnestly commend him to the public as 
worthy of the f\illest confidence. 

CiiA«. E. Parr, Chairman, 

Wm. N. Haxal, ) Commiitee. 

E. H. Read. I 

John W. Wrmi, ) 

In* S. Fallin, President B. C. C. 

Wm. H. Thomas, Jr., Secretary B. C. C. 
— lialtimore Sun. 

The examining committee decided unanimous- 
ly that the members of the club who were bad 
writers at the beginning of the course had be- 
come goo<l, and those who were good writers 
at the beginning had greatly improved their 
writing during the sixteen les.'ions. 

Prof. Jas. R. Webster, of the examining com. 
miitee, who has been the professor of book- 
keeping and penmanship in the Baltimore City 
College for twenty-seven years, stated in his 
remarks that during all the years of his pro- 
fessional experience he had never hud such a 
high degree of satisfaction as in the eiamina- 
tion of the specimens ol penmanship exhibiting 

the improvement made by the members of. the 
Baltimore Chirographic Club — that he had never 
seen any improvement equal to it. He also 
said, " The Spencer Brothers may put that 
feather in their cap and wear it. I know not 
how I coutd give them a better one." 

Such an endorsement from Prof. Webster, 
from his long and successful career as a com- 
mercial teachtr, is of high authority. 

We htve before us a long list of the moat 
flattering testimonials bestowed upon the Spen- 
cer Bros, by distinguished patrons of their 
Washington College, which we would gladly 
copy had we the space ; but we are sure that 
no reader of the Journal needs to read testi- 
monials of these gentlemen in order to ascribe 
to them the highest merit and fame as author.- 

Write for the Jotimal. 
Brotfifir Penman: — I have a few questions to 
ask, which I wish you would read slowly and 
consider them one at a time. Will you look 
back at the^ehort-lived penmen's papers which 
have existed the past fifteen years, und compare 
them with the Penman's Art Joi'bnalV Has 
not the Jo0RN'Ai. far surpassed all previous ef- 
forts? Has not Mr. Ames given 10 the profes- 
sion the ablest conducted, the most elevating, 
instructive,. and the only permanent paper? Has 
he not done grandly in battling against the weak 
faith in penmen's papers and fairly lived down 
the belief that a penman's paper could not be 
reliable and permanent V Has he not done 
more than any penman in opening up to his 
brethren a view of the higher departments of 
pen-art, and lias he not done grandly in laying 
upon our tables in illustration and premiums a 
great mass of the richest and most artistic dt- 
sigris ever published y Did you ever get up a 
paper the s^ize of the Journal, and if so do you 
envy Mr. Ames the great task imposed upon iiim 
each month? And yet, considering all that Mr. 
Ames is doing and has done, some complain that 
the Journal is dry; and why? Arc we not, as 
penmen, more to blame than Brother Ames? 
Can he do more ? Should we not act as broth- 
ers, sharpen our pencils, jot down our experi- 
ences and send copy for the JoimNAL? When 
wc meet as penmen we are the bevt of follows in 
the world, why can't we be so through the Jorn- 
nal? Ames needs help, and in serving us has 
he not proven tried and true? When wc go to 
convention we all want to toot our little horns 
and we all wish what was being said by others 
was written so that wc could read it at our 
homes. The Journal is the best possible place 
for live teachers to (pve their ideas. In it there 
is always an audience embracing the whole of 
all that are awake in our profession, and 
many of our fellow-penmen have become well- 
known and are filling warm places in our 
hearts through their liberal articles written for 
the Journal, and what we all want is to find out 
who are the good fellows in our craft. To tins 
end let us all prove that we are not selfish but 
liberal hearted fellows gladiy willing to give our 
erpcrienceti. By so doing we will all feel better 
ami greatly assist our overworked friend Ames. 

A. H. HlNUAN. 

The Permanence of Penmanship. 

Evm now and then some new invention is 
brought biforc the public, which is intended to 
"take the place of th* pen." Ink pencils, stylo- 
grapbic pens, type writers, caligraphs, etc.. have 
followed each other in rapid succession, and 
there 16 no telling how many new candidates for 
popular fa^ or will startup within the next few 
jeaiN 'Improvement" is rampant just now. 
and tlu inventor has to rack his brain to keep 
up with the popular demaud for novelty. 

But one thing, at least, is certain. Penman- 
ship cannot be improved off the foce Of the 
eai th And why ? Because it is one of the im- 
mortal arts; it embodies thetruc cathotic princi- 
ple ; it is not utilitarian merely, but refining. 
Type-writers and ink pencils may relieve it of 
its drudgery ; may supercede the pen as an in- 
strument of manuol labor ; but no itmovatioD 
can afTeot penmanship as an a/rt. There the 
products of the masters will always rank its far 
above more mechanical products as paintings 
above chromos, and marble statues above plas- 
ter-of-Paris cast«. No artist penman need fear 
that his profession will ever be a sinecuie. 
There is as iimch inhorent value, as umch ideal 
beauty, in a fine work of the pen, as in the ere. 
ations of brush or chisel, and people are begin- 
ning to reolize it— as witness the unparalleled 
success of this Journal. Thirty years ago 
there was no room for penmanship as an art ; it 
was cultivated mainly as an auxiliary attain- 
ment, useful fornbU6in(S8 man and o copyist, 
but of no real esthetic value. Behold the 
change to-day ! Thousands of artists all over 
the lund are devoting themselves to penmanship 
ns a profession. They do not merely devote a 
few months to the acquirement of a good book- 
keeping or transcribing hand, but throw them- 
selves heart and soul'mto the good work of ele- 
vating und improving their orl. Nor do they 
lack enoouragemcDt. True excellence never 
goes uniewnrded. Their creations are sought 
alter by people of culture, as the exponents of a 



l-l ■ .^ ■ ■!■ ■■ I- ■ !■ . il.n„l(f01- 

lia.- inqiioved w.uid.rCiilly dining tin- piist decade, 
and can well nITord to resign its mciclv aooes- 
sury and utilitarian province to the caligranh, or 
any other mechauical apparatus which may be 
hereafter invented. 

Whatever may be the fate of the pen-drudge, 
the future of the pen-virtuoso is bright indeed; 
lllsurt is voiinf,', " 

»Ti,I rnll o 


i 111..- old 

..- what 
ii- .li^hl- 
r^! It is 
that has 
arts — why 

s the 

i.l—lei ii 1,^ 

The New Spencerian Compendium, 
By all who knew him. Father Spencer was be- 
loved for his large heartednessand his ivillingness 
to assist all who loved penmanship. Aside from 
the beautiful system which he developed his per- 
sonal qualitie.4 attached many to him who k"t it 
next to a crime to be other than loyal to all that 
was Spencerian. Believing that naluie will out 
in time, we have been looking for years for ihe 
sons to exhibit that same desire to eh-vate und 
perpetuate the art Spencerian that was sho>vn 
by Father Spencer; at last the time ban cnnie- 
Through years of eflbrt the Spencer Sons have 
kept in the front rank as pen-artists, and through 
the study of all that was artistic, have developed 
a conception of the true and beautiful to a high 
degree- Under the lead of Mr. Lyman P Spen- 
cer, the king of pen-arti?(ts, the S'pencpHnn au- 
thors are engaged upon u work wlil.h wilt prove 

rate engravers, the S|i, 

I': ■"■'■■• 'i"iy . 

hitiiseli nioie giainlly than to the compendium, 
nor liiil to feel tiiut the Spencerian authors art- 
doing a work of great value to the profession. 

Wi-TP Urutn nt t*y Mrtti, 

Tba vpwk ',1 iyyV» <U>inttr 

U( up Ihy wMl nr voHli. 








Jii»« to «tin 



trth ibnil. 


timUnt lb 

Irioit l^l^* 


uri.lUi|l life -. 


i»'>rUllt> a 


m.'Io Ur- o 


T...J^»I f«.l|nji .iniiw. 


1 tbtrlr ndriRM utd BueU* 


nn-J In Ih.* 

• tiuBiie. 

onill; In ibM 


ft<nr1>«inf f«rtb utd brs^m 

D':U>«tL Ihr gittn 


Tboglgw of counuBiarf of I ulb 

TliolottlDcMuf faith, 
Tl»7 m-Jinli kpcp on iinUlou ptgr. 

UpToiKl Ui<'tll|{bl iif dMttta. 
Ttao nobtcnuM nt thoiiKbt nod dvf< 

TlH- Uiolcly of w.,rt!i, 
Tbr piMl'>u'« liMl of ptirlly. 

Ttir^u;{li Ha-rvrl Lomoi 

ThP majoily 

»r Kmu 


Aluna ite hi^ «r t 

ututit : 

Tlioxpirlt (It 

II hAn. 



Imth ta 


Tlio brlUlnu>' 


w of llglil. 

TIm- qiiiolii 

wiof Hh 

Thob with .J 


Willi pcrlMt i» 

Tho boiu heart baUi foiiiiil a otroi 
'ritMiiUi9tb<'bu<bi ul wroutj. 
Along tlio maml of ilx inlKlil 

Ui>lb tiiirbp' Ibo Hwenp of jiwm— 
ru<lyiii]( low obirnalbopw, 

Att'l pnipbn:!™ of •Mm. 
Thi- rlw of kiondKin- aiil thoir pi 

l'<«r»n^ on Iby pulHi- datli Imip 

WItb Mrti'itw frum all Uin miuIm 
Thntiifib Ibeo lo Ihinb Ihrlr pari. 

Tbninnih ihn- (V4h Uw 

SducatioDAl Not«H. 

Notclb« pronuDCuti'jti of aqfpUc/r in Web 
flt«r^!< antbrid^cd. 

Colambia C'ollcfre profesMir* rvcrire ihe 
highest Mlari«8 in tb« pror<f«jiIoD. raoinilir fmm 
•3,*«) (o 17,500, ^ 

Yile Collrffe )>«gan conrprring dt-frreex in 1702 
an'] fiiocethit limr h«j. eiTen Ihetn lo 1I.M9 
iodiricliul*. excluiirrorv-iS hononrr degrvcK. 

Uai TMr ,. inconx- «t (iinrO College. m\ 
i'hiUrJt'iphia. antounu-d to »88rt,7».3. 

Mr. Jo*pph Wharton, of Philaderphia, \\»s 
given ♦l.'ici.iMtr) to th*- rnivemily cf Penii»;l- 
vHiiiK, K. loiind a driHirinieiit to instruci )<Mlug 
men in llie theories and |»rinpiplps of buninnut. 
—N. y. Srhwl J'mrnnl. 

John» Hopkins L'nireraity hax tna()eitii|iortant 
chaonea in the luual colletce curriculum, tl has 
DO (lied peiloiloriinieror attaining lo the dc- 
KTCC of A. H , but confers it wlicn thcr«iiii»itc 
Kinndard of 8t-hoIar»hip t* nMrhcd, be tho lime 
longer or t^horter. It is simed thnt there nre 
now on the rolls oftlie rniveriitjr, eight pradii- 
Bti'ii of other coHepeo who are receiving in-true- [ 
lion for which a^i-nemtion ago thty would have 
goiiu 10 GermaD>-._A' O. C/iriiHian AdroaiU. 

MiM Helen Taylor, ctcp-daughltT of the liitt- 
.?.)hi) Stuart Mill, haii for three venrs been a 
luemberot llip London School Board. She is 
Again a candidate, and with iicr Mrs. Lm-ud, a 
Bi>ter of John Brighl.— /*o«(. 

Prince Uopold. Queen Victoria's youngest 
won, had been opening a eollegiBlee«tabli>himnt 
m Slii-ffield bearing \m name. On the bnniicra 
lir. c't-dingliim he was styled the "Scholar I'rince." 

Lightntn; eaaglil and Umed hr Krvnklin 
Tiugnt to read and vrilr, and go on errand.*. >it 
HorKe Surled in the Foreign Tiade by rrtl'l. 
Cooper k Co., with Johnny Bull and Broihef 
JooatSana^ spevial partner^- — Journal of tA^ 

The Engliiih language i-i full of paradoxes. 
"Show me a fire, for I am wel," »aid ■ li»Telei. 
"briiv me alfrt a ju- of ale. for I am drj-" "You 
walk Tery slow." uid a man to ■ eon!>umptiTe. 
**Vw," he replied, "but I am going very fanl." 
Breaking both wrng^ ofnn ariiiT i.« sure lo make 
il fly, A general may win the dav. in a iMtlle 
fought at nighi. and a man detained an hour, 
may be able lo luakea minulo of it A fire po,-> 
ou'. and yet it does not leave the room ; and a 
man killed in a duel mar have a second to live 
aDcr hei»dead. Flgurr)>. it i» aaid, will never 
lie; ihia is not Inie of wonis — tfrtm<»' B(*. 

Aa he placed bia band on llm Fr-Mbmau'ii bead — fa. 
• Mr, B. ; " Prof., are the^o f^as-recciveni gradu- 
ated ? " Prof. D. : "They should be ; they have 
been her* more than four vean".'* — Qtu^n't 
f'otUgf Jnttrnat. 

"Con I give my son a college education at 
home ?" 8»y.* a proud and aniiou^i father. "Cer- 
tainly," replies an expert who knowa all about it. 
"AH yoii want i» a ba-seball guide, a racing shell, 
and a lew packages of cignretles." 

"Would you flay," asked Profesiior Steams, " i 
would rather walk.' or 'I had rather walk?"' 
"I would say," replied the smart, bod bov, "M 
bad rather ride,' mof^t empbaticidlv." And he 
was marked three below zero, with cloudv ur 
partly cle.iring weather.— flMr//nj?/tfn Ilaiekfyt. 

Many fonnn of flick excuses hare been handed 
lo tho faculty, but a tecenl one completely para- 

"Prof. X : Pleaae e 

Thk Mtstirv Or Tufc Htabs. (Stella Baflhieu. 
\*ssar. 'SI, has just been nrlating Mtnie asluund- 
ing astronomical Uk-V* and ligures) 

A. I>ul»lon Sloem^n C'nevir went in for thi.: 
sort of thinR, you know."t: "I ore h<.>w one Ci-i\ 
find *Hit how large and how far away the Stai . 
are. but. by Jove; 1 doni quite See how the*- 
found out Ihtir name*." — rWMmA.,i 


Flmcb, L«tts and Oivnk 
Sbrli-arn^ Out to •peak. 
'b>> ioa<W an anoonpUab*<l Ritiu cbvitt*» 

of pc 

The American Sunday-school I'nion have 
Btorted I'il schools in the Indian Territory. 

Mrs. Garfield is said to be the first of our 
Pri'sidents' wives who could oonvcrsc inielfigi- 
bly With the Foreign Mini-tcrs in the court 
Icinguagea of Europe.— i\'. }'. Schw/l Journal. 

Before calling your friend "lony" it would be 
well lo look in Webster, to judge of the 
apiu-oprintcuess of the term. 

The number of TolumeM hi the National Lib- 
rary of Paris is S,ii78.O0O, in the library of the 
liiilish Museum, l.lKtO.llOO, and in that of ihu 
Vatican. :tO.(H>0 aud Sft.OOl) mauuseripis.— OA/o 
Ktiwati'mat Monthl/f. 

The new High School buildintr in Boaton 
e«wt *80.i.00l>. 
Thiriy.fiv* Stntisare represented an>ong Michi- 
;:aTi Hui versify 'a 1,400 students, besides Ei jjland, 
IVis^ia, Japan, Burmah, Hawaii, the Bernmdas, 
aud the provinces of Ontario. Quebec, and Kcw 
Brunswick.— f'nj><T«i'/y PrfM. 

Steps h«ve been t«ken at Ilnrvurd College lo- 
wartl the onpiuiiation ol a Harvard legifltature, 
which i- desit-ned to teach, in n pm^iictl way, 
parliameiitiiry forms and ihe rules of delrate. 
"Jvery i.iembcr will be pUccd on some commit- 
»-e, and there will be two oflScers, a speaker and 

"I b;--lievcthal thcgr^'atcst intidkvtual revo- 
iitionn-ankiniru,- ^.^ . Vn i* slowly taking 

plan- Im ■' ■ ■ ■ n.'f She is lt;aching 

lh.-»T' iiurt of appeal is 

obMM* . 'ud not authority ; 

^I"-i- the value of eVi- 

''<■«'■•■ > ' .i>d lirinj: faith in 

thevxist.n, I.tiin,>it,i.l,. moral and phvsieal 

Uas.perlevl ubt-lipno.|„ which is the hi'zhesi 
possible aim of an mielliKiiit being." — //t/rfry. 
The wUe tnd wiuy Thumoa Fuller once well 
said : "A good seboolmasicr studielb bis scholars' 
nalurri' a» carefully as they their books." 

Never address your eonversiUioD to a person 
cngag«d in fooling up it eoluiuii of figures. 
Thei-e's nothhig so rieaf ua nn adder —.V Y 

Sad Miss Posigush to Svntax. the college 
tutor, "So vol- teach at Hiirvui.l ! Tbiil n.ust be 
sodeligbtful. Pni -.r. l! .; H,, n I -|,,„ild be 

frightened to deal) .i i,. rmlents 

with Haifa dozen i... ,r their 

tongues' end. I Mipi r',. ^ n,^,, -immK Eng- 

tiah at all." "Very «-el.iom H[Mak ii. ' -.Aid Syn 
tax, in n dreamy way. "There ! I knew Ibev 
didn't," continued Miss Posigush. "Whiit lan- 
guage do they speak most, Mr. Syntax, (Jrcek or 
Latin, or — " "dtang," icplicd the tutor, with 
laconic simplicity.— iV. T. Tritmne. 

Mixed Mathematics. — Given: A donkey engine, 
to find its horse power. — PolyUtJirUe. 

The little Eskimo children are said to learn to 
read easily, though they havo such words na 
I "kasuerflgasHkangitdliunamarysok" to wrestle 
I with. 

A big boy in u country school defied the 
teacher to make him spell a word. The word 
was window, and, to illustniie il, the teacher 
threw the Mg boy plump through il. Some 
teachers are very pani-»-takiog with their pupiU 

Its Usk. — In a primary school, not very long 
ago, the teacher undertook to eonvev to her 
pupils an idea of the usee of the hypb'eo. She 
wrote on the blackboard "Bird's-nesI," and, 
pointiitg to the hyphen, a-nked (he school, "What 
is thnt for*" Alter a short pause, a young son 


f the Emerald Me piped 
for the burd to rhoosi on V 

"Arvhiuiede.1, j 
ity on giliing i 
priDvipte never occomd to him beforv ? 

"Perha|ts this was the fir»t time he i 

what they would do if ihey saw a Kar. Tbe, 
would pnibatly wall and gel hugged. 

A Mtehignn farmer writer lo the faculty oi 
Vale : " VVIwt are your u-rms for a year • And 
docs it cost any extra if iny SOD wants to retd 
and write, as well as row a boat ?"— I'ntttTnty. 

A " Sum " in arithmetic. Il you can get t !..■ 
towel out of one vard of cloth, bow manv lowcN 
can you get oul of two vanls • The end' man ol 
the (Jeorj-ift Minstrels saya it depends nltogethir 
on how lunny ihere arc on the clolbcs line. 

Satisfactory explanation: "Whv wire vou laie 
Ibis morning, sir?" said the iVa.licr,' rather 
sharply. " Well, sir, you see, I h.-(ird that a liltle 
fellow next door lo hs iva-* goin" lo have .i 
drcssiQ' down with o bul coni, .tnd >n I wunivd 
to hear him howl."- //oafr./i Tranrript. 

ami the piveeding nuiiibci of ihoJorrx/Lwe 
are indebted to Mr. E. R. Sc> it. Auilcixbutg. 

What is Practical Education. 

prublcm that receives wi.'.-h- ,iifV,T nt an-^eix: 
front the man who ili-lii'i ii mi l>i .m tn tinsti- 
his time sindying gin-i i(,ln i, , ,.i , i,. -sn^a't 
going to be a sailor, iiikI ilir ii,rM|,l,v-)u:iu uI>o 
duci'iu the solution of llic iiixjIuM.- mid tin- 
pursuit of the uncatchnbic Ihc only iniittei.^ 
really worthy of a man's altenlioii. To oiu- 
class of persons only, thai is practical in 
education, which teaches a hoy how lie 
can best earii a living when he is a nnin; 
to another class, usually stigmatised by the («"(* 
flimnt] imicUvai men as rhoorl-.ts anddooditi 
aires, anxlhing is pruuttcal that lends to mak<- :i 
mull good and happy; in oilicp words, auyUuii,- 
that dcveloirt the facnllics, enlargeji the menlitl 
vision, liains the juilgineiit, and aids n mun V 
rise juperior to his surnniii !iii:<Mm I draw hi, 
eiyoyment from rcservoii-s thai llic mir^liups g( lil. 
canuul destroy and cannot injure. But an edn 
cation that aims at this involves an expendiini 
of time that most bovit cannot secure, and, t;\ 
spite of that quality wbicli is alHimed by ihi- 
Declaration of Indepci.'liMc ■, a large pi-opoitiuii 
of hoys could not ap[)riipi'iulc even were t)ie 
time and money at their di^iosal. For the 
great majotiiy of boys mid giils, cdu-.-ati'm con 
sislB, and must consist, cbieflyin that which will 
make them most fully able to grapple suciv.*.. 
fully with the active ilulirs and slern realitica ol 
evviy-day life; thoii<iandB of lives have (noioii 
abortivi- failunM froi-) liic!i of this edueattott. 
Noi\.Ti!.r t'i II r!i It ill.- |M-,i|,l,. have become 

''!--■■ '■ ■' iii I ■' I .11 rii . io;iDy cltti;-lm(i 

'}■'■ "• ■ ■! ■ ■ .■.^( i dcvoled- 

l\ .i|'l"- .1, .1- 'il'! th.'i 'Ai ,- .,1.1 --[.iirli'ii king, (of 
an e.ltn-ition iIju; iwll h- ol soni.- pmeth-Hl 
Mliliiy to tlicir children when tlicy atv- men and 
women; and il la fa'r to pri'sumc tint those in- 
blitutiuns of harmony thnt moi^ closely adhc.i.- 
to this motto, old as ii is, will ufuci-.-rsity be iIk- 
tiiust suc(c»<rul, as thi-y undoubtedly deserve to 

On the teachers of e*viy nam - and grade 
there devolve^ a great responsibility in inukhig 
of instruction practical an 1 of 
real, genuine utility to ntudcut*. To rio thi:* 
e»9fully, denial viKiliuce is n •; -xary, mid 
above nil each one should sec lo imiitMV-nient ol 
himself in every possible manner. Tiie irilliii;: 
of the Joi'rnaL and education .il papers, ot 
r«c will enable you to b?oome oonstani read 
of these valuable auilliories, ro ab^olulely 
ecure that knowledge wlifch yoa 
e daily and hourly imparting to pDpib. 
We who have .ipent a lifu-lime in ihe gwd 
work mo!t sincerely hope (hat edut-alion ol r. 
people for the people and by ihe [K-oplf I 
hich miliion^t of dollars is being exjieudcd. > > 
yeariy continue to grow more uicl-:!, pia i. 
id seojiblc- 

Extra Copies of the Journal 
ill be sent free to teacher- ant nih(-r< wbi> ■ 
re lo make an effort to.'.-i;un- n c'ub ol •>• 





The above cut'ls pboto-eugraverl. one-lmlf size, from n Diplonm, recently -ot up for Napa Collegiate Institute Nap:i 
of Diploma work. The original was executed with a pen at the office of the Journal, The pen shaduig around the letterui 
ing in the panel, around the word Diploma, was done with our iiatent T square. 

(■al.. and is given as a s^i 
' of the heiul line, aud tin 

Reading nn article iu nn old number of tlic 
Albxim "on tcnching pcnmnnKlnp in tlio nrniy" 
by nn old Vet, recnlla some reminiscence in the 
soldier experience of tlie Into Joliii D. Wiliimns, 
whicli pcrhapa would interest the rcatiprri of the 
JouRVAL, und the fnitomity of whicli he was so 
conspicuous n tiiciubcr, and by wh nn his ex- 
traordinary talents wore so vmiversally rccog- 

Thc curly antecedents of Mr. Williams nre but 
little known to the wiiter, l\irthcr than that lie 
was engaged in tcacliing penmanship in one ol 
the business colleges ut Pittsburgh, and rifler- 
wards in many towns and cities of the coinitiy. 

As the Gscitctneuta of the wnr turned iiiucli 
attention, for the time being, from educational 
pursuits of all kiiidit, Mr. Williams drifted tO' 
wards Washington City, and in 18C3, unlisted 
as a private soldier in the 2ud Roginiont of din- 
trict volunteers, undev command of Colonel 0. 
U. Alexander, who has kindly furni^ihed iik 
with the data, from which this bric^and imper- 
fect sketch of that magic wizard of the peii ia 

With a few (Inc RpccitnonB of olT-hand pen 
work in the way of erodviitialfi, he introduced 
himself to Colonel Alexander, and asked to be 
detailed to hcadqtuirtcrs as u clerk. 

The Colonel was so charmed with his mi 
ly skill, and belierintf that such tulcui sliould 
not be hidden in the every day life of a comim 
soldier iu the ranks, at once obliiincd for hi 
a position under Colonel Rngglcs, Assistant 
At^utaut-Ueuoral of the war deparlmeii 
Washington, who hnd some speeiul work, which 
required the highest order of clcricol ability as 
peumun. Ills feats of penmanship in the Wi 
Department excited much wonder, and his woi 
on the records in that department wilt always 

in as a lasting monument to his fame and 
ability aiii a penman. 
After finishing the work assigned to hitn, he 
iturned to hi t regiment, and duties as a pri- 
vate soldier, but soon afterwards secured a place 
General Augers' Head-Quarters, where he was 
iploycd for some lime, and was from there 
transferred to duty with General Plough, Mili- 
tary Governor of Alexandria, Va., where he rc- 
aincd until he was honorably mustered out of 
the service. 

The Colonel of his regiment was presented by 
the offieors and soldiers of his command with 
a act of silver service, and Mr. Williams, iu order 
to manifest his appreciation of the uniform kind- 
ness extended to him by the Colonel, engrossed 
till- rt-solutioris which afrumpunieil the pre; 

the NCI 

whicli this piece of wurl 
a marvelous production 
small army tent on a m< 

vas executed made it 

I table without the aid 
his pen and a small 

w(n-kui.iii,-hi|) nilKniit|(.iiL l.ivuialily with any 
work of its kind in the country. 

An ninuiiing incident occurred to him just 
after he had finished the nbove-mcnlioncd work. 
Having had it photographed, he metamorphosed 
himself into a new suit of citizens clothe.-!, and 
started nut among hi? comrades in camp to sell 

■■*'iii" "I il i>i • A squad of his regiment, 

»li" ^ I ' ii'l\ under the influence of too 

li r ' _ II i M'i'ing, as they supposed, 

■I'ii'i 1.^ iImih putting on airs ; one of 

tlicui quietly cauic up behind him, and placed 
himself in a stooping position, while another 
■tvpped in front and giving him a sudden push 
sent him hcud-ovcr-heele into the mud. Poor 
John presented a comic sight when he got up, 
ond was only saved from further indignities by 

informing his assailants thijt he belonged to Ihe 
second regiment. He sustained no damoge how- 
ever other than a thick coating of iSie sat^tnl 
soil on his elaborately prepared toilet. 

Some lime after liis discharge from ihc iivni\ 
Mr. Williams was engiigcd by a bnsin. - ..Hj 

in this city, aud during *hut limi* M ■ 

hereof received some instruction i > 

ornamental pen work, and Icamcd tu l* '. Ii" 
as a friend and almost worship his tulunis ai^ a 

Added to his skill as a penman, he possessed 
unsurpassed genius as a designer. Many p''ii 
men have the art of making neat line-, iin'l 
giving to their work an appearance t<i t'le ly 
which is pleasing, but any work prcp.n 'd In 
him stood out boldly and bore the imprint i.i 
genius iu every lino and shade. 

As a teaehor he had the raregift of being al.l. 
to impart readily much of his knowledjic to i\'-' 
pupil, and many to-day throughout the eouniis 
ace indebted to hi.s skill and talent for po«iti(jii- 



Mr. W. 

of kindly and gener 
jd to an eminent dcgn 
lieh never failed to d 


Prof. W. r-ynn White, Princiiial of the 
Portland (Oiegon), Business College, died sud- 
denly of heart di^eaa.- on April 10th. Prof. 
White was a pf ■' i.n. -I, ill <iint attain- 
ments. The I I pin which 

adorn the pafii- 'i ', i ^ in amoii^ 

the very finest iL, ninn .ildiuiigh we 

have no personal aenuaiiHaiiLe with Mr. White, 
from his correspondence and specimens of hie 
skillful work wc h«d come to hold him in high 
esteem. We abstraet the following finm a 
lengthy obituary notice that apv^arud in the 
Poj-tland. Daily Standard : 




was nut out more than 
eliirni'd and found him 

id hi 


ilii- lity will be hard to 
:.,!.■. routed man, targe 
.. .1 liiult, To his wife 
i.a uiid gentle hu.tliand 
will l>e irre[»Jinible. 

and fatlu. 

When Subscribtiona May Begin. 
Suhseriptions to the .Iodknai. may date Ircuii 
any lime since, and inclusive of September IS77. 
All the back numbers fh)m that dale with the 
four premiums will be sent for $3.00. \.\\ the 
nnmbers of 1H60 and IHBl, with either w) of 
the premiums will he sent for |1.75. With all 
of our premiums for %'lJi^. 

:■*. / j:iXu;r- 


Amea' Compendium 

i>r Pnirticnl niiil Ornnmonrni lVi)iiiunt>)ii]> \t. d(.-- 
KlttiK-iI c«|icHaIly for ilic mv uf |)i'ori'«i<ioiiiil pen. 
uu-ii uiiil arlUu. It Ktvoi an uuufiiLiI immlmr of 
iil|ilinlK-U, n well gnilMl %e\\v* oP. prartirul oxcr- 
»-i<i-*, anil «|icciiucna for ctfTliniiil flj-irishing, 
ami II proiit iiiiiiibcr ol a|)c<ciinrn slicutu ofrii- 
gi-.w...inl lillr-iKij^ii, n-wiliilii.n*. CBPtlfifolW. 
nioniorials vW. It in lln" iiuwt con)pn>l>i>ii8ivi>, 
liruvlU-al,, nn<l {Kipiilnr work to nil cliwsw 
nf profotuioniil |)cnnicn i>vcr piil»Uit1u><]. Sent, 
poBt-[in!il, to any atlilrcita on rrvi-ipl of $4 Mi, m 
AS a ]trOuiiitui for n oliib of M ttul^crilirrii to tlii* 


Tli.> folloniiiicnnMi ft-w of ttiv many llnlterUi;,' 
imtifcs IVom tlic prew ami |utn>n8 ; 

linmii Joaritai <*/ KiiMcation. 

We Miero thU wurk will moiv fully niea tlic 
WAiiU of all cIamim nf prntuen nud Iuvcn of 
Kno nrt Otiin An,v ollior book •>v<>r iiiiltlUliitt. Ii 
\* more tlmn ik aumniurT of all 1I13 works liert-to- 
for* luilditln-J pprlaitiina to omntncntMl pemnau- 
H(ii,v_*fbir 0/ tiopr, WiWiiaupoH, Pa, 

It pvis u* nil ilir old cIitroRnipliie oflW-tji ami 
m'w iwiitw, WhwvM wishes la leant the 
nnnttT* offinoantl lioavj linen, floiiri!i))os W"! 
kU ffonilirful i>,-o arab«6t)iieii will find »s nnieli 
na ho i» likely to iua«ltfr.— .Vfif Vivl Tribuw. 

Penmen ami nrtiitU have Iiotv sp«vtiuen« of 
alinoDl ev.TT kiinl of work that can be dune 
with tlic pvn. (*ooMd«rnb|p artistic power and 
ivMiarkaMe skill U shown all ihniusfa ihe w »rk 
— /ViAK.A-'rt- HWJl(y. 

It oxoiNsIs in exltfttt, varit'tT, and artistie ex> 
cellrtui'. «^ well a* in it- pceultar ad pinlittn for 
itic use nl Iho |>ennH-n and artist^ anv work we 
haw ever emnlnrd.—.VrW* i'ltrk SeAiwI Juur. 

ncntal pcnnianiiliip e\t«iil. In the prcparHttoii 
if such n work ilie puntnan'd nkill fituli* \tn cru 
inl WM.—S>-tent4jU- Amerimii. Nrtf Y»rk. 

It preaents u seiit-s of romarkftbly line pen 
Imwiiig*. and foi- tliojie w?i-kint; to do fine pen 
voik thi!i book will be of < iiHxistanci-.— 
^Tuiixrkftp&r^H CtnujHtttion, Nfttr York, 

The entire volume is 11 model of beaiiiv. and 
kwrves llie admiration snd cste.nn of ail who 
ippiveint.' perfei'l ponmanship iil lla pi-onur 
vnvth-ni'h/ T,-l'grnm. AW York. 

Xlie work is pol up tn ncot and claMie style, 
and i]t valuable to nrlixts ceiienilly for iisart- 
listie nioril and diMi^n. — Tlu MtfUtem' Mnga- 

It is tile inoitt eomplett' and practical work on 
praelicttl and onianienuil pi<naiun!>1iin we have 
ever wwi—BUmMH {X. J.) litiitj/ Journal 

It U one of the linvDt publiealion.x of lh>!< 
elapw whirh ba« i'vei- eome nnder our notJei*. — 
The Afants/itftHm' and JJuiMer. 

You hare i-eitainly uken a long .ilep tn ad' 
rancr of other aulhotv. You have fumished 
the uio^il iNVUtiftil and artistic designs for n-so> 
lutions, uiemoriaU, te»tinionial», til[e-page«. etc., 
thus pbcinx liefon.' penmen and otberv what has 
Imi^ iie»-H ni'e>ti-<l. N'o penman, bavin: tmce 
Sfvn thlt work. %ill MiUin;.Hv be Mitliout it. — 
Pr»/. a S. C'lirfy, .Vor York. 

It is a workofftiViit practical merit, por.uliiirly 
a laptcd for the u^e of penmen and arlifttt. It 
covers the lieid of pen art more fnllv than anv 
other work I have ever cxaniiLcd. — Prof. Tim. 
B. Dothf»r. Nrir York. 

( opmion. I ran only s:iy 

n progrvMivc penman in 

without it. — Prtff. />, 

almost ciidlcsfl collection 
dc^itl^ adapted to the pnicrii<fl1 dcpnitmcDl 
otiwuicntal penmanship. — Prof. A. //. I/inma 

T. R. SotttMern, San KranffiMtv. Cot, 

I am (leti},diicd with ii. It t^ the mc 
plete work of the kind I have crcr ^««u, 
W. C. Aim/y. Tr»H, N. Y. 

Kibbf. VUm, .V. Y. 

It i- 111.- Ii 8t know., unik i.M p.'nii>:ui^hip pi.l . 
lishcd.— Pn/. Uriah .\feKa; OtttrUn {f'olUg.) 

be without.— 7V«/ !•: I 
Pruf.J.R. bomlirr, f-l 


\ismN(i CAittKt, n 


fiUinw taken. 

M (includinc gold. 

t nulM tor -s^. 

'. 8WIfT. UaflODvlUe. Onoodaoa 

IndcUlilet nulM I 

GEM CAHDS. mmelliliig mUirly nerw. Joat the Ihlug 
flirB^DU. Haliipl», IDnntn. 

, CalUBI*!. HlrtL 

UmM lliniKXIIRIIT!!. 

o rcndorUie JoonNAL siilHclenUr 
■ ■ 'jtho pnti 

il wrltlDK or teacb- 

< not onlj tho patronage o 

For twolvL' usmc.v and 112 w« will fonv/ird a copy of 
WilUiiina ft PuckimrH Qomn ot Potanamhip.'- rvtaiis 

Without BPRciAL prcinliini to thtt soDdor, wo will mail 
JounxAL, one year with a tsboWo from tlie four pre- 
lums, to ouch anlMcriber, na follows : 

'.'09 Bi'oadwfty, 1 
nlfouH, mU bo n 

LoDdoQ, Kngland. 

NEW YORK. MAY, 1881. 

The Journal and itn Patrons. 

A Immin-oiis writer hii!" obsfrvutl Unit " noth- 
iif: MU'ci't'ils like sik-cpss." Yp>, ye,<, excliiiined 
\i- |iliilo.-(jphii' old ladv, " I Idioivotl ii would, 
[ ((iiiliUrt Iielp it." flioip ifl ft strikiiiK vtmvi- 
'■nci'. 11= Uio expiTt would s;iy, betwi-on cur idea 

till- thuttcr uiid llint of tlie old lady. Success 
i<i)ii'> li»ii) the »8L'orsiiccessf\i1 mcttiin, because 

1 ,.M|-| Ik'I|1 it. 

W'liiii we assumed iIib publivntioii of the 
DiitNAi. nviT fourywiM siiicf, it was witli a full 
I -toriiiiiKitiuu, lo mike it a success, by publisli- 
iiL' !> prmn in'^ p;»ppr, thnt slinuld be siiffi Jenlly 

Tlip boat evidence Ibnt wo Imve doiu- so 
I- prc«ctif hrso and rapidly iiiiTcn^ini: subs 

■.1 l«. :,.,i.' Un ,li,l l-m'iM'-.'M.i- 

I.r,.,, c 


M^,i-l.l l.y lulv.i tiMT-S in i.miiy 


.s adY«i^ 

It«i(':iic>nls linve been nbridgcd to 


the dc- 

i*ir*il »\v.\cc lit onr request, nn-l 

oil api 


for sjwc oi- (fiiii- l.\ .i,!\,i-ti-iii 


ir par- 

tioS 01lt-<iil<' nt iIh p< n '- <>i 

,lu, 111 

ii:<l line 

Imvi' bcru i...i-i-ir iih 1, i,i.,..| 


1..' snb- 

^criptioll^ "1 .1 -ni-^u- hi, .ml, \,., 

.J into 

tlio lbo)isilid-i. WiHiiH tlic ,,;iat uiouth two 
siufrlc flub* ItBve added on« liundred and siity- 
livc lU'W (.ulwcribers, and witbiti Ibe past eight 
, miiuth* the names of four hundred new sub- 
seritievs h.»ve bifon sent by a sinftK- teacher. 

Ofthi' preiient number of the .lorRSAL we 
^balipiint and mail not h-ss thnn ^/^n thou- 
Itand eopivij and ^hnll mail ibeni to not less 

than fourtboucand different achooli?. In order 
lo iiieot the demands for ndrerlihinv space antl 
not trespa^^tf upon the columns allotted to read- 
in)^ matter and illustrations. Four extra pages 
will be added. 

It will be quite obvious to our piitront) that no 
other penman'^ paper has ever attained to nny 
considcniblo proportion of the pntronitge and 
favor now enjoyed by the Jocbsal, andil is safe 
to say, that no other agency has ever existed, 
whieli liiis done nearly ns much to engender and 
and cultivate a taste and desire for fine pen- 
in&itship as the Journal, toward a hundred 
thousand copies of master-pieces of "Pen Art," 
have been gratuitously dbtribuled through^nt 
the country as premiums to sub.'^cribers, to ftny 
nothing of the numerous pen art jninis from our 
leading; nmslcrs, which have adonted its pages 
monthly, for over four years. While througb its 
reading columns iuul-Ii valuable inforinntlon his 
been communicated with refeicuct.- to methods 
for instruction and for the execution of disphiy^'d 
and profcijsional pi'nm.ins!ii|i. Among its pa'- 
rons arc numbered almoi^t every well-known 
teacher, authoi* and lover of tine i enmanslnp. 

Yet much as has been done, tho .Toi-ksai. has 
come far short of what we desire, and whut we 
still liope it will be, chiefly because our brother 
penmen have been far less liberal in llieir eon- 
tribiilions of ideas and skill, to enrich and 
adorn its columns, than tbcy have been tn .i<M 
toils subscription list*and adverti:«itig ciIhhk 
There are Jew pen men competent to leach \' i 
have not sjuiu interestiug method or ^(>ll>< 
viibiable thoughts worth commiinieaiing to their 
fellows, and they should feel it lo be their duty 
to do so, "iiWo thit ye may receive ;" those who 
/inpe nothing lo give should retire at once fio,,, 
the profession, from incompetency ; tho.>ie "I" 
/luee uiid nilltfut give it for the-geneval ai>l :mi 
benefit of their profession art to be de^j'j-i'i 
for their illibeiulity. W'e are offering no loni- 
plaint on our piirt, on the contrary we are 
I'ul, rtud hereby i-clura our earnest thanks, for 
the many able contributions, und kind expres- 
sions of encnui'iigenicnt and sympathy we have 
received since our publication of the JoI'RkaL- 
It is oil behalf ol the profession that we speftj;, 
we would sec a more liberal and conpeiiinl spirit 
existing among penmen which ciin only come 
froma better andmorciminialeacquainiance, and 
for want' of a better medium we wonld have 
them introduce themselves through tlicJiiuiiNAL. 
We dare say that all our renders leel an actiuainl- 
ancewith the many teachers who have contrib- 
uted either to the reading matter or urtistic 
display of its columns, yet there are many 
Bkillod and popular teachers nad ariii'ls who 
have us yet only bctn i tioduccd lo llie readeis 
of the JotJKSAL through its personals. They 
owe it lo thtmsvlves, (he professiou, and in 
matiy instances lo n-*, as a vindication of the- 
sooil oj.itiioii cxproiised, to prove that they are 
inderd m^n of thorough ideas and skill und are 
among th^ lights of their profession, and are 
able and willing to cotiiribute something to it»' 
lion stock ol skill and intelligence. We 
tihall spare no pains or money to maintain the 
■JoiTitSAL as prr-cmineiitly first of all I'enmcn 
papel^3, and all Pvnni<-u who have a pride in 
their work and profession, and in the Jouuxal 
eir and exponeul, should see that il 
does not come short of their true ideal of a Pen- 
$ paper through any want of their effort and 
support. That the Journal U a pci->n'incnt nuc- 
thcrt- is now no question, but tlie inca»urc 
and fultne-ss of its future success must rcsl 
largely, with the class and profession of which 
ihe special organ It is their money in a 
large measure, their thought and skill that must 
in it. The Joi rnal is ])ublishcd fur their 
tuinmont not ours, and it lies quite as 
I in their power as in that of the publishers 
ukc il what they would have il— the nio.'^t 
excellent of all class periodicals of the times. 
Therefore we invite alt our brother I'emneii and 
lovers of tlie art to write for the JontNAL, talk 
for it, then we will all 'nork logcther, and en- 
sure to its readers a paper of increasing excel- 
lence, in whose columns shall b^ garnered the 
grand nggregite of the best thought and purest 
gems of art iu the Penman's profession. 

How to Remit Money. 
The best and safest way is by Postoffice o; der. 
or B hunk dranou New York, ne\l by registered 
latter. For fractional parts of a dollar, send 
postage stamps. Do not send personal ehecks, 
especially for smull sums, or Canadian po^inge 


^ frectuent of late year? have be«ii Icgfil con- 
lrorersi<M involving questions of ^cieoce, art, 
professional skill, general custom. Jke., to de- 
termine which recourse has been bad to the 
testimony of IniiniHl ami skilled spcdultsls, that 
there has been brought more or Itss conspicu- 
ously before the public, men in almost every 
calling, who are in legal parlance designated as 
expert*. This term is applied to all witnesses 
who give testimony, based upon special knowl- 
edge or investigation. 

Respecting the reliability and consequent 
value of such testimony courts and jurists differ 
widely; by sjmc it is eslcemed highly, by 
others as oflittle value, but, however, it may be 
regarded fVoni the very foi-ce of cirrunistances 
such testimony must continue to be frequently 
employed in all courts of justice, and Hkc all 
other testimony must be taken by courts and 
juries (or what it is worth, and the degree of its 
value must depend upon llie circumstances of 
each case, together with the known integrity, 
and the intelligence of the expert as manifest 
by the x'Ctsons which he may give for opinions 

Thci-c will lie eases in which the indications 
of the Iiulh will be m. wumerons-, clcf.f and con- 
vincing, ihal an inlelligent investigator will 
reach n eonclusion of absolute certainly. In 
Mill. 1 il,. ,, iiiuv not be abs:)lute certainty, 

- r,,r a reasonable doubr, while in 

, , I I indiealions will be so fe«. un- 
^. ii.LLLi M , i.tiiiieting as to leave the most inlel. 
li-onl inv.sii-uKir bnhincpd bMwoen doubt and 
belief. In such cases intelligent exports as 
^^e\\ 11' e,.n.l> mid j.iri.s nay honestly (ii=^a;irec. 
\, ,111 ,„ ,„,,, , ,.,- tlirou^h necidcnl or in. 

,ii,[v baffle or niL-lead the 

ii,u-i -l.iiUa iiniJ .-tiiuliing invesiigation, and 
experts uui>l Uil or are very liable to err in 
any attempted eonclusiou, which error, if sub- 
sequeuliy imide apparent, is ever itller used 
as a weapon oi offence against the expert, and 
of defence against the effect of his i.-stini..ny. 

Such cas(!=, however, by honcct, skilled and 
paidsLiking exports are rare 

That which hns most teii.ird to llirow dis- 
credit and doubt npuu expert tcsliinouy has 
been the frequent employment of lamvijh oi 
utteriy incompetPni pcrsous as so-c^lh i - a; ■ 
witnesses, those who make a bu8iiH-> "i . :!■ 
their services wherever there is an itir '■■<■' 
and i\ ho are open to employment ii;".it mli. i 
side of any case, calling in question ih^- specially 
in which ihey pretend to be au expert ; and 
iu soma instances "their speciiilly 

1' disi 

they know anylhiug thai it i-" desired that they 
should know, and they know it, "certain.'" 

Sucli witnesses are many times designedly 
called by at:orueys in defence of desper- 
ate cases of forgery and the like, lo deny and 
combat skilled and valuable expert Icstiiiony, 
for the sole purpose of making ^neli testimony 
ajipenv eonflic'ii g and doubllu', 'ind to 
afford mi opportunity through sjiteious argu- 
•sci.l to the court and jury the 
whole matter of expert testimony as being so 
.-ertain as lo be worlhy only of ridicule 
lenipt. Thus jniiea are often nmde to 
disagree and somilimrs led to acquit the mosl 
dangertns and noiorious criminals. In such 
case-s not only is justice thwarted, but cx;'erl 

The WhittaJcerTriaJ. 
The L". S. Court Martial convened iu this city 
ill Janmiiy last for the purpose of trying Cadel 
Whittaker upon the charge of having perpe- 
trated upon himself the outrage allegid by him 
to have been conunitied by Other persons at the 
West Point L". S. MiliiaryAcjdeiny.abouloneyear 
tiuues its wcai y investigation. 
The trial bids f-iir lobe onj of the most pio- 
ted ond noted that lias ever transpircil In 
this country ; certainly the most so of any in 
which a scientific investigation of hniidwriliug 
has been made. Thus far eight handwriting ex- 
perls have given evidence in the ca-^e — Jivfon 
the part of the Government to prove that the 
note of warning si id by Whittaker lo have been 
found in his room on the tuorning before the 
outrage was eommitUid wna in his own disgu1:>ed 
handwriting, Virff by the defence lo disprove this 
and establish its theory that some other and an 
unfriendly person wrote the note in Imitation of 
Whittakt-i's writing, upon the supposliion that 
he would, after the uultugehud bc-eii committed 

upon him, hand il to the authorities, when, 
upon an exAininalion of the note, it would be 
detennined to be in his own handwriting, and 
thus implicate him as the author of the outi«ge, 
and that he would accordingly be disgraced and 
expelled from the institution; thereby i-elieviug 
the nnfriondly cadets from his odious presence. 
Cpcn the nature and relative value of this icsti- 
mony we shall, at the proper time, offer some 
more extended coinitents. 

The trial is not yet neariy completed, and we 
suspect that there is beginning to be some anxi- 
ety on the part of '-Uncle Sam's" uniformed dig- 
nitaries who compose the Cuurt lest it nia\ lust 
all summer. 

"Truth" Sore. 

A penny daily of this city miscalled TnttJt, 
which our readers will remember as the medium 
through which the infamous forged "Moie> 
letter" found its way before the public, closed 
a recent arllclc, relative to the expert testimony 
in the Whittaker trial as follows: 

"Th.Tseol expert tistiimnyiu handwriting 

into ihV ■■!■ -■■■'■■■■'■ II. ■■■ ■■ 

pert tolimnny 1ms been uiniliing but agreeable. 
Whfn it published the "Morey letter" aflirming 
it to be in the genuine handwriting of General 
Garfield, and experts declared ii to be a forgery, 
Truth abused them and railed at their opinion. 
But its editors were indicted, when they IouikI 
it convenient to discover, and confess that the 
letter was a forgery, and to offer through ihe 
columns of Truth a most humble apology to 
President Garfield. Tfiith had been deceived. 
Poor Truth. Alas for its innocence ond tvuth ! 
but nevertheless "expert tesntncny is a fraud 
and a snare." 

It is an interesting matter for speculation as 
to just how long il would have taken Truth 
unaided by experts and an indictment of lis 
editors to have discovered that it had, through 
its unsuspecting innocence, been decMved, 

But, Oh! yVi/f// exclaims, with iioly horror. 

I'hilp with the luithoiship of the letter. Did 
they? Whore is the evidence? Wo have not 
yet seen il, nor can we believe it exiats. It* 
I'hilp did not write it who did y Truth pio- 
ii — to know but won't tell. It also professes 
il I M evidence outsideof the handwriting that 
< I i.M wrote the letter. Did it? Truly ex- 

better liiiiu Truth s 


Class Book of Commercial Law. 

Under Ihe aiiove title C. E. Carlmrl, Princi- 
pal ol the Albany {X. Y.) Business Uollef;e hns 
just published a very convenient and valuable 
hand-hook for use in business colleges and 
others desiring to teach a short cour-ie of com- 
mercial law. The hook consists of 112 coin- 
paci and concisely worded pages and is ^ent by 
mail for $1.00, 

It is designed and arranged especially for 
class or private instiuciioii. It eoniains thai 
which students of book-keeping cannot do 
without; a complete explanation of business 
paper, such as notes, checks, drafts, bills i>f 
lading, letters of credit, receipts, intlorsenients. 

It alsn treats of Conir.icts, Pu-.nership, 
Agency, lutt^rvsl and Usury, Sale of Personal 
Propeity.Biulmenl, Common Carriers of IVi'ijiht 
and Passengers, Inn-lceepers. Real I■;^lllte. 

u-ins of Business, Paper, etc. 

Well Earned Best. 
We are pleased to karn that Piof. S. S I'nck- 
anl. President of Packard's Hnsiiiess Cullcge, 
and well-known author, is about to seek rest and 
recreation by taking a foreign lour. It is his 
intention to ^ail on the Wtb of June. We feel 
ed that the n-iiders of the Joi'Bnal will 
us iu wishing him a happy vo>a;:e and 
safe return. 

Send $1.00 Bills. 

We V 

lind tha 

ot deinre postage stamps in payment for 
subscript ions, and that they should be sent only 
for fractional parts of a dollar. A dollar bill is 
much more convinient and cafe tu remit tlion 
the same amount in 1, 2 or 3 cent slnni^s 
The actual risk of remitting money is slight — If 
properly directed not one miscarriage will occur 
in five hundred. Inclose the bills, and where 
letters containing money are sealed in presence 
of the puat-master we will usHiniL- all the rii<k. 

httr riiV^'trfrtry-- 

The King Club 
r<»r iK" put iiiritilli miiKii Attain frfwn ('■ W 
Kour'liPr, inrtii-r in Ihr ('(im.-n.TfUl df)wrtment 
»t the Northrm Indiana Normal School, Valpa- 
rjiao, Ind., and iiuml^-rit »nr huifir^d and ttf^n- 
lyfirr niniM Tliin makt-n an a^r<-;;altr of four 
hutidn- 1 nimt-. .ol br Mr. R^.nchcr friliriD a 
ppriffd »r lea* than rtf(hl iDonlha. and I*] Tar the 
larffvat numU'r penl l>,v anjr ainj^c penOD 
within that pvrioil- Thf aecond largrat dub 
iiuinbrr* /ortjf,*nA come* from L Aair«, Minne- 
apulU, .Minn. \W are very Ci^rlsin that tli«*e got- 
tlemen arc not ontv dninK good work a» inntrac 
ior», but ihcT arc nupplomvating llieir own labors 
in n wuj to k«-fp mIivc the inU>r«i«t Ihvy have 
awakf-nt-d, aitd which will oltiinatclT make many 
Rowl wrii4-ni. The befl cridenc to un of their 
good work ia the xize nnd lrc(|iiriii'v of the clubs 
iti Kubacribeni whirb thcr Bfod lor tlie Jodrxal. 
I( i« only thf lnier«>tod and oatiNflvd pupil who 
will be inductMi lo make I'urlticr inrontini-ntH at 
til.' Nu|[i;.>4tti>ni of thi> lenchf-r ; ihi- aharpfd and 
■ <\ I'lri'iivhi-d pupil will be ailotrotlit-r Ino ihr and 
•Mil- til \w r,*iichi*d for furtlx 

Value "f Our PremiumB. 

To any ftdmin-r of lint' artistic poiiinniiohlp. 
or any one dvairing attmctiv<- nnd appropriatf 
pnrlor or acliool-rooni pirlunv, rarli jm'niiuni 


L- olli-r fit". 

rilit-r, U M\\ 

worth Ihi- prii-e of the Joi nsAi. lor a ywir, whilt 
wi< bi-licvf that the Joi^BMAt. will ii'ouv limoi* rt- 
pnj the doltnr It eoatn lo any on*' u<>piring tu llu 
utl^iinmeni ofKOod pmctiL-at or line iini^lir pen 

A Fine Assortment of Inks. 

IVmh.n ni.hiii;: ink otanwolor cannot .1. 
b('tt.-rll.iii> iipply to Krod. [). Ailing of ll<H'ln-> 
t.r. N. Y. 

A coinowhut cxtemltHl trial ot liin inkx ha- 
t-nnvini'i'd m tliut thoro iiri- no liuitrr inkn ii 
L> dollars Mr. Ailing »<-xuU 




1.1, Silv.-r, White, iUuc, Lilac, lim-n, Sea 
rruinc. ni'cp Itkok, Mt^rvuntDv, and J;\|>nii 
riiu entire n-Hnriravnt w well ciilciilati-<l 
>kL> a. pi'nman Imppy, so Tar an it '\» in 
ivei of ink to do Mj. ' 

Sadler's Counting House Arithmetic. 

U'r apiin cull allenlioii to the iidvi-:liKonifi 


..tliLT urilhnuHiv X^m cvit ultaint-d *o wiilc a 
[(opulnrity and lur^e ttalc In ko short a tiini*. It 
hii?t bui'umi* tlic nlMndurd text-book it: noiuly all 
the bu:tiit&'>» and I'oni.nerciti) nchuoU oi tlie luixl, 
and U u luvorile among piiii'ticul .u-eounlantf. 
ninl in count ln};-ro<im:i o^i u hand-buuk or vou- 
M-nicnl nnd valuable rd'crvnee. Mailed iVnni 
lliif offltf.' n» reeotpt ol' the pnldM'ieiV piicc, 

Fine Card Stock. 

I'l-nnien iimi mlifii' wishiri): eard '•tuek ofar 
tind, ahould addreu TIk- NVw Kii>;hmd t'ui 
\.., Woonsoeket, R. I. Thi-y kc--p a lull Im 
ind si-11 at roasonabli- inii.w 

F U. Banker, a p»nmaD at Lawrvnve. 
laid U0 ht< compliments durinp a r«-ccnt ' 
i'e.T York. 

D- A. (JrimilD \* irnclitoi; i: 
Itlu c, Davilla. Teiitx. II 
rt- .liiable »pecinii'n* of card 

the Mosouie In- 
encloses ^Tcrml 
rritinp and flour 

II. S I^ootnU, teacher of writinjc at Brvaot'", 
(IIjBalo, N Y.) Biisine*? iVIege, writes an eh- 
([till teller in which'ho ent-low* several »lms <if 
Btipcrior copy writing;. 

J. C. Whitlon, Columbia, Tcias, sendi* a well 
written letter, aluo a Kpecinu-n of dmwing nnd 
flouria1iin<; Ue *»)* ihnl he, too, [earned lo 
write, mainly through the Io»»oo^ pivon in ihi' 

A L. Hon;; is teachinj; writing in the publiu 
•ell mil' of Clevelnnd. Ohin. in place of Prol. .\. 
IV Uoot «lu. h:i» coinpelled to resisn li^* 
ponili'tn lhriai;:h ill licaltli. Mr Haa;; is irn m- 
iinif.Ur'hitd Hnli-r itiid will nndoubledly do pood 

iM.l.-on Hi%l.r, Ka^'or^vil!.-. O,, indosi's several 
finely executed !ipednien<i of card writiof; and 

("harles E. Rasl of Itrandoo, Vt.. writes an 
exceedingly giiu-eful letter, abo an elegant card, 
several spwiinens incluied to it» are surely 

E. M Hunlxiufier, teacher of penmanship in 
the Providrnoe. K. I., Bu«iuc!^ College, writes 
nnik-pint letter in which he indoMN) several 
superbly nrittvn canl^ 

E. A. n>iddard. Auburn, Cal., nrtt*'« s hand- 
«onie letter, in which he iDcloi>e!i several allnic- 
tire diK'i'inienit of plain and faQt-y cat^s: also two 
finely eXvX;ule:l dc>ijpisof ofMiand llouriahing. 

C. N. Cran lie of Valpar-iiso, Ind., sends a 
pnekH«e of diHirish:'i' and wrillen copy slips 
neatly put up in a lai;;ei'nvi'lnpe marked "Cnm- 
dle'-i eomp el : compendium.*' The wriljog is 
well czcculed. 

H. B. McCroary of the Uiici, (.\*.T ,) Bu«ine»s 
Colh-go, wiiles wiMi roadypen eiilierin nn artistic 
or literary point of view ; a hnnd^on)ely writleii 
Icllup before hp, bears evidence of him artistic 
8ki!l. Will he not favor our readcis with a 
upecimen of his H' entry skill through the 
cilumns of the .Iournal r 

We are informed tlint u N'or.ntil Chiroj-raphic 
Club, or summer Sctiool, in be instructed by 
thL' Spencer Brolhei-?, livo or more of the five, 

I hare under my chnrgv l.'-t'O pupil* in pen' 
roanship and 150 tn Iwok -keeping, conM<)uently 
I shotltd know the best method extant in nnlcr 
to arrive at satisfactory results. 

In teachi^ the prinwrv elaxs, would you «d> 
vise taking letters itlphabetieally T Would you 
pay any attention to puHition of peneit f Wuuld 
you teach the letters as thoronghly a±t to a third 
cUs9? if not, why? Would you »anciion the 
putting incorrect work upon board and having 
eluss criliciiie f 

Trusting the above t)ucsiions will (.all (urih 
answers from a number of leaehcrs, 1 «n». very 
rvspectfully yours. 

J. W. WuSTKRVKtr, 

Teacher Pen. and Bookkc>ep>n|: 
Public Schools, Bruntford, Oni. 

We most heartily accond the proposiiioii 
Piof. Weilervelt, and ptacf the culumii* of 
Jot'RNAL at the service of ^ucli teaeben< ai* 
dispo»ied to join in a di8ru»nioii of the 1 
methods of teaching writing in the viu-l 
grades of our public schoolx. There is muel 
be said upon this subject, Jnd much neccN t< 
said, and who is better (|uaUtied tn say it t 
those who are nelively engaged in the work. 

Now, teachers, von thut have lights let ll 
shine. — EniToR. 


J^^^t .^ 

yi'/f////^f // /i-///r//n//uj /j /// r/i/./i/i fi r///f/ /a////, c/r///// n // r//-r//ff/' 

- ^ 

a:- - ^ 


The obove eut is photo-engi nved from ori;j1nal p?n and ink copy, executed at the oflice of Pks ji 
cnpieii of this and severel other designs lor school tmtimonials and diplomas, printed upon good \ 
pupil, inhtilntion, place, dale, A:e. Single copieit mailed for2r>c; uno Uuz. for $1.50. 

We shnll hope to htar from him 
!o[tmm4 ol'the.loi- 
ii* conducting a writing 
IV, Ohio, has bu'warded a 
riiiitie design lor u Fai 
be Rnely engraved !or \ 
entl :ther alfaeti 
ishtuc und lettering. He 
- ■- ■' highly flourishing 

W. II. Kitto, 3:! degree. Book kcpei' and 
Pnymn^ier. Mitchell nnd N'alionnI Iron Mines at 
Mipi'inin-;, Mich , (fornierlv ticket u-:ent and 
tele^iraph operator. M. U. K i\ R. K.. »anie 
place) has the high honor of being the voungest 
man in the Iniled .<lalcii, if not In the world, 
who hft* the 8lM degree, S.P.K^. 

years li>:>.3 months of 
t having made 

I on record: (as far 
:iken the :t'i degrees 
Mr Kitio enjoys the 

II Miehtgaii. 

S. W. Chapman, a pupil in thecommereial de- 

IMnutriii uf OU-ilin. iO.,l College, conducted b» 

■y handsome *pe«- 

is in conlempliitiOD to be instituled at (ienevn, 
Ohio, or some other rnvorable point, during 
for the pnrpo»e of making 
und lur qualifying 


good, prai 

ICiiehei-s in the shoii luuisv uiiiii>it^ii m 

organimtioD and training of Chirographic C 

In connection with a flourished specimen by 
A. W. Dudley, in the April number, the following 
notice appear.-d: '" Finn ri rolled by \. W. Dudley, 
teacher of Penmanship at the Northern Indiana 
Normal College, Whitehall, lad." It should have 
read a-mthern lud. N'trmal C"lUge, ifitr/itll, 

Special Kates to Clubs. 

To favor leiicherrt and pn|)iU in schools where 
numerous copies of Ihe •lorn.VAi. arc desired, 
we ofler to mailit one year on the followingvery 
favoroblc terms: 




Vritii^ j 

t Public Schools. 

and far lietween we have nut the op|>or1 unities 
for mutual improvement that leacbvrs of ordin- 

I think I am expressing the wishes of our 
teachert! when I say that we would like to have 
n discussion, through the iHilumns of your excel- 
lent Jrn'o-ML, OS lo the bc!«t metbod of present- 
ing the subject to our pupils. Personally I Ael 
ibat I cannot but be benrBited by such a course. 
1 lru.>>t there will be hearty responses and eo- 
operatiuii Irom the teachem engaged in teaehing 
the subject in public sehoulii. .^S a larg ■ iicr- 
ceDtagf of the l^-mi-hers art- employed in le-ich- 
iug the subjiYt in gnidetl srhooK J aoul I f^ug- 
gcbt that the discuMion open « tb th ■ be^t 
method of teschiog a pitmory clas*. 

Tu each subscriber will be mailed, as a pr. • 
miuni, with ihc Snl copy of the Jolrnal, qm 
they may designate, either the " Boun'ling Slag." 
24x32 ; the " Klouriehed Eagle," 24x32 ; the 
"Lords Prayer," 10x32; or the "Picture of 
Progress," 32x28. For Ad cents extra all four 
of the premiums will be senL These premiunis 
were all originally executpd with a pen, and ire 
among the masterpiei-eH of pen arl. Kilher of 
them, lo an admirer of skilled penmnnshi)), Is 
worth the cnUre cost of a year's subscription. 

Not Beapoiuible. 
It should be distinctly understood thai the 
editors of the JoijRXAL arc not to be held as in- 
dorsing anythingoutslde of its editorial colcniDs; 
all commuoicaticDS, not objrrtionable in their 
character, or of ir.trr^-Ht m lurt... _ re- 
ceived and puhlislie.j ; if an* [K-r-on differs, the 
columns are equally open to him to tar «> an^ 
tell whv, 

' BY DMIIillCt t Styles . 

LJ^^ '■' 


'1^ ^O .« '^ll S?> M '^'I t 



Wr '^ 

''■W> '¥¥ i/% -#: A-C' .> 

Specimen Alplmbet from Ames' Compendi 


WITH s/.UHNli I'lll'IKS, 

((Jondmilli's l';ilinl,) 

THE PliraAUY C()I'Y-1«)(1I ' 

Walriviiin'a Drtarhihlr SUt'ltlu < ; » 

iro wiilil liwlimvnm 



HUllJlW of 1 

ll.'al, Hii'l lti«urlHbb- » 


D. ArrumiN k r 



""'-' '■''"'^ 

"American School Institute 

\ l!i:i.lAHI.K .t RFKICIKXT K!)l'( \TI \\I 

Allied by the Recoids and Inperi ncee of nearly 

a Ouwter of a Ceiitnry. 

.-Sn|n>U>« PiiuilUiw. St-li(i»K Coll. 
.HiHlllli-rtTiwlli-n). Si-ii.Uor " Caurtlikil.W N.w Bi 

'J.— (ItvKK PuMutN luforiDatluu of tiir niurr fl>-1ioi 

n,— lU'iirmcnbislitllcd INxt'-hom who wmit piwit] 
Aiiplit-dllon T«riii«i inMlwl for iw«tfltf*. 

C<ni-lni)t <l>iniHiit lor xkllltil Tra-bprH nf Pmi 
lilli. B.<i»»-k<vitlii|t iui.1 CimnirrfiKl bPMiPlHw 

N.n.— \ •'^rrvniinu'loiitwaiitM U> imrcIiaM'nt a bar- 
liulH. for twii. a Kill').! Coninu<n-laI 8>-liool. 

J. W. SCUKRMKKUOUN, A.M.. 8.«toUiit. 
;Eft»t Fo»rt«-riilli-u 

Solo praprioton. Btoiil for aample uid circular. 'J-Vit. fS.QO. 

mg; MW^^*^ ^;^^\ ^_^^J!^JU<iJ£:i^ 





m€<d^lUj/i/. Hxr^i^.j ; - "liz^, ^-^ '■^f&^^^^^. ^rrsiflmty 

- — - 205 BR" NEW YO"^ •-■•'• 

Thcalove .-iits !U-e all photo oiigravc.l from our own pen an.l iuk <onv, „i,,i aic insutwlas KiH.;n,..n« „f .,„ i ■ i i . 

,,nu-ti<-«llv ap,.lie,l for l.usiness i,«n«sc.,. TUis mc.luxl is f,M «,n«.,^o.lii.. other n,etho,I« oT .., .^™>t f , ■'"^' ""' I''"''°-*"«'"'°R "« 

supenor in cmality ami oonvenienee whik much les» expensive. Our facilitie^ arc no,- .on.plele wTu l*:: or 1 ,. , ."n>„,erc,al pu,-pose» ; being 
business euU Business l-oUeRe currencv of all conv.nien. denominations constantly in slock a-.I .upplic.1 at Tow L1"' V T\ ''"', ".f 

denoniinatum of .■>, 111. 25 and 5t. cents in stock, also «Uef cute of the same sold at smaU cist ^ Fractional currencj- of the 





Practical & Artistic Penmansliip. Class Book of Commercial Law, 




tpotnr uirt MO*. WW pnbtMtnl id IMT. It 
iv«d oo •toop from P. R. 8|)riu>ar^ pn coptra. 
Uv^t* m«r«. ao'l p— w d through nutsy rdl- 

Irrn^r br obUinnl. • icvrrml sad uiKml demand wm 


Ttild «D(lKly new w<i 

'• MwntDputjinjt oit rp pmw nK tbe b<«d tr 
m of Ibc blAd<> tit tbo Bqnnre. and Mnvcn] i 
of nillnji and khadliifl, phoU>-«DimivM i 

nValvc l.«n»mi Ki-hiiMicNK .-I Tlnlliii 
navM dlrtvilf frum nillni; tlno'' \>y lli< 
juaif. Hitb tbp rapidity of (m- bnud Uutu 


mprlrtng nine 

beautiful platra 9 

1 1 a inchM 

.0 -l«r. riMi- 

Tod fM -.imll* 

fron. tbc corl« 

md d»ij{u» 

rjf thn Bid-utTrian Aiittiont, 

ut>on >l«»l and s 


Tbo aim o 

tblx publinU 



In lt» wldcwt 

rangp. mot % 

tried adaptation 

ind hIcbMt 


Thf. Iwmie-, tliB idepf. 

the teachor. the 


tbc uiKn^or 

tbc «l(tn-wni 

or. the ntDDoijMe 

IT and aU 



HiU find ilellithl. 


and Hutataii 

lal bdp In ttiU 

new and l>«iitihil riK^clo- 

pedfa of pnn 


Part I ooniprM** ilii- i-bdnio and i-hanning 

UtlD p&gc. 

two plate* 

Minuoii. imid 

•(Tlpl. preBeotlng 

two bi-n»- 

Uful .lylo 

I «Wh of th 

.■opllal., wltb a 


wortN aii<l 

proper nntiiw 

hIx plolMi of 


-rrtpl in Ifao 

form of bUh 

of pu-cbBHe, ace 

oiiDta cur- 

rent, ron^pl 

. notcp. and 

etl«r of crolit n 

orth a for 


w who .-an ex 

M-utc It In BO adminblf a 

EnpociaU)- for <ta:t o _ _ 

that wblch Mtndmta of 6ook-lciwptng cannot do wltbou 
a rompl^'tc explanation of biiKlunw paper- aiich i 
not<«. ch«k«. drafta, Ulls of Udlns. wwlpta and li 

I II ajxo trnau of OmtntU. Paihunhip. Agency, Intrr. 
ondtnu |f. Sak of Prrumal Proprrly, Uailm,n', 0>mww 
Carrimor Ptrrifik/ and Paamgm. tnnkirpm, Ka 

Spnnccrlac Aulbon," , o™ t»w»ir. Salt of Prrumal Proprrtw, ifaifNun', 0>mi 

. Carritri of PfrieM and Paaa " ' 

onmbci^ BaaU. Famu of Btuinn* Paper 


JuMt PubliAhff', 




Attom>') and Ansoclnto Principal of Eat 
Bumctf* BtiBluiM College, Baltlmor.-. Md, 


r-Ei'INfi— Jr*T 
:l llii^ ScbiMk, 

RtviBKp. The m<wt pnmical and complete WT>rk btw 
pubUnhM. Contain* Manufacturing and Modem Bank- 
mg: UMidinlheIwtBu-ln««CoUfsw. in the Unltod 
th 1^ t*n»da. Commradod in the hlghait Irnna by 
the best l«tfhL-re in Amorica. : 312 pagw. Retail. IS.OO. 

BUNK BOOKS. The oeooMary blank* hat« b«Mi 
pirpawd to go with each of lb« abo\ti book», and wlU 
be nuppbcd at the lowmt market ralM. 

For oiivola™ wuitamlna oonimcndallons ftom pro- 
minent «lw«lo™ in all MrH of tb.< world, and for par- 
ticuUw addn-HB the amhor and publtaber. 

J. C. BRtANT. ButTalo. N. Y. 
Matthew* Brofi. and BryaniV Pnutlog and Publlsbtng 


di*v(>li'd to off-hand llourlahing. One 

una of 1'. B. Speneer. Jr., NllllDg at bU i,iw 

bana oxIUbltH p<<pfpeily tbo proper powl- Pai 

of holilWK tbc pen for HourtHhlng 

> araei-ful exon.-l»». by which 
iiat appref-lntlon of ciin-cK 
>badln;,« ire do^fllopnl : oU l 

rhe purpoao of tblB fa 
■pceial points to be 
noot Important topi 

and (mniprlHK CojjmAfTn, NKfiorriAfiLE 


MUKTB and 8AUCR of pKRanxAL PROPKRTT. and a larve 
uurabcr of Lekal Foiuia. 

Retail Priiv. *1. 

Sperial raii-K to collcget 


By ordering fnmi iia, paiiuui can rrly not only upon 
r(N«■l^1nH afuperior artlrle. but uiHin AaHtn m prontptl;^. 
' Compnudlum of Omamontal l>cnnianNhlp. M M 

ii ■ r 1 i:. ]. lu '■ .T.tiii«nou«irKditlon'. -i tW 

'•tain, (-nmblnatlom aD<1 
I'liliiii tiliott tiu- appUca 
• iirhond. kthklng m<n< 
wnnn. qullli. anil oronmenl". nil ol marv«lou6 beauty. 
Part III. pmkcule »U pliiKw ol the boldesl and hand- 
-('meat m-ript over publbibed. It Is c^pti'lnlly UHPful tfl 
'ULwewho have occa^lnn to wiltc latijv hCudings, iiiicb 
iiH ■ For llcnt." •• For Sale." " Soitw." Ac. ftc.. ftc. 
Thia b j>lMo THK uoDU. M-ni)T Fon -inx-wBiren*. the 
Spencurlan (wript Rlgii ln.w being acknowledged the 

Bfrtpt CApllah *Te iwo Imhw In height. Thin Part 
prewnla b«ldr, a complete and iwrfcct oyHtem of let- 
tering. «|>pU«l lo tbf Rouian alphabet, upper and 

intiiUlgeot perKou 
mcUmd or laying 

Hiring n large 


Will mall to any adttreea Ibo following articles on rr- 
coipt of price. One doEcn written cartb 13c. Oblique 
pea holdera ISe. apiece. FlneartlaUcpeiia, exprcMily 
forpeiunen. Si groes boxa, 40c. Tbroe cent atamps 


,. PruK-lpal. A. B. ^txpuen^o; 
Bryant A. Slratlon CoUokc* 

Cor. Ml 

SI. Liberal t. 

Prtct by maU, 

has onjoyed a gr& 
educators than an 

greatly improved 



In oluioat nil rwpeota. ai 
qiilrod work In boelnm c 
ter than any other work t 

2-1^ 138 « Ufl Orftnd sti 

high Nchools beU 

FOR SALE at a I 
Commercial ( 
particularv apply t 

^tAYII Eft's 


Uoney and Bualneu 
I RuKlnCM. For full 

■ Numoroua Uutdncm ColIcgM i 
i>«s traUtlng. Hamt)le 
r thn Monu&l ft 




„ I «' wiipcTinr t!:v<j|^iNii luntiu- 






I'-luding Ar 
nT."'"""."'^' uuw. ail TOioM. Caiiocllng 
tte tota Stamp*- In.l-illWo and 

OolitaflTer. White Carbon and In^ laku ' Lilw* t^ 
'» *r kt ng packa«>a. Japan ink. Ink Powdxrii HttmMX 

an BmuL'WA* Xm 'V 


n Series of 

□CHnnii PENS 



Superior Writing Inks. 

nniln^.t'oiriniC. Marking. Indrllblr. 

M.nipinK. Jnpnn. MrloirnP'-"-- 

«,n.imlhelhir. Ciold. silver. 

i'Sr":^ s - 

bnv-ln«fl"l'l» nil' k.<'»niilii*«.ViuW-Black. Blue. 

Alliii»'«->«iP«" ■"•'» 

^h«^^i «uW Md"Mi!lw™tc (tmrt-hw CM b« oie- 
™t«ithfireirtth wiilioiii bPftoklnB thp perfect flow o( 
? fc II 1^ unrivilU'^ tnr Ormuiiental PenmaMbip. C*kL 

Aning^i! colli. Sliver, nml White Ink". 

"jMifUlng. VWtliig! Price or Show- 

RESOLUTIONS, (fee, \l^T^ ^^^-i} ^-^.£ki2SSJ^ 

. _^ . .. , Tw^ .« viv. Hundn--d DoUare. accord- ' i,- ^ ■^'4^^. >»^^S ^" 


gtbk' and 
0«rd writing. 

Alimr'* A«ii»rlccl colored Ink*. 

Oca. 1 I 0^p^n BlU"> Violet BUclt, Vlolot and Jut 

Al.l-I^«''* DKEP-nLAtK INK 


rkpui Ink, per t'ln' '>«"''' .**? pjpiwa 

Gold or SUvor Ink. » ounce bottle by 6xp««i. . 
Deop-Black Ink per quart _, ■ • 

MoToantllo loll. " _„, i„ •< '" 

"■wtted Colore. I ok- boUlo. per bottle. __ . .^ 

• • *_r,n. Twrt In Fivi' Hundn-'d Dollars, accord- ' C- 

iKn»spd at from iwmo rivi nnui" _ 


rwiiiUlte sWll ooniWned 

Sf"S d J^'^f w«r.ud g^^^^ 

Corwflpondcnce Millcttud. 


md pUboratj-n 

_ withj-MW of exporionce and . ^^ _., Vfirletv «f P*"" 

;V^moa.fn fartutyfor the^rapidand^perf.ot «eou. | Everj vn , 

' 5"^-"..,^ pJaYa w^H,.- ni 1.11 combined, executed ui 

LftterUig. 1 

It ail combined, executed i 
■ omnb.b. 11)7""'' 
J modorato ] 

Kibbe's Course of Instruction 


,, I,, , graved Oftpecially for dMaylng Hf"'**'."','; 
' ' *>:._.. -.*! i^f ..-in.. (i.nBK ^iiln. Hnndbil ' 


Gold or SUvor Ink. )i 

Deep- Black Ink 

UoTcantllo Ink 
fted Colon 

Pcninnn*H ink Cnblnol, Wo. 1. 

PHICE. »2.00. 
Oarmlno, Blno, Violet, omeu. wu 
MewanUle. D«'P Blaok. „.,.,,„ .-^ ^a k oune« ' 

Throo quarlw ounco bottle IS Wto Ink. and ii ounce 

bottirof both Gold and sUvw Into. | 

PenmanV Ink Cnbiiiot, No, «. i 


_ . , .< I II ,..„,. lull- 2.1,! Iiottloeaoli of Japan , 


PENMANSHIP i5^5ini»Iil.SHiF-.S J^MS, .SM. 

The Complele Eion 

lug.'LetTwlng of° varlo.« kind^ Pi^^dn^Ni^ 
Klvinji an valuable and vaned a courte as can »e n 

Irautagw •-> 


' floiirialiiug for 25c. Enifraved fli-t*.mei 


lUiiilt onlyaweh ascomr ir ' 

(•■lllgeut opuilons of the mot 
trng Inks. 

ochMter. N. Y.AprU. aWh, 3 

■ M)i1 Carmine In 

t, A. FuoHT. County Olerk. 
itlng In UlKb and publle Schools. 

Lettering Tablet, 

M "! "'jjf^ 

S'rckSl s"r;'MO«^i™»^'r 

- ill good j 

, Mam. ; 


Very tnily youw, 
Union Pacific BaUway Company (Br 

mOTTwturaotory <i"altlle* 

» pantogroph. 

n pleaaure- and n 

1 the pamograpn. "n" " '"= \ 
onlMBO a design eoaa to make i 

i!d itaelf to powe»« j 
•t'o"^^™^' " "l""* McFahlak.., Treas. 
Omw of Erie School Boarf^^ ^^^ Nov. M. 1880. ' 
Having «»«! .he -Deep Black i^k" mauufaelured b- 


Fr»d. D. 
can Ray I 


t of Rodie 

r Schools. ' 
4, Supt. 


Embracing over 500 pages. 

Introdiicliou, Numeration and Nwtatlitii. 
Addition, llapid Metliods in Adaing- 
Subtraclion, JluliipUcatiou. CoutraclionB in Multiplication. 
Division, Coutractiona in Divisiou, Properties of Mimhera. 
Divisibility of Numbew. Fnctorlug. 
The Greatest Common Multiple. Cancellation, 
tednctiou of FractlonB, Common ] 
ion Danominator, Addition of Frnclious. 
Subtraction of Fraction*. Multiplication o ri-c o . 
C uiractious lu Multiplication i»l Fractions, DUiBlon of Fracltonn. 

"" n r ot Fractiona. Leiwt Coramou Multiple of Fractir 

Decimal Fracttom., Beductioa of DectumlH. 
Addition of Decimate. Subtraction of DwlmAls. 

^ ,, „ (,, MiiiHidicatlou o( Decimalp. 

Multiplication of Decimals, Contractions m JUimpucauoii 

Division of Decimate. Coutmctioua in DlviHOU of Decimate. 

Circulating Decimals, Reduction of Circulates. 

Subtn«>tion Of Circulates, Multiplication of Circulate.. 

Division of Circulates. Denominate Nun.l*». 

Reduction of Denomtuat*- Numl>ers. 

Addition of compound Numhe... Subtraction of Cun,pnund Nmubers 

. ,. 1 ._ iiiuutonnf Cnninoiind Numljcre. 
Multiplication of Compound N.imbere, Division Compou. 

Latitude and Longitude. Longitude and 
Denominate Fractionn, Molric System. 
Duodecimals. l>ractical Moasur-'meuU, DlHo am 

Awilysis. Square and Cube Rool, AntUmi'ti<'al am 

I I " priM In 3 or 1 coat stamps, 50c. 
i' r, ,. f„..uin«rf foi- doing engrossing rapidly and hand 
- 1 J:owSri todo suT^^^l^^llvorln part 
* I tor Tnvvellug Penmen and othew ^ „„„^ 

*! wiKO oi"<^'U''?djit such r»t«BM win J^^'^^^^J^^Uon 
margin and gi*" """r lubi« 

irgm luw gi.v .—.f 
ir office is strictly pnvi 

"pS^Sir^-I^^c used your Mf;^^'"* "J 

Japan In}». < 

Kve'iS' i^'-for wTlib'S:^ an. -,.eclalb- 
Vovw. . 

1 ureat 

, good for 

Photo and Photo-Ultioiraphs 

iH In render them thorough, pmctlcal and 

._ t . «. „r ti.» ulinve aubiecto every effurl has boon niftiie lo ct , , ., , „.. 

In the treatment of the above suujm u. ^,j,^j ^^tb the charae I eristic thoroughiieaa of the part 

cientiflc. Many IntOTesllng and novel feature*. \vi presei ,j^„ enj„i«,ment8 of educalora, Iwsides »• 

,f th6 work heretofore pnhllslisd. and which has ""^'"'"^'^^^^^^^^^jg^j^^^^j^j^theUnited Stales and Canada 

.„orr.o« iu over ^^--^--^-^ tZ^^^Z^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^''>^'""°'' ""' "'''""' "" "''"' "' ■'"""" 
Copioa for examination wiinx; " ■ i 

Pltuacld. Mam.. 

■frccly and 

H. W. Kibbe, 

.Vo. ; IIOll.lItT .ST. 



,/nos. 6 and 8 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, Md. 



D> T. AnRH, 

AilTHT I'KXMAX Axn I'llll.lHHKll, 
KsMtiilner or Qumlonvil llnndwrttliiH, 

an liKHuiwiiy. x,.« v„,.k. 

NiiniiriiANo wniTiNO ' 

Thoi-oiiKlily tiuiiflit r.j iiiiiH or pi-rMiiuilly. situ- 

. ' M I H.I rin-iimrv A^ (t.CllAI'I'KK. OHWCgO. N.Y. 

«. ii, NilAT-rvCK, 

(Ifiifnil Aifi'iil N|ii.ti(-t-rliiti rotiy llooki*. 
1V1«,N. III.AKKMAN. TaVUiII & C.l.. Now YoiK. 

l*Afl^KAIID*N nilNlntENN fl;ill.|,EUK, 

Kuw Kmui.AivDrAiini 

W. H. NADI.KU, l'ii-l,l,.|,i or 

""" "" ("lli'Ki-. niiKlmoif. WU.. imljllitlK-f „f 

"ri.... « s»ll„,-, ii„j„„ (lUcuiu,,,. ,i.,j,a ,„,„ 

J. n. UABLOW, 



""""'"■'''" <'"! I'li'r. I>cln.ll, Mlcli. 

IIIA SIAYIIKW. I.L.IJ.. rivuldent. 

■■■"-■:■. w riKiTvi-B oonPANv, 

-•0 niiiM,,..t, Xf»- Yoi*. 
nitt. Kl>'i'ii<it\ ix- r>>i lliiiMtranmi.« lire ctinipcr 


Poll Wiiyiiw, Iiiillniiii. 
I- iiiiiHt tlloi-oiiffli 1111(1 pmctU-iil. 

AIIDIS Al.imo, I'rtiulniil. 

inif. Wli.-n writiiij; upon ruled i«i|im-. vh- 
•linulcl iilwuja iiiingiru' tin- s|iiu-c be- 
iwein tin- lines lo be illviiK'il Into four 
■•ijunl >\«Kn. tlircc of wblcli mnj- In; oi-- 
lupiwl by tlic writing, tin' fourth niusl 
not bi- toui'lnil «avc by tho ilownwiird 
ixtonilfil lottcrs from tlic llni: above. 
■I'liiK open apiiec between tlic lincit scpnr. 
iiles them, nnil eniibles the eye more 
readily to follow anil dl«tInKUI»li between 
the linen when reading. A ."innll or me- 
dium hniiil l» the best. Imtli as regards the 
reniliTie« with wlneli it is i-eail. or WLse 
luul rapidity of its exeeutlon. 

Ill a large liaiiil the wrltln;; U apt to be 
more or le<« Intermlncliil and lonfuseil 
the loops of one liru' often eutliiig into 
and obseurlMK the wrilluj! uiioii other 
Hues, while the nio.-e extended sweelis of 

the pell in 
For I 

the la 




.ledlyll,.. 1,,..,. 11,1, 
for praetiee uimn 
we here reiieat wlial 
upon the intnds of 
the eare 
than till 
their inipri) 

«'. N. VIIANDI.K, Vnliinn 

Lcwon in Practical Writing. 

In lt.« praetieal ai>plieallun m the allali-s 

of life, writing mi e givatly varied in 

it.s »l«e, iieeonling to the plave In ami pin-, 
pose for whieli It is iisi'd. 

ll would be obvlmisly Inul taste to use 
llie same slie and style „f writing for the 
headings of a ledgiT and other books of 
aivount or n-iiml, that would he em- 
ployiMl on the bmly of a |iage. In the 
addivss of a letter and superseripllon upon 
the envelope mueli greater llivnse as re- 
ganls sin. and style may be taken, than 
in the liody of the writing. Nor is It 
ptaeth'al at all times to maintain a uni- 
form sl«e for boily writing. It may 

with i.n.prlely be wri la,g,.r u|».n 

wide than narrow riiliHl pajK-r. Can' 
should always Iv take,, to guag,- the -ixe 
of the writing art-ordilig to llie spa.v in 
and piiriw* for whiel, It is to be wriiteo 
I'his should be doqo by wjlop ,|,e ^^^ 

' "111 raiildlty of ex- 
' l-l writing is deei- 
'W iwgive an uxurcUe 
Ihe capital stem and 
we have before urged 
our readei-s. that it is 
hieli they praetiee rather 
III uinount that measures 
'lit. It is notoriouttly a 
faet that thoughtless serlbbling does no 
good ; it neither diselplines the hand nor 
Inilirovea the taste. It is only when the 
hand strlkiw for a dellnile luirpose, and 
the mind studies and erltieise.s til- result 
of every ellort that marked Improvement 
Is made. When there is a disposition to 
seribble st^ip at oiii-e ; to continue is to 
undo that already aeeomi.iishcd, and go 
baekward rather than forwnlxl. 

Iiiuetielng earefully upon this 
'•xeiri^e. liisiiigMie foivarnt luovetnent.) 
-iilliiieiitly to make it with aeeuraey and 
laiility. the following regular eopy for the 
lesson may be praetieed. 

A „,e,nber of the ela»« asks If ,ve would 
111 every ease, use or teaeh but a siu"Ie 
form of a eaiiltal. We answer, no. We 
have no objeetlon to a variety In eajiitals 
so far as they ean be made without intro- 
dueiiig ■ndieally dilfen'nt forms, as for 
instanee then' Is im objeetlon to the use 
as eapitals of tlie small a. m. „. r, ,Ve, cn- 
lagi'd. It Is the praetiee upou a radleally 
dllTen'Ut form for the «,ke of variety to 
whleh we objeet, simply a,, „ loss of labor. 

I'Ttctical Peomuuhip. 

In my artleles to the .lolR.VAL hitherto. 

I have insisteil ntainly u|>on the artistie 
and ideal featun's of peumanship. beea«.e 
these asp,.ets. being new and somewhat 
unfamiliar to the general rvader, and fur- 

Ihennore of Ihe highest ln,|».rta„.v In 

prvsent advaniiil stage of tt,e art sei',ued 
to me eminently worthy of iinisideralhui 
If penmanship h»s grown to b« an art, 
why not apply It ,0 esthetie prineiples ? 

II Is BO an If it doea not admit tlieia ; «od 

I have Inhored to show, in my previous 
studies of the subject, that it rfee, admit 
tlieni, a„d that too, as naturally and pro|)- 
erly as any of it.s sister arts. 

Hut 1 do not wish to coiillne myself ai- 
together to one side of the subject ; and, 
perhaiis, it is time to say something about 
praetieal, as well as Ideal iwnmanship ; 
to study It in it.s relationn to utility, as 
well as to beauty. 

til this resjiect iieiimanshlp diflTci-a very 
decidedly from almost all the other arts- 
it Is eminently useful, prnclhal, while at 
the same time alTordliig the very lilgliest 
exiiresslon of the beautiful. Tlic aim, the 
sole aim of poct,y, musie and painting la, 
to Mi(//il the mind and the soul, to ex- 
press in the most el, arming language and 
Ihu most lovely forms that inner truth 
whii'li science fulls to grasp. arts 
are perverted when they are employed to 
do anything other than please mankind. 
Kor iiislaiice, didactic poetry, wliieli is 
I aoinetiiues employed a.s the means of in- 
stwetiiigthe mind. Is tlie farthest of all 
from the true form of poetry. It Is 
scarcely worthy of the name. 

Hut iicnmaMslilp has a double function. 
While iliciv is no art lielter litteil to plea,se 
and ti, clevat.- llie mind, by Jiresenting the 
Hiaiilifiil ill its purest forms, there is also 
no science, no profession more valuable 
as an ac<inisltion, more helpful in the 
world's work. Think of all that the pen 
has done for modern eivillzatioM! what 
achievement has ever been entirely per- 
formed without its lielp? Is there a 
great invention ready to be broiigl,t be- 
fore the inihlic ? The faet must be made 
known ; the drawings must be iireiiared, 
whieh exiiiain the working of the mech- 
anism ; the pen must traverse its rods, 
and pcrhaiis miles, of careful cx|)lanatioii. 
If the inventor be also a good draughts- 
nnin and a good penman, his success is 
so iniich the more likely. A neat trans- 
1 script, whether it be of an ideal or an 

! act mil creation, Is one of the most elTec- 
tive passports to the good opinion of those 
to whom it is submitted. 
Xot only as an adjunct, a iielper of 
otlier industries and occupations, how. 
ever, is iieninanslilp useful ; it is of jirae- 
tical value in itself. "Business, wlien 
yon come to analyze it," says a well 
j known writer, "is three parts mental and 
manual facility to one jairt brain-toil." 
And it is true; I think, that inecliaiileal 
dexterity |days a larger pan in mercan- 
tile sucivss than is usually supposed, 
renmanship Is the highest form of "man- 
ual facility." A good penman, witli | 
•inental facility" proportionate, is sure to I 
claim a premium on bis services. He can 
always command a good salary and steady 
employment. It Is pleasant to note how 
many of our leading business men have 
built their fortunes on the foundation of 
penmanship ; It w„ their drst and most 
imjionanl aequkition, and it li«s enabled 
them to si-ale the ladilcr of success. If a 
young ,nan applies to them for a situa- 
tion, line of their Itrsi requisitions is ; 
• Let us see a s|w.i,neii of your-liaod- 
writing." A slovenly or crude penman 
rari'iy obtains a position at their disposal. 
" Kapid business liand" is an accomplish, , 

incit which it pays a young man to sjielid 
years in ai'(|lilring. for when once secured 
It Is as good as the nucleus of a fortune. 

And even in its most artistic form pon- 
manship is of pnicthal viiluc I'lie time 
l,8s eonie when beautiful iivaii.uis of the 
lien command a market value, i.ikc all 
works of art they are the iirodncts of 
genius and skill, and deserve the rewind 
which tills God-given power receives in 
other departments. i'"rom wlilchever side 
we look at it we cannot fail to see the 
true utility and desirability of penman, 
ship. One cannot niiike a better practical 
beginning of life than to educate liiinself 
In the use of the pen. 

Nerve Force in Penmanship. 

No trade or |iriifession In wlihli a viiiiii" 

man may engage calls for ll x|iciidiliire 

of more nerve force than penmaiishlp. 

The general penman who liolds liiinself 
in I'eadinesB to execute all kinds of oriia. 
mental miust have in store a 
large amount of "nerve," he must also 
know how to fceil and care for Ids ma. 
chine so that Ihe manufacture of this 
f(ii-ee Is constantly going on, and the |n'o. 
duct must be equal to or in excess of the 
demand, otherwise the tienman becmnes 
iierKnu, and If he continues to work in 
this condition he is suri' to impair his' 
health and perchance resort to the use of 
so.called sthnulniits whlcli by . deadening 
Ills nervous "sensibility enable liim for a 
time to do his work. 

There is a curious mistake often made 
by hearty young men who " take a liking" 
to penmansliip. W'ith the liiiiid and arm 
trained to guide the plow or wield an ax 
the pen is taken in hand and because Ihe 
muscles at first cannot he coiurollcd lo 
execute the delicate forms, made sei-ni- 
iiigly witlioul effort by the teacher the 
student exclaims, I am too nervous to 
ever become a good writer. Such per. 
sons instead of being" nervous" have an 
ahliiidaiit ^iipplv of nerve force. Just what 
ever) |n-iiiii;iii iii-.ils. and to makegood 
lieiiiiicii III,) li:i\c- only to keep up the 
supply and by careful, well timed pi-ac- 
tice train tlie muscles of the hand and 
arm to execute the beautiful forms of 
letters with tlie same force and precision 
with which the ax was wielded. 

We liave said liial the penman must 
know how to care for Ids machine and In 
the next issue we will give a few practical 
suggestions on that subject, which will be 
of value to learners and ]>ossib]y to some 
wlio have worked long at the art. 

EilUiTi of III, l>„uium; AnJaariuU: 

(iK.NTLKMK.X : There is no class of pro- 
fessional workmen more subject to ridi- 
cule, misstatement and downright abuse 
than Kxperts — unless it be the Husinesss 
College proprietors, who are as far from 
being " experts " as possible. And of all 
cla.sses of professional eX|>ertA none are 
more liable to abuse^I was on the point 
of saying none il,M-nt abuse more than 
Experts in handwriting. When I say 
none dtMrrt abuse more than this class I 
want my statement taken as it is meant, 
to cover that species of the class who «ro 

'¥^y&^^ f'fX 

The original from which the above cut was Photo-enf;i 
The size of the original is 20x24, and is an elegant spec 


always looking out for a job ami always 
leaily to swvc the party that will pay them 
best, or, 1 might say that will pay them 
anything, for they are hardly ever per- 
mitted to appear In court except on the 
losing side, and tlien only upon the 
theory that one expert will balance anoth- 
er, and that the only thing for the, jury 

■aved was designed and executed liy J. C. JliUer, Penman nt Aliens Business College, MausHeld, 
;nien of penmanship. 

nd" for till 


which lia 

iiihcr iif IN 


And it 

"'1 t h- 


xpei-ts t 
^ide of a 


to do i 

he will »'<mi)t as imu-li as a n-ul uxpeit 
hihI cnii give ItU " opinion" tlisit all tliiit 
is cliiiined by tlio other aide is false, and 
win show in his own person and tcsliinoiiy 
of what miserable inatt-rial experts are 
made. Such material can be found flout- 
ing about, and can be "i-etjiined" for a 
very small amount of ready cash. 

Lawyers are very variable as to their 
judgment of the value of expert testi- 
mony. If tliey hapjien to he on the Ay\v 
whiih d.-p<-ii.K xvlH.lly mmn lliis kin.l of 

A few weeks ago I had occasion to be 
present at court when aforgery ease was on. 
The expert who had been working in the 
interest of the prosecution had spent some 
flfteen days of exhaustive toil in prepar- 
ing his evidence so as to enlighten and 
not confuse tlie jury, and bis testimony 
as ho had arranged it was simply irre- 

The attorney for tiie defence was a 
lawyer of great repute, as well as of great 
discernment, and saw at once that his 
only cinince was to ridicule the expert, 
and attack expert testimony. So he an- 


v\\ lU til 

III -I: 

! Start that he should object 
. and analysis on the part 


who are willing to act as experts. It is 
not that a sharp lawyer with an expert at 
bis elbow cannot confuse a.witne-*s or 
"catch "him in a well laid trap, but that 
witnesses give evidence of starting out 
with a "theory," and attempting to make 
everything bend to it, so that when tliey 
are tripped up as they often easily are. 
they can do nothing hut "stick to" wliat 
has been proven to be false and what 
everybody can see is false. Kight here la 
where the business or " the profession " of 
expertisin is made to sufTer in public es- 
teem. Of coui-se. it must be readily seen 
that wlien two experts, having the same 


before tht 

iif till 

to differe 

niu-r lir 



pcctful . 

only to the testimony itself, but tn t'le 
purveyor of it and "all his relations and 
friends." He is proven to be a first-class 
gentleman, an undoubted sehohir. and a 
judge of every good thing. If he should 
happen, on any subsequent occasion, to 
be Interested in proving what the same 
learned geiiMenieu are paid to have dis- 
proved, it is interesting to notice how 
rapidly and irretrleYjibly he sinks in the 
scale of intelligence and respectability. 

On I 


leave on the niiutls 
settled question a-* t 
did or did not rob a ] 

, his pers 
of tin 


sprung up in our midst. The Wldttakcr 
trial he asserted had disgusted the whole 
country, and bad shown clearly that there 
was no sucli thing as a reliable expert on 
handwriting, and that the courts were en- 
gaged in the foolish and expensive busi- 
ni'«'i of keeping ailoat a lot of impudent 
;inii iiniu-t-iiiiiims writing nuisters. I 
hiii-ihnl ill uiy sleeve at the burst of riglit- 
<'(iiis Indignation, knowing full well tliat 
sUuuhl the gentleman receive a proper 
retiiiiu'r in a case requiring expert testi- 
mony on writing, his lii*st move would be 
tn secure the best talent available in this 
■■ exploded " profession and extol the 
skill and reliability of Ins showing and 

The fact is, there 

s no testimony so sat- 

sfactory to a jury. 

tiie court or to the 

public as thiit of a 

■eputiihle expert who 

understiin.l- lii- In,- 

iL.--. ;iinl knows how 

reliability of what experts wiy, und a* to 
the intelligence and hoiiesty pf prions 

the cause uf expcrtism would be greatly 
benefited by an open and honest acknowl- 
edgment of the fact. And no expert 
would lose standing, but would rather 
gain it by such a coui-se. 

Exiiertism can never receive the con- 
fidence and respect of the public until 
experts themselves earn this conflilence 
by never judging of a case even prelimi- 
narily, except on full examination ; ami 
never accepting a "retaiinng" fee under 
any circumstances nor promise a client that 
they will stick to a present tlieory through 
thick and thin. 

An honest expert will always reserve the 
right to change his opinion at any phasB 
of tlie trial, if facts are developeil which 
shall lead him to a different com-lusion. 
It Is doubtful whether sucii experts can 
be found in sutllclent number to establish 
the "profession" on a higher plane than 
that of the lawyer whose business it is to 
" squelch these self-sufficient charletans." 
\\\ fact, the very name "jirt'/cuhnnl ex. 
pert" is an offence, and lead to an unjtist 
concUwlon tlmt thoR« who nvd po profl- 

cient in any line that their expert knowl- 
edge can be made available are ready to 
be retained on either side. There ist noth- 
ing wrong in a lawyer working honestly 
for his client, and even when he knows 
Ills client to be in the wrong his etTnits 
to prove him in the i-ight are accepted as 
professionally proper. Not so with tlie 
expert, however. He is In no sense an 
advocate, and has nothing to do with 
anybody's interests. His office is to eatab- 
Ih/i the truth, let it cut where it will. And 
when expertism can stand on tliis basis it 
will be respected— not as a " profession," 
but as a valuable aid in getting at truth. 
Yours sincerely, 

S. S. I'ACKARl*. 

Keokuk. I a., May 33, 1881. 
Editors Penman'g Art Journal : 

Will content myself in answering such 
questions as Prof. J. W. Westervelt offers 
for the present and then I would suggest 
that those having a successful ex|)erie 
in Graded schools come fortli and in c 
else language through articles convey 
that information which luis been too 
jealously guarded and which doubtless 
will help the fraternity. 

In : 

swer to 2d <ini'-ii 



iiilr ^ind that 

with pupils whn 

^ ^MuMg. Will 

explain my pu. 


Ml I 

It; or more ar- 

tides at your co 



In answer 

to 3d question. 


; bei 

Buse they ean- 

not comprehend 



In answer to 

4th question. Ce 



limited amount. 


y respectfully, 



If you want a good pen for business or 
school purposes send 80 cents for u (juar. 
ter gloss of "Ames' I'eniniin's J'«vqv« 


>yr llw hliu. 

Thr llrf Inif* ur pinrty are hriimIiv 

Tin- liiiiii »r Ihc aplndlr. Ilu rllrk nf ihi- loom. 
Tfii- rliiv nl the iinvu iin<l lumimT. 

r*'" plenty «rf room 

ri thf 

• Mllnic • 

Totfnlrc Hill) l>UMlni9« t«eminfi. 
«-.l! '.'; " ;?>''•« po-lllon tn-lnir«l ; 
n hll<- till- Mlfr I- (oft to hill (Imiiiiinir 

■I p.. .. rmiilioio o( lulmriiTv ool for llie few! 
mil nil « lid lire iilile lo iiiM.* tlieio. 

"' Ill Mf -oinelliliiff, Ihoneh tnmmon It le- ■ 

Til' "iii'"'ii'i'iri *""•''' '""■""""• 

I'KliiioiiiKiiiiniriiMl iiiiibltlon. 
Ill i-iiil.r o of Kruitni-MM, ore lioeliiji ii row 
1 lial will eiiil III u hlKher |h>hI1Ioii. 

Educational Notei. 

'. KKU.Kr.aiI BllOAIiWAv"»rV 

a Llliriii 
'■"I'u ti 


»liile .■npip.l ill .trikiiii,- a li..\ 
I>eti from lielilnil lii< ear liiln ihe 1. fi .w 
of anotlier iMiy lillln}; bv. wlilch eni'ii- 
liletrly ilextrojnl hi< yiglit. The law 
«.url rave ilati,,,^ „f ftm. Tlie |int,- 
lice of iarr> Ing |,e„, IH-Iiinil iIif ear bi-Ban 
when i,i.ill ,K„. wen. Tlie .{eel 
|ieni» now ii«il are lUnireroiH aii arrow*. 

A »luilenl al the .<eniitiarv 
at Aniloier. wlio liail an exierient oiiinioii 
of Ills own talent, on one ot-caiioit askeil 
the iirofe«or who taught eloeutlon : 
« hat <lo I i.|ieei»ll.v need to learn In 
hi. ileiiartnient?" •• V„u ought juot to 
learn to ri'ail. nalil the profeiisor. "Oh. 
,,.,•'"" ";"' ""»■•" relilieil the stuilent. 
lie |«or hiinileil the ) oiini; man a 

M. III. ,-!,,, I ^n„,.,""|-ii,,;;.;|!jj.^^ 

!4 bluek : 


n m;„, 

Of,,..]. ,,,.! . 

•he IT.., t. ,i;,v, 

llie lirofi..-„r. -tii ,,„ „ 

in;/ the |iro|)lietj4. \vere lli. > 1 1| . '.'.i 

that was not right, iiii.l -., d,, ,,,, 
man tried again. -Ml f.„.i. ii,,j ,|,.^, 
heart to believe o« that llie prophet, h 
ipolieii." "The prophets, then, w 
llainy" askeil the profem 


"No. Ofool. 
lleveiill r!i:ir 

I.I slow I, r 

III- do;-" I'romiitl) a little »-.vear-old boy; 
"He read his newspaper." 
A Chinese boy, who is learning English 
• ame aeross the passage in his testament:' 
" e have piped unto you. and you liave 
not danoeil." ami rcndereil it thus: "We 
have toot, toot you, what's thr matter 
you no jump? " 

,\lid Mr White la ' 

.\nd when he's tigi 
A flre Is hot when ft .„ vssiosi 

A bimp Is hwvy ihoiiKli Ifs light. 
A shoe Is boiiKht iliin in i. .„|,|J 

.\ man «n s.-o when out of sight. 

I'rofessor, leeturing on j.syehology. 
•All phc.mnieiia are sensations. ForTiV 
itanee. that leaf appears green to me 
111 other words. I liave a sensation of 
gi*enin.s.s within me." Of miii^de no harm 
was meant, but still the elass would 
laugh.— iSJr. 

"Ves," said the scliooi.girl. who had 
risen from the lowest to the highest 
jioslUoii in her elass, "I shall have a 
horse shoe for my symbol, as It denotes 

Miaile. ■•(1 foilis. ■'■'i„i"."luw'„f"liearl""o 

believe all tliat the prophets /,„„, ,,„l,„.- 

1 see. now, sjilfl the profe.ssiir. "the 


'rr. h, ■■ Mrll„„l, .,/ I,„,nirrl„„:- 

The Cliinese I'rofessoi- at llaivilld 
Kuglishnueut'i;!'''"' '""' ■'"'■■' ""' '^'"'^ 

Stunil lip ye SI),' 
Spell Phi.riiiki.l 
or take so .1 

111 the " llluuilnator of Words," the 
MW Dengalese dlellomiiy, the words an. 
iiniiigeil aeiordliig to tlieli- lluul letters. 

i-'ii','in',"',',''" ''','""'■''■ '""' "" ''■iilowineiit i.f 
;„',.,• "" "" """""1 Ineouie of <Si.J.-i 
mil. S.:t,;.l),imrHrl,„h„r,r. 


-liuiilil I 



the foot."— r.JiiilT 

L liked il l„ 


leiiie III Kianee 34.1 loial words f, 

Nile waste land t one of wlileli i 

■toocl out of the nelghborhooil ii 

■eester's new dletloiiaiy has flu 

lioom -"an entliiisiastle aiii 

iiieoiis uioveinent In favor of a per 

Sixteen young woiue 
■ I'.'l SoinervillellalM 

women luive air, 

.\ Chinese eliait of the heavens made 
alioiu mill years II. C, giving eorreetly the 
positions of about UtlD slara, is nnwerved 
11 Ilie giriit I'aris llbiary.-ir^,,™ AV,/r<^ 
tumal Jimrtutl. 

Tlioiniis Carlylc willed to HarvanI I'lil- 
veiNlty theliuoks l,e used In writing the 
llo'.'l-'.'f '■'■ ^ """woll »liil Kreileriek 

Tlie l„.ii,|,,,| ,|,.|,| „f „|g I'uiverlty of 

' "K"" ' ■ ^" \"h-r Jiame Sdmkutie 

„,... '"\' ' ' ' ^'.iiug girls aix- at 

'""" I ^ l>,iiiitiiig and draw.- 

I ,,■ ,,,,| iiiuuieipal seliools 


of'' p'.','i''l-"'''7; '""; V'"'^ J™'^ prliieipal 
of luMie .sehool No. H, „f |l„ir„'|„. 

"'')'""> '"'"' -"leideal Ills brothorV 

the II','"', i I'l " ''"~ '''"'«>■'' ,'hrougli 

He le 

of Yale Col- 
a wife 

Graiiini..., .„,„i 

what is the feminine of hart? 
• 77,' <1'™"'I>I1J)-" Uinnaid, sir." [lied 

What becomes of the eieani that rises 
111 the Milky way ? Oh I that is taken 
rare of by the birds that skim the air. 

What liraiu-lies of learning have you 
Ill-en ]iiii-siiiiig lit sehool to-day?" said a 
t|iiliei- to his .■on. "None in particular, 
sii-j but a bii-cli braiieli has been pursuing 

; ilo as liie seiiool irnv's do, piu oM 

i.;;rii'""*""" *'"',"''" I""" So shall y* 

happily escaiie the msli r,.je,-tiou of a 

furious whtor. and the heartfelt invoe*. 

lions (.') of the TOinixisitor. and fortu-' 

.■itely avert those awful mistakes of tll« 

o,'^"; «'"'• •'"."""■*• '■»''> » |H>ets sub-- 

liiuest elTuslon. by lainlomimieally trans- 

lormhig his nnm into n/wnt, his aiujrU into 

o»!** and Ills hai^,iam into ;«.,7,iVju. ' 


The "Water-Mark" in Paper. 

•V r..,-,.nt ,i,i,iili,.r „f n. frinler.- 
^rvl-f.,- of Noiiilon. Kiiglaud. gives the 
[olloning iiitenstiug inforinalioii in an 
artiele eondeiiseii from a leeture on 
" I'aper and I'aiier-inakiiig," by Henry 

"One feature of paper remains to lie 
uotieed-naniely, the • water-iuark,- the 
origin of whieh explains some of the 
mimes by wliieli pa|iers are known. In 
the days when few pereons eould read, 
pietuies and symliols were eoiuinonly 
used as signs or cinblcins of einployniont, 
sueh lis the barber's • pole,' the wool- 
stabl.T's ■ tleeee,' the • eliriim.i-s,' on the 

if 'pot ■ 
leail, ni 
if .fool- 

A "classieai student" says, "Yon 

If .■\Mils supported the woilil v 

-■Ii|,l Mill.-- TI,.. ,|„,.,i,„',, , 

i-ii-lj wife and got his support fi-'oiu her '"''', "'' 

fatiiel-.-iV. r.''nc!„„,,nk T^^''" 

"What." asked a (ialvesloii .Siuiiliiv- !-.','ii'l'ii\i- 

"Sew up the hole in the|uito biu." 
was the prompt answer from the bad 
hoy at the foot of the elass.— ryafcc*/!, 

HintB to Correapondents. 

IlK- I iiKersiiy of I'eiinsyivaiiia h. 
...iifernd the degn'e of 1,1,. I), upon I're 
uleiit i;arlielil. A'ofr. Uaine ti-Ji„Uutir. 

I'ltosuNclATIo.s-. — Aiiverse U) in 
eaaeiiiont in my parents' house In a 
oasis in tlic green environs, stands an a 

Ihoroii- :i, ,,, :„,,.■, I „- .. ' " 

indi.-;u. i.,<„ ,,, ,„ :,„ I,,,,,.,, ": ', ','"" 

of -MaK.ui ,; i.iiieg,. "ii,-' :;;. 

wmiliis lo the le^fi-iid, is an exi«rt ami ai 
aspirant for the fame of a eoiijurer Hi 
holds in his hand a vase, illustrated by , 
distleh from a l,atlii sail,,. ,he eoiiU'liti 
whereof are a patent, i-eoiioiiiieal alinoni 

It IS said the Vassar College girl who 
eaught eold by drinking ,*ite? from a 
damp tumbler is .-onvale.seent. 

One of our exehanges is surprised to 
learn that the professor of Chinese at 
V ale does not keep a laundry. 

A little girl lead a eoniposltion before 
the minister. The suhjeet "a cow." She 
wove III tins eompliiuontary sentence: 
Ihe eo«- IS the most useful animal in 
the world, except religion. " 

Aritliuietlc-How many perches are 
there in a eliaiu of lakes? 



ellvolo|».. This ohj,., I i, ,„.,,., inTfeeteii 
fpim irremeillahle 'dlsere,»neier[,, Ihe 
sines of the objects. As the wind soilglis 
Ids wlileh is an ac-essorv-, often 
an. again falls into the sewer below, from 
which it is haled by his nephew wlio 
rushes after il with the s|»hmI of a win.-,.d 
Alervury. ^ 

A pupil teacher In Hull, (EngUndJ, 

A woiilil-he teacher in 'I'oledo recent 
replied to an exaininaliou qnesti 
Do you think the world is round or tin 
liy saying, "VVell, some iicople think o 
way and some another; I'll teach rooW 
I flat, just as the parents wish. 

Law I'rqfessor: "Wh:,, ,.„T,«tltiii 
liurglai-v?- .•ilu.l,-,,! ■■ I I,,.,,, „i,i , 
li|-e:ikil,'..." I'i-,,l,-.,,, I I,, „ ,. , ,., 

inirglary.- .student; -- Ve. sir: liec;iuse 
that would break me." 

Teacher in high seliool— "Are pro and 
eon synonymous or opposite terms?" 
.Scholar— "Opposite." Teaelier— "Givean 
examjile." Scholar—" Progress and Con- 
gress. "—Jf;„„M,.Ji, ir««y. 

One-lialf of the ehildren cried in chorus 
8Mi"Sitn'il,I-''.''„'','i,r.',',;'|' ""' """■'" ''""■ 

—Dicl„u. " "'" ^■^■"""""""" 

In the review of tlio |>ast lessons at 

.Sunday-school the i|Uestion was asked' 

1 " « liat dill Uod do on the seventh day?'' 

1 hcix' are a few simple rules wliieli all 
newspaper correspondents should observe. 
Not the least of these rules is the fre- 
■luentiy reiterated request to write plainly 
ami only on one side of the paper. Tliey 
shinild also remember that brevity is the 
soul of wit and the substance of all coni- 
iiliinicalions, and write only the iie«-s of 
tlicir ivspective localities, as brielly and 
;i- voiiipiehensively as inissihle. Ihe 
name- .if individuals and phiei-s. especi- 
ally should be written so distinctly that 
no mistakes in that resjiect could occur. 
In this connection we venture to recall" 
Hood's iieninenl suggestions in relation 
to this subjivt. Hesays: "liuvlhe best 
paiier, the best iok, the Ust laiia, and 

Not Respooaible. 

< ' 1 I'c ilisiini-tly unilerstood that 

editor- of the JofH.NAL are not lo be 
I as indorsing anything outside of lu 
"i-ial columns ; all comniunications 
not ohjeclionable in their character, or 
devoid of inurest or merit, are received 
and publlslied ; if any jierson differs, the 
eoliimns are eriually oiain to him to say 
so and tell wliy. 

On llie suliject of penmanship .M. Eriieat 
Legouve tells his grandilaughter: "The 
people who iiraise you lo your face and 

laugh al you Ijehind j bio-k say. ..M,! 

all clever pe..|.K- write liiiillv.' Answer 
by showing till-Ill. a- I li;iM- -li'owii you a 
hundred time-, h-tters of Oui/ot, .Mi.'iiet 
and Alexandre IJuiiias the elder which are 
models of ealigraphy. Write well, my 
child, wrlu- well ! Pretty writing in a 
woman is like tasteful dressing, a pTcaslQg 
liliysiognoniy, or a sweet voli-e."-A-c«iBw 
J'u4t, Ajirtl ;»), IMl, ' 


Single InwrHoii 4S ccnW per line nonpni-ell. 
1 Colainn «» 00 SM 00 *I0OW •>* 

■ Interested In 
—imndeiita and 


le yoHV with (t choke 
» eiioli snbsci'lber, as 

NKW YdUK, jrXK. 

Our Most Valuable and Provoking 
Writing' Lesson. 

The spring of 18f)(i found us a student 
In a seminary in Mass. Our name also 
appeared in tlie Catalogue, among the 
faculty lis the Professor of Peniuunship. 
A long s^uninier vacation was approncliiiig 
wliich we ik'-sircil to improve in some 
ninn»er Id replenish our fast waning 
linancen, when we chaneed to observe in 
a newspaper from tlie " liub" an adver- 
tisement headed " Agents wanted" which 
tiet forth In the uriual glowing uinuner of 
auch advertisements, tlie certainty and 
ease witli whieli one niiglit become pos- 
mv-ised of a fortune. 

We lost no time in inditing an epistle 
of three letter .slicet pages, in our most 
elaborate anil p:orgeous style. Grace- 
ful llourislies blended with tlic well 
rounded and sliaded master strokes or 
ehirographle curves of the numerous cap- 
itals, In such a manner as to present to 
our eye wondrous beauty J and who, on 
beholdiu); such a manifestation of genius 
Would presume to <|uestion,our eapitbility 
for filling any agency. The letter we en- 
closed in an envelope which we addressed 
to the great dispenser of fortunes. 

The magnilicenco of the chirogi-apliy of 
tlint letter and the gorgeousnesss of that 
supei-scription remains viviiUy Imiiressed 
U1)0U our mind to this day. And why 
not ? We regarded it as a sort of sight 
draft for a fortune. Even the position of 
the postage stami) we remember ii^ it was 

placed sidewise In the only -ipaci- unoc* ii- 
pi<-d by the aforesahl super-fcriptinn. at 
tlie lower left hand corner of the envelope. 
Hastening to the Posf-«fflce we watched 
our opportunity to rejich the letter direct- 
ly to the hands of the Postmaster ; for 
why should not our vanity be gratified to 
the extent of having him see umi imtc tlie 
genius of that superscription V :intl ilid we 
not fiush with pride a- he t!i:it 
" It was written with considerable ihi^h." 

Impatiently we waited for the nmil to 
bring a response. It did so promptly ; 
nervous wltii expectation we opened the 
letter and read : 
Mr. D. T. Amf«— 

DkAR sir-Yom-s of— inst. is received. 
•• It is done up to boyish tjiste."- 

Thefurther import of the letter we do 
not now recollect. Timt sentence "done 
up to boyish taste" was quite enough for 
us. No prospective fortune could have in- 
duced us to become the menial of the 
author of such a villainous comment 
upon our chirographic skill. We rend 
it over and over with well-nigh uncon- 
trollable rage and indignation. Onr 
first impulse was to seize our pen and 
properly resent so outrageous an insult, 
but our anger finally gave place to a feel- 
ing of pity and utter contempt for a man 
thus destitute of good taste and so blind 
to the beauties of artistic penmanship. 
Having no special pride of ownernhi]) in 
that letter we deposited it in the stove, but 
the memory of that sentence and the deep 
impression it made upon our mind was 
not to be effaced, " done up to boyish 
taste" fairly rung in our ears for days 
and months and oven now after the lapse 
of twenty-five yeai"s tliat sentence stands 
as if graven upon the sheet before us, but 
the resentment tliat it at first caused has 
long since changed to a deep feeling of 
gratitude and thankfulness to its antlioi 
for the most valuable as it was the inc-i 
impressive writing lesson we have cwv 
received. We never again mingled ilmn 
ishes with writing intended for ;i iii;iit i-i 
business, even when we have In-.n tmipi 
ed to add an unnecessary line in im-im-- 
writing "done up to boyish taste" hiis 
stood out in bold characters as a warning 
before us. 

Practical Origin of the Spencerian. 

At the age of sixteen years, the iiiilhor 
of the Spencerian, Piatt 11. Spencer, by 
reason of Ins marvelous skill with the pen 
and ready knowledge of accounts, held the 
responsible position of book-keei>er and 
cashier for Anan Harmon Esq, of Ash- 
tabula, Ohio. Mr. Harmon owned sev- 
eral mills, a shipyard, also a store and 

In the store where the banking and 
merchandising business were conducted, 
almost at the same counters, the books 
of the extensive interests of the concern 
were kept by young Spencer for some 

The aflaii-s of tlie store, mills and co- 
ordinate business brought him in com- 
munication, to some extent, by correspon- 
dence and otherwise, with business men 
and noted financiers at commercial cen- 
ters, enabling him to become familiar 
with the current customs of tiiinsacting 
business and recording: ir- iji\ri;ii| -reps 
according to theappro\-il iiiiiicii- ivm.wn 
to the science of accoum- I hr n .pniisi- 
bility of his position, rL-imiriii<; llie ahiiust 
constant use of the jien, in suminari/ing 
the records of the large business interests 
of hla employer, eflfecting in their rela- 
tions the property right of uuiuy jieople 
connected with the producing, building, 
transpoi-tiitlon, manufacturing and trad- 
ing enterprises of that early period, g;ive 
to his young mind a discipline which be- 
came thoroughly evinced, in the pructi- 
callzatlon of his style of writing. Hence 
it is tliat in the light of history we find 
the Syeneerian style o/witirn/ was born 
within tUe pale of commerce to meet the 
manifold necessities of the active affairs 
of business. The simple grace and beauty 
of Mi'. Spencer's writing led many to ap- 
ply to him for counsel as to how they 
could master the "gi-eat secondary power 

c.f -peech.' as lie was wmii to euli ttie art 
of writing. In response, he instructed 
many by letter. The demand for his in- 
struction led him. at times, to give les- 
sons to classes. The extensive publica- 
tion of his style of writing and system of 
instruction sulneiinently. was In answer 
to an urgent liiiiKiinl tii.m^riiout the 
country. As ('.Muitv tnn-nni for four- 
teen years. Inn;.. I -...].. v\,i- -ivi-iiforthe 
employment of !ii- tali lU- a- an account- 
ant and the practical test and application 
of that which was destined to become 
national— his popular iiystem of writing, 
in making up the debit and credit of ac- 
counts with the thousands of taxpayers of 
Ashtabula County. The practical utili- 
tarian, combined with tite -.ri-iecfiil fe:i- 
tures of his .'System of wiiiini:, li;i- t.- 

business colleges and comiuMii -i hodU ,,t 
the land, and millions of Anieriian youth 
passing from the halls of study to the 
marts of business, hear in their hand- 
Expert Testimony. 
In view of the conllictuig opinions of 
judges and others respecting the reliabil- 
ity of expert testimony in courts of jus- 
tice, and consequent distrust with which 

itisoflrll irrrhr,!; th,- f nll,.U i ri-,' .Mg-rS- 

tion <|n.ii,,| I 111., ^^ul.]~ nf .hnl;;.. 

PrUtr,Ml lh,.M,|,Mni,l nuiti.t \rv\ \.nU, 

is cmi.i..'iilli ^^u.tUJ lo be aduplcd as a 
guide to every person who is consulted 
with the view of giving evidence upon 
any subject as an expert, and is what we 
have frequently advocated through these 
columns and which has been an infiexible 
rule witli us in all eases where our opin- 
ion li;i- hr-en -nuijht rf;:;irMin;r questioned 

Few penmen have been better known 
in ('entral New York than A. W. Talbott. 
who died suddenly but a few weeks since 
at his home in Sequoit. N. Y. In another 
column will be fotind a somewhat ex- 
tended review of his life and labors, by 
C. E. Carhart. of the Albany Business 
{College. Mr. Talbott was a skillful wri- 
ter and sHece«i<*ful teacher. He was ener- 
iritie, shrewd and ^^^fol in all his 
iMiMiir- ;niau-,iarn!- Hi- lo- will be 


. be eni- 

We belli 
far as I 


able expert. We know it is with most j 
but the bad feature of the expert busi- 
ness, as in all other things, is, the 
fact, that, It is not without its hungry 
cliarletans, wlio from knavery or incom- 
petency seek to apjjear as witnesses only to 
guess or falsify upon either side of any 
case in which they can procure their 
employment, and get a fee. Of course 
such advice as Judge Pratt offers is wast- 
ed upon that class of " professional " 
experts. So long as there is a mutual 
seeking between the charletan witness 
for a fee, and attorney to sustain by any 
means a bad cause, expert testimony can 
■and will be made to appear to juries and 
tlie w.Ml.l a- -liaii^<'I> .■,,,, (li,tii,-. It is 

and 1 nn,l, i:U Lii III-' M,,:,-,MMal 

diffcrcnii ul upiniun Ijeturcii .-killed and 
honest experts upon evenly balanced 
cases, which so often discredits expert 


Iteceiitly the twin biotlicrs Henry and 
Harvey Spencer, the associate authors 
of the Spencerian vystem visited our 

When both wero present one of them, 
(it is of course iinpo-'isible to say which.) 
said that a few days before, at a tiim 
when his brother was in New York, h. 
was at an assemblage of friends in Wash- 
ington, one of wliom in apparent earnest- 
ness asked him, " Is it you or your brother 
who has gone to New York ?'* 

Bxtra Copies of the Journal 
will be sent free to teachers and otliei> 
wlio desire to make an effort to secure a 
clnb of aiibscribers. 

sochite. Mr.Talbotf was also possessed of 
considerable literary taste and accomplish- 
ment, being a ready writer in both prose 

ami pu>ii\. a- his many communications 
In rill\\i, and other publications 


acteristic spi-clnicn of his poei 

Send $1.00 Bills. 


that we do not desire jiostage stam|)s in 
payment for subscrijitions, and that they 
should be sent only for fractional parts 
of a dollar. A dolhir bill is much more 
convenient and safe to remit than the 
same amount in 1,2 or 3 cent stamps. 
The actual risk of remitting money is 
slight— if properly directed not one mis- 
carriage will occur in five hundred. In- 
close the bills, and where letters con- 
tftiidng money are sealed in presence of 
the posNmaster we will assume all the 

A Card. 

Mr. Kelley begs leave to call attention 
to the fact that, as orders for written 
cards accumulated beyond his ability to 
iptly fill them, the advertisement i 



:ih;i[<'iii<'iii uf ilii' '■nuisance," he wishes 

ir iui.|.a--t 1, rii:ii .i- a ride, no order for 

;iii\ iiiui]i>i'T'. I aie do/on upward, 

.:iii uiih .. ii;iiiitj Ij..: filled In less than 

nil ihi\ - ti rhe date of Its receipt. 

Ill ,iNm iir-iris it understood that he 
M'luU i'\ mail, at present, nothing but 
written eaids— a dollar's worth, plain or 
fancy, for one dollar. 

H. F. KkLLKY, 
205 Broadway, New York. 

Hon. Ira Mayhew, Pi-esldent of May- 
hew's Business College, Detroit, Midi., 
announces a Normal class for teachers 
during the months of July and August. 
This will furnish a rare opportuidty for 
teachers to acquire, what every teacher 
ought to possess, a knowledge of book-' 
keeping and business, with a good hand- 
writing and a knowledge as to the best 
method of giving instruction. Prof. May- 
hewjustly ranks among the first educators 
of this country ; alike distinguished as 
an author, instructor, or public school 
officer. No one is better fitted to become 
a teacher of teachei-s than he. and the 
teachers who can avail thennelves of his 
aid and experience should count them- 
selves fortunate. 



On the 28tli 
and students of til-' Ka-iman llu-iiie-s Col- 
lege, Poughkeep-i., N \ . innk riieir an- 
nual excursion d<.wn tliL' llmi-un to New 
York on the steamer Mary I'owell. We 
return our thanks for the voiy kind i 
vitation to be present, and also 


A Brief Sketch of the Life and Work 
of the Ute A. W. Talbott. 

F-ailcr* «.f III.- JoiB- 

. tli<- nil 

ut A. W. Talhf 


n-iall with plra^iit molliitioti^. t)ii- 
iiiariy hapii}- liiiiin> tliey hnve i)ttJMCtl in 
liiw comimtiy. or under liU Iiinlriictionit ; 
hikI their hcartN will be patiinl to ■(•am 
of hU ilimth. Hut HO It i)i ; liic hand that 
)ft>ldf-d the \ten with no much gjnw Ix 
I II (It ion !«•«]•. Thuvolc« that slwayn carried 
with It hopp and i-nL>oiira]i^m(;nt, In itllcnt. 
Thi- frif'iid who wa>* alwayn midy tn rpach 
out II lirl|iliig hand t(i a brother in want, 
or dUin-^o. hn^ laid bU armor down and 
j.aMw;d on. over the river. T/if j>en u hnt- 
Ini tJtr irrUrr Hom gtme ; hut hi* tmrk ticeM. 

Mr. Talbott. waN one of the olden time 
]M;nmen, and wIiohc writiii};alwayf« looked 
IV* If It eould xpenk ; orl^riiml in >4tyle. 
bold In exeeutliui. imd beHiitiftil t(i form. 
Many, very niiiny are the |)cnnien of to- 
day, who look bai-k upon the time when 
he WAM their U'aeher, AH a bright Mjtot In 
the liallH of memory, and who owe to the 
Inspiration and InHtriR-- 
llon received from liliii. 
their beautiful jiinmiin- 

Itiit not ab 
1n-<tiu.'ted. and t-lni 
with llni--' litKl eurvesof 
bi-nuty, but by nniiiy will 
hv be remenibored am one 
wlioso vei*}' Muul and life 
were tilled with iioetic 
lire, and widcli blll'st 
forth In rliyinen tliiit glow 
and Mirill witli the beiin- 
ty of the life that wa- 
bi-enMie<l into tlieiii. and 
whieh win live aft<-r 
noine of UH are forgotten. 

Mr. 'I'albott wam boiii 
in LawMliull.Snirolkro., 
Kngland, May Tth, IH-JU. 
II It* |)at'entK em 
Amerieu wliun li 
but t4in yeiiri* of age, tini 
•settled in Seipiolt, Otiei 
da, County. N.Y..wbiel 

'"■neral Stuyve^tnt, of Revolutionary 

Mr. Talbott was a man who lovml hM 
wife~and family, and who«^ whole life 
r^M^med t«> be dcvoteil to their welfarv. 

For tbiity-three or thirty-four years he 
wan an earni*»tl worker in tlie eause of 
praetleal eilueatton ; diuhig that [>eriod 
be itpent much of bitt^nne away from 
home, alwayi* denying liinitielf that bi- 
little one^. or that iconic friend ndgbt b< 

My pen eannot do him Jii^iee, the few 
words we can now «iy eannot 
the worth of hU kind life, only Cod 
give him the .town 


V. v.. Carmart. 

the legal fraternity. A very few praetieal 
hint^ on this subject are well worth a doU 
lar — llie -subscription to thi« valuable jour- 
nal for a year.— rA< Bt-.t-tf^fr. 

Iiave been too heavily |>res.*ed witli other 
I than editorial duties durinjc the paot 
month to admit of eiving tbCs wort: the 
careful study requisite for a critical re- 
I view. Twelve |>Ages arv devote*! to the 
\ introtluetion. wbleh i^ a conei<ie. clear 
aud practical slHt4>ment of the entire scl- 
eiii-e of accounts, and tlieir pnictleal ap- 
plication to business affairs. Prttf. Fob 
has long been an earnest, diligent 

fn>m the 


L. Fairbanks, formerly President of 
Fairbanks' Business College, Hhiladel- 

ed It. 

id tb. 

iilcb be 

note!* of rofei 

works by the 

, authorities upi 

\ha< presented 

I'ftn scarcely fail lo attract attention, iinil 
kin favor among all rt>al students and 
«<Iepts tn the :»cience of accounbt. 

IIU life until twenty 
years of age wan passed 
upon a farm. At the age 
of twenty be went to 
Nuw York city and took 
lessons In |iuiiiuiiiiyliip 
of (>. H. (joldsniith ; also 
of a Mr, Wheeler of ilir 
same city, and of (). K. 
Cbaniborlin aitd U. VV. 

I'^astnum. After loucblng '"' ""'*v*' *'"* ^**'i* pnoto-onwrnved from iin oripnnl de^sign, executed by W. Jj. Dean, Teach 

SOUR' t*?n u- tw ■! ' . . t;oll»?K<'> Ivingston. l*a. Mr. Dean is not only a skillnil penman i>ut a popular teachor of writing. 

^nnl de^sign, executed by W. Jj. Dean, Teacher of Fenmansliip in the Wyoming Commercial 

ill the counties of Madison, Ot.sego and 
Herkimer, he went u> Oburiln, Ohio, and 
took lessons of old 1*. 1{. Siwncer, reeuiv- 
ingof him H diploma. This was In the 
summer of 1802 ; in the fall of this year 
bo went to Urookiyn with Hryant ii Stmt- 
ton ; from there he went for a short time 
to Montreal. Canada; tbence (o Newark, 
X. J., and ibeuiigidn with Bryant ic Stnit- 
ton to ftlca ; here he remained for two 
or three years ; Ilrsi with IJryaut & Slrat- 
loii, and then with Walwortli. In 180S 
and '00 he was In Syi-acuse with Warivn 
A: Mend ; then again wc tlud him In 
Hrooklyn or Willlamsburgh with Carpen- 
ter. He was also at one time with Ells- 
wortli atui also with Fairbankii of New 

The winter of ISTl or l&Ti found him 
with Mayliew of Dutroit. Tlien again 
we tlnd bim wiili Walwortli of NowVork. 
and in the spring of 1873 with Sadler 
of Baltimoiv. Severn) years were passed 
In the employ of E. G. Folsom. of Albany. 
At ttio time of bis death Ite watt engaged 
Its cauva:Miug agent for Folsom dc Carlmrt 
of AUtany, alternating with P. K. Spencer 
of Cleveland. Mr. Talbott's earlier years 
were |>assvd as a teacher of penmanship, 
but latttirly he devolcil bis whole lime ti> 

In the year l!»5(t, be uiarrietl Miss 
Mary C. Plieliw. of Eaton, Madison, t.'o. 
New York. She wa* a ^rrand nlei-c of 

period of ni 
justilied in 
worthy the 
generally ' 
or le ■ 

} into 

llUhc lUc >kill nf ; 

The arti.l.- ■•■, 
gery of >i^ii.iiiu 
during lln' pa-i -■ 

ilting. 1 
lich In 

il iiiMtitb:^, appeared 
III- journal, exhibit 
the evidence that they were prepared 
witli great care from a knowledge gained 
by large cNpcrlvnce In the work of an 
eXjHTt ami professional penman. This 
forin-:i dt'ld of -iiid> hi wbUli account- 
ant- -lixiild f. .-t all iiit.-ve.t and to which 

I.I .U'\ 

atu-iHinii. Skill III tlitijiJiiTing poor antl 
odd pciiiiiiui-hlp 'i7> -oiiK-thing that book- 
keei>er3 :tiid clerk-i in counting-rooms 
slionhl strive to acquin- ; and in this 
diivctlon the 1'knman's Art JotjNAL 
will prove esi»ecially valuable. Every 
book-k«.i-)M.>r kiu>w*s bow highly he is aj»- 
preeiated by the "house" if iie is able to 
read wtiti moUeratc eas« the commuuiea- 

i|.|.li.>». \\\- Iv^ini IhM 

1..- .~iiiii .)f lli.-.p 

j„|,„.,| heaililt il. . 1... 

In:; M, l'.,..l<.ii.,l 

•U' iluriiig tliu piist yuiLi 


I'M.f.U. liii-.ulM>i.,],ik 

has been iiuite 

I.Toftlif Juliet 
| ll„.l hi, 
■ I'n.f. 

on tile Wiiy iind ui-t.iii^ 
iijEC." About ei^'lii 1. III. 
on board tlie "" Aiii. ri. . 
stiiiiditi^ u rain -t<.rii. 
the di.p.irtiiri'. .Ill i.ti h 

..'.-.l '.appeared 'ii'i 

..,11. 1. ... «ill 

, h.-irililed with 

.L>i,..„u:ois..i u ..11 

uliiucll * impels tu wli 
uent contributor. 

A. H. Hiiuiiai. «lw. 

usilU'SS Coll.-. :.t "•,.! 

ll.i rei..k-r» of 
eh he is ii fre- 

itely oprne.l .. 

. -t.r M,.-. , i- 

street, i.i T i'. 1' M , m. 
Rtnrteil .i|. ih. III,.!.,.,. 1 

il. 1.. .1 ..f lieetor 
1 h iH liLiir Inter 

.' . ighf 

h. ...ii.l lime 
... 1 .. karil hiu 

cbcr, aud will i 

irol of the coll,:;. 
Pottsville. I'ii. 1 
ful aud popular i 

Prof. C. L. Martin had rei^igiied Ids 
position in the Quincy Commercial Col- 
lege, and proposes spending his vai-iilioii 
In editing a book, after wtiTeb la- will he 
cunnectea with an educational iusiittition 
in liansas City,— <;«*/«y (III.) j\W». 

Prof. Martin is a skillful writer antl 
popular teaclier, and will undoubtedly do 
lionor to any iwsition wlilcii he will 

Prof. E. O. Fol»om. President of Fol- 
som's Albany, (N. Y.j Uuriiness College, 
Is unpaged upon the revision of lii« work 
entUfed " Foii^om's Logic of Accounts" 
of which the advance sheets of the tint 
tweuty-nlne pages arc before tu. We 

J. A. Wesco, Qiiincy. III., writes a very 
handsome letter and card. 
W. W. Cox, Mendon Centre, N. Y.. 
ion of his work "ends an artistic specimen of nourishing 

and lettering. 

U. W. Kibbe, artiflt |tenman and 
cr, L'tica, N Y., writeii a handsome lettc 


time. I gi'iicrally give the i-la»si« ii Uss.iii 
nf nil hour in siiii|>Ie emlu-lli^hiiiciir of 
jH'n Icrtvring whit-li tliey iu-vit f:iil of 

l'n-i«iif li.r liiiisli nmiking by s,.,iiiiiis 
tiv,- ,.r <iN ■|nii-.-< „f jtooil siwil >iii,l fair 
'lil;ility « l;ii>|iili;: im|ier. good i-anit-rs 

I...III.' ..f iii:iikiii^' ink, all nf wliii'li I »,-ll 
lolli.-|,„|.il», ,o-t^ 

I noiv illii-tiat.- upon Hii- Marklioalil 
till" various styhs of li-rri^rin;; .■in|iloyi-,l 

I i-olisi-nnr-lylr .\'~^,ly ^oo,l <,y\l 

.. liaik 
|.|.li,-,l >ii 

il iiulnsivcof Jan- 
nary 1H7H. In all foity-two nunibci'it, 
whi.h will W uiailfd f<.r Ifa.OO. To Jan- 
uaiy 1802, with four iireuiiunis $4.00 

J. A. G.. Atlanta. Ga. Will you cx- 
|)laiii the special advantages of an oblique 
pen or holder? 

Aii.i. The advantage i^ in t|ie fact 
that with a straight pen or bolder it 
is necessary to turn the hand -toward 
llie body beyoiul what Is natural in or- 
der that the nibs of the pen may square- 
ly face the paper and each rest under 
equal pressure which is necessary for per- 
f.-itly sinoritli lines, which dlffloulty an 
obrMpie pen or holder obviates by chang- 
ing tlio angle of the pen points instead of 
f.. icing the hand into ditlicult and un- 
Uiitural pusition. 

W. A. T.. Vi 


Is It best t 



. prepa 

onier to flow best 
and be hardest when dry should be 
ground from the stick on the (lay that 
il is used. This should be done in a slop- 
ing tray having a well at the lower end of 
tile slooping part In which the ink will be of 
siillicli'Tit ileptli to |)vcvent the point of the 
]icn -Hiking into the sediment ; use rain 
or distille.l water. I'leniue 

l'ie|i,ired India Ulk, 
or thill which has been groumi will 
not How as reailily as that freshly ground 
Care should be exercised to procure a tine 
black (piality of ink especially if there i- 
iiny iniri.oso to 1-eproduee by any of the 
lilioto-);ra|iliic processes and the pencil 

I'i'c- si id be carefully removed with 

sponge rubber. 


The for 
rule receive that a 

I have made a specialty of tli 

The ability to letter with pen or brush 
required from the lowest scale of busl- 


As a result I make the following t.abu- 
lated statement with the hope of leading 
the fraturnltv to jia\' special attention to 
what I deeni cxi.riliiiMii n,.,,...:,,!-. vi/ . 
thc_M<TOiand s,,,.l ..I li^.n.. 

(/) iof^. U) f^. 
(c/) /^, iV) /do. 

[^) /^, [S] /So. 
(/) fo. [r) /so. 
if) /^o, [0] /So- 


1, 0, G, 4, 8, 5, .3, 9, 2, 7. 
C. H. Pkikck, 
Keokuk, Iowa. 
Prof. Peirce also sends an elegant speci- 
men page of iniscellaneous figures made 
at the rale of Via |,.-i' inirLut.- It i- lii- 
imi'l ■ I" -'"■•' iiii.Hi^h ih.. , Ill, I. 1,1 


package, box iiiiil bulletin 

these facts no further arguments 
d be required to convince the Miisi- 

n-ith tlic celebrities 

.'»./ l\iu,Hia pnblislicd 

price of fifty cents a year should be in 
llie hands of every tcjlcher in the country. 

the .1.11 lix \i,,.., , N.ivi.i.iii 
figures, illustlale.l Mith tinrj) c, 

Special Bates to Clubs. 
■1'" fnvor lea saodpniiilsii, 

h 'i I have 
' , ..I three 

. I I i ! 1 1 - i n pen 

iiy own as well 
' young and In- 

W. W. H. Lewlston 
nliscrlber to tl 


Being » 
leg leiu. 

i« space, 
c, the »i 

J. W. Swank, the accomidlslied penman 
of the United States Treiusuiy, Wasliing- 
ton I). C, writ<^s an elegant letter in 
which he says the .JoUKxAL for May is 

'I.".- i,i> 1 siiH'c. anil iniliisiv 

I'l ,l,iiiN,ii> |s;s All Ilic liacli iinin 

iii • "III t.i .rut for «;i,llll. All tli 

i-n- i.r issi) and IS«I, witli cillic 

two of tlic incniiuins will be sent fo 
$1.7.5; with all of our prcminins, for *3. 

.1/.^. A space in writing Is always 
proportionate to the size of the writing 
and cannot therefore be given in the 
fiiictional parts of an Inch. In the me- 
dium sized copies of the S|icncerlan, us 
in Book No. 4, a space is about one 

art. Ki 1 

skilled |ii II 

cost of II >.■, 

I'r 'ii'iiii!!''Vo' an' admirer'' of 
i:iii-lii|., !- worth the entire 

'III Ii ii.msHyhl afterward 
u 1- .siili those steel pens 


that i 


-, 1 ui.i ili.-iM the extended 
> Il Micrs which coin- 

Tlic llCSl 

postage stai 

and safest way is by I' 

1 1 l:. 1 

pen null .. 

t will 

aliiliabct .systematized so 
require only three or four 


great ,.. : 
and v\ i. i!. 

The S],en 

Ml, 1 ,,.. |,i, 

■cr Urol hers have instrni 
.lie l.iiiulrcl and fifty II 

■V.-/ ;..„..( 1 „,r M,„j u Mini 

box ol -I. . 
him i.o.l i, 
said tliiii it 

- il i- II 

II 1. II. 


lli-l,l,lit.,^-i,,. tll,. .];,.„.-:, 
1 tint cn,ude,l'f!ir 

Tettimoiiim] to Mn. Hayes. 

riiii'ii);i,,.liiiit' UP. 'I'liraiiliijfnirihle'Ii- 
tiM.iilol allium lo Mr.. I{iiir.'rr.,rcl II. 
IIh).-. Ii) Ilii- wiuiii-iinf lllini.i. has lien 
( I'll., work ri.iMlM. iif .ix larp- 
voliitiii'. of 11.1(1 page, cl.MiilTy 
iM.iii.rl ill full riirki) inormm. All 
cliroiiKli lliii.iluiiii^or.- .faucn.l India 
ink ilrawini;.. Tin' iiiHri|>liuii rraiU- 

•■ From III.- Ill of illinoi.. ivlio liav.- 

aihiilri'il llii'i'ouraK'' Mr> llayiit liaa ilia. 
)ihi>'<-il III tliL* ailliiliilMlralion of tli<« 
lio»|ill.llllii-a of till' Kxi'inlivr .Ma 
• loilKninl Ilia! Ihr liiltiiini'i' of lliU alg. 
mil and li»-lilj;il •'Xaiiijilp iiiny Ik- fi'lt 
inon- and iiion.- at ji^i- fnllowA agi- In llu- 
llfi'of llila|tri'«l lli'|Hll>lii.'r' Till' diidlci- 
lory iioi'in l> liy .Mr. Ilrnjaniiii, of 
CliiiaKo. Il i» millllivl ■•Hn'pllnim from 
dod'. <»«n (l.-arii.)-. Illinoi.." Tin- flr«I 
«ljjlialiiiv i. n,,,. .,r \1,, ,h„,„.. K. I'olk, 

.NV..Iivlll,. I,, ,, -,,,„„i ,l„„„ri!. It. 



J.,y /'.(Ml.*,,/. 
E.\T()N" * lUUXETTS 

Shading T Square. «>"'-^E<'F»i>>iN-f««TR.u>rN(; 

C()M>1EKCI.\L L.\\V, 



Gaskell's Business Schools. 

1 riiKliwl. A. It. STWiiKxmw. 6f c-ry 
lir) ^iiii Ac Ncmitou Collotre, 

The Comiiion .Sciihc Uliidcr. 

..iiV[hl,"'ci.Vr'''''i'l',l'',.',^i'' ',';,',',"' ''"" "" " "'" 

i.-ir ■"""'• ' ""^1;, ,,!,';„', '"L",^vJ',;k. 



Ur»u4lwu>, Nv«' ¥orh. 


THE Ni;\\ 



d AltTISTS- Sll'i'l.lllS. 

' ■ ■ ' I\ iKitoiily 

' ■ ' 'i|'"iiUohiK 

';' ■;; ■■ ■ -iiip. « «o 

:■■' ■ ;• • ' ■ ii'.M-,. i.:Vi at,„ 

■ •[■"■-' '."; 300 



Iiool* ■ml t'«tni<Kr« ; 
l\-KKKriSU. Thio 

ItI..\NK R(>()KS_ Thi'i 

H'll of thl- llltOVlT 




I ;i<l>' for tisL>, uiid win 

ill l)L< 

r thoiisiiiul, by t'X|irrH>t 

Itlinik IlvlMlul lUmril CaiiU. |>ui- 

Winw>rJtNi-w(oira8iipr8up. Ind. liik.Mllvk i 

■iiUil (!iii-tlii, 12 doitlinitt. pi-r ntick nt 

___a», Lymiill i 

Koiir piiirkrt, 100 uuhIs a 

cunU, Iiy iiiiiil 
•Vn ciii-d8. 

iW <spr 

iCithlwi', ijLi 111., wi-y Mipurlor. . 
i.K'klHMirdH, byexprcM. 

FiiitiHt bv nct-ODipunlod by cviMli lo uiii-haTr or Im 
(lie SAI.K HI u bnivuiti: an (winlillHhMr iind i»«lliiintMl <xMt. No onlen. ' 
IRiytiis 0>iniiu'n-i»l ('ullitj^\ thi* only Oliv work, iiimmi po^itiil («nlii wtll 

INK. .l":;,iit5.f"ii"'ir''ai?it. 'd:;,::. 

DBOf t B. li.\Vl».o(gc»i'Ui ii< 

r^ tiut Inrgv clasi^is- In i>viiuinni<lil 

*mr»: 'ISkh " 


n Series of 


, >^^'^°'^7i I GOLD I GOLD! 

' AND OFFICE MUCIlieE. : "« to Set a Jne JoW Wa[cMr Its E,ui«|. 

ng, C-0|iy-lnii, .Tlarklnv* Indelib 
iinplni?, Japan, Hl)l«»n»pli*c. 
M|nipaili<-llr. C-oM, Silvr», 
While- and TraUMter 

I 3V ZS. S . 

-Ailun Viui<\-. Kliu'k. (-i>miln4% VUi 

A New Publication. 

write* black, fllown freelr* pommemmtm 
irrvat ponotrotlon and pcrinancc* never 
niouldiinor ifilckenn, 1« non corroitlve, 
nnil fully rtxiUlM the action ot frovt. 


, m.. \ha(\v. by pspit.*M 


M^k"i.." i 

.,' ■ " ' '. ; ' ' .',. 'i' ', . ' '„'.,/, 

eaeqimilOtlu-llii.-i -I'-l . u^-v^n i 

• Btip"'"'*"** 1"'" iliii^'iii.'- 1 1" 


Every Variety of I*cii 

I \V«rh Promptly Executed In the KlONt Perrcci Mn 
p| riven tv* Experi on Handwrltlnir and ArroniitM. 

IIISI'I. V^ n IS I Ol! WW i;i! 1 IMNfi. 

t'ur DIploniaii 


The Complete Edition 

.1 .1 Inks. Price 
ii-. " CivcuIai-3, 




Pri(-i-,»l for 1 

. Agcii 

iit»liu-ss Culk*(;v. ItuHloii, 
of ;| with Alphabet. 

^cnd for U'stlnionlttli' 

6-11 WooiiKOckol^ n. 1. 

PUOF. T. J. STKWART. of the Trenton (S.J.) 
Itnttlntws rollegv. suy»: " L. MADAhahz tii 
HUM*, I think. Uu'bi'st cnnl-wntor In the husi- 


Kolii-.l I'l 


,"" "" '""ll"w 

7 llol«il Sti 


I, X. T 


T", "IT, 

I'l'tu,''*. ',"l 


' ',:;, 

I know of,"— I'l-of. (i- A. Gaskt^l'i, Jei-suy i:il>', 
N.J. 6-11 

JltST rUBLlSlIEl). 


Class Book of Gominercial Law, 


I'l-incipHl nf tlic AllHiiiy lJii9hiC99 College. 
This work is It jihiiii. [intutk-iil>l'i>>ntion of 

ment, VOfianon Varntrt oj yrtight and PoMengtm, 
Innkteperg, Iteat EtttUty fuitm of B\nAntM, Papei%, 

WHAT utiikhs say of it 
You Imve given i.. iih-mm -- > .iiJi ■_-■ - . i .iin.iMi- 

\avc9», ii* E> CAUHAUX 

Albuny UusinvH^ Collegu. Albany. N. 



'.. ihopnblk-]. worth, 45c 


Counting House Arithmetic, 

Embracing over 500 Pages. 

J forthconihig volnmo wlU contnbi, hi h 

a; hnportant subjects: 

Introdnution. Nnniomtinn and Xotatic 
Additiim. Kiipi.i M.) I- III \.MiM- 

ThcGreutestCyuinioii Multiple. Ciiueelhition. 

Fractions, Ileductlon of Fractions. Common Dunoinitmtor. 

Lea^it Common Dcnominiilor. .\ddlt.ion ol Fmetioiie. 

Subtraction of Frat^tions. MnlUplicution of Fractions. 

Coutraetlous in Multiplication of Fractions, Division of Fnietioii^. 

GrciiteiU Onnininn nivlsor of Fractions, Least Uommou Multiple ot Fractions. 

jViUIiTi. ■ !'■■ ■ ■'■ 'I"' I lieeimals. 

MnlHiilK " ■'■ I' > ""i> >nHin MultipIIeutiouof Duclmiils. 

Division i>i i>< . nn.ii- < . >t>n .<< h^n m I li vision Of Decimals. 
CivuulutiiJK Decimals, iEcducUuii of Circulates. 
Siihtiniction of Ciiculutcs, MultipUcution of Uiroulutcs. 
Division of Cireulitlcs. Deiu>uiiniUe Numbere. 

Additi'ir. ni - I Smi.iI-i 

it Of thenhovesiibjcctfl every elfor 
iciil nnri wlentHIc, Mmiy interesting and 

I nnute to render them thorough, 
be pr(!senled with the eharaclor- 

heretofore pnbllshed, and which has received the strong 

iu,ldc8 lt« AOOWION In over ONE UHSDHKD of Mio i-KAOl-sa nuaiNBSs 

T iK' United Stnt«K and Canada. ' 

H'li wUl bo sent, jioat-pald. to lonoliei-B and pi-oprlotors of schools on 

/^uNVKH>\Tin\ IN A M-Huoi, RuuM- 
\j iJit. rv: WhQwrotevoutho>iuueftutifulc{ii-d9j 
\vii\, I Maoahasz, HiuauTl-wrltoi". - e-U 

1' u llQ.N IU,l..|.M>^ey city, N J- , 
Mention the ART Jni''B>'Ai., and reiwemberttll i 

AV. H, SADLKK. Publisher, 

t<Ios. 6 and S, N. Charles Street, Baltimore, Md, 

D. T. AnEX, 

Kxnmlnerol Quc«iloned Hand writ ln|r, 

Wi Itmuilway, »w York. 

Tliomiifflily tniifflil I>y rniill or prnuHially. 

..tlonH prwn.rwf fnr nunf — 

HriKlforrlrfiilur, W feCll 


Ofni'ml Aifcrit spenooriim Copy BooIch, 
viHON. Hi.akkman.Tayloii & Co., Sew York. 

(Irfiiliint froo to ar>y addruM. 




lin-lnww Collcfp-, llulllmon', Mrt,. publlMicr of 

"fiun * titl\oT-» DinlnoM calculator. IiUllod for 11. 



90S n road way. 

nAV«i«w iiiiNiNigm ooi,t.BnB, 

i:imiiilnTof rotmnorce, Dofrolt, Midi. 

IltA MAYIIKW, LL.D., President. 

■•■io'i-<»-r.i.i:<-ricoT¥PE coitiPANV, 

■:•> rlitr Mir.-t, Now York. 
I'll. .1.1 Kl.'. ii.iiyii.o r<»r IlliiHtnitlonAuro clioaper 


Fort Wii>iio, Indlnnn. 
It nioMt tliotx)ii|{1i mill practlml. 

ADDIS AI.IIKO. rrliurlptd. 

C Kf. CBANDLE, Vnlpamlao, Ind., 
HMitoMiilI kliidtof IVnwork lo oi-dcn, at the 
<wt prlctii itinutHtvitt wItJi k^xxI work. 

INMTITirrE. Keokuk, lowit. 

Lesson in Practical Writing. 


faiility and aiiiirat-y of movement arc 
nei-essary; but that Is sure to come at the 
itnpcrioug command of a mind trained to 
perfection in form and taste. • 

To write well, also requires a constant 
oxercise of care, and especially \a t!iis true 
with those wliose liand is not trained hy 
long experience. We would again impn-ss 
upon' the minds of every mcmher of our 
class who would become good writers, the 
impcrativcnecessity of careful and critical 
practice. Sue that you give no nionieiit 
to earele(» practice. 

Wc will Introduce our present lesson 
witli tlic following movement cxercitte 
which is tal<en from the new Spciieerinn 
Compcndinni. It is designed for clos(> 
painstaking practice; for the purpose of 
training the hand tn accuracy and deliciuy 
cannot he too mucli 
'arefully practiced. 

/ / 

The following In presciiU'd a< the regu- 
lar copy for this lesson : 

Wc also give on this page f<ir furtlicr 
practice, and as a specimen of practical 
writing, a note which has been piioto- 
engraved from pen and inlc cojiy i-xccutcd 
at tlie oflicc of the .Ioitrxai,. 

board Writing." "Teaching Writing in 
rriniar>- SchnoU," ■■ In {'nnini.>n Selu^oK 
and Seminaries." ;in.l '■ Mn-hii-^s (_'nl. 
leges." These .li;i|,|,r. aiv fcll.uv.M by 
several ntliers. -i\inir mii. Ii v:iliiat)U> and 

TIk' IV 1 1. 1- i|>i'i"!"iately and profuse- 
ly illii-(i It, .1 -ih^uiii;; positions, move- 
ment-, |.i jti. ij.i. -, Irtters, analysis, and 
the varir.iK styles of writing. It Is, with- 
out iloubt. the most complete and valuable 
guide to purely plain writing extant. 

It will be mailed to any adtli-ess on re- 
i-olpt of $l.r.O. orfreefor a clul) of four 

c .lorRNAL. 



This work, altliougli devoting consider- 
able space and attention to plain writing, 
is essentially n text-book for ornamental 
penmanship. It consists (^Ifyty-om large 
([uarto pagi's. which are engraved in a 
superior manner upon stone; i^Lrfrcn pages 

topi-".' ■:it nn,..; it uill !„■ :i -...Mi 

in^-estnicnt, Sent by mail for .'lO cent^, or 
mailed free for two subscribers to the 

This is an octavo book of 120 pages and 
treats of tlie P. I). & S. system of writing 
ill a manner similar to the treatment of 
the Spencerian, by the key; and, in addi- 
tion, lias fonrtreii different alphabets of 
Itoinan, (iotble. and Text letters. It is 
ail eminently piactlcal and valuable work 
for the use of either teacher or pupil. 

ut a .■^j,^ ..1 ■in- >A, ,1 V. 1,1 ],. :Miy ad- 
ress on reeeipl of ^fo.OO. or fire as a 
reinium for a ehib of twelve subscriber 
) the Jot'KXAL. 


Teachers and pupils should ever bear 
in mind that the ival basiioof a good band 
writing lies in a correct conception of all 
lis nvpilsltes, and theM> i>anuot be acquir- 
ed simply by practice, but are a;? much a 
matter for study and thought as Is sculp- 
lure. painting, arohitectun', or any de- 
partment of art or science. Michael An- 
gelo wa* the chief of artists, bei-ause of 
hio suiM^rior menial oonception of art, and 
may we not sup|>ose that the untouched 
canvas presented to his mental vision all 
the grandeur of beauty In design and 
tluisli, that delighted the eye of the be. 
holder when lliiished? The hand can 
never excel the conception of the mind 
that educates and direct-* its action. If 
Spencer or Klicklnger excel all othent In 
the jterfection and beauty of their pen- 
mi«iitilup. i« It not because of their super- 
ior contepMon of (li^t in wl(lch superior 

standard Text-Books on Penmanahip. 

Almost d;.il> M,,|,Miv 1- I1K..1.' ..f .1- le- 
garding the p. riilniiiv :iii(| t.l.tii\.' im-iil- 

' all I 



opinion regjinliiig their utility; first giv- 
ing our attention to those treating exclu- 
sively of plain or practii'al writing. 


consists of one hundred and seventy-six 
octavo pages. Illustrative of the theorj' 
J)d practice of practical writing. lu in- 

..'■ "Ma- 
terial and Iinplcmei 
*' Movements." " Classification of 1 
anil Pigures,*' their formation and anal- 
ysis, giving examples of the mo^^t common 
or natural faults in making them, with 
suggestions for tlieir correction; also giv- 
ing definite instruction for ^paelng. %\\^*\- 
ing. slope, proportions of willing, &c. A 
chapter U devoted to each of the follow, 
ing gubjfv't^: "Business Writing," '"X^h- 
^iesHand^" "YHriety of Sijic," *'BUck- 

S.-iil to aiiv address on iveelpt of »1.25. 
,.i -.lit fn,.';i. ;i i.i.'ininin for a club of 
Ilir. I- -iih^eriluT- to the Joi^'RXAL. 


This work consists of 100 quarto pages, 
nirty of letter press, which are devoted to 
the theory and practice of practical writ^ 
ing, in which tlie entire subject of teach- 
ing and practicing writing is presented in 
an Ingenious and elTecttve manner, both 
by way of explanations, with 
and striking illustrations, and crlticii 
of good and bad writing; ihiriy pages 

plain copies, in single lines and practical 
liiisiness form's; jtrrrn pages give ten plain 
and fancy alpbabet.s; (ir«/c« pages are de- 
voleil to the principles and examples for 
otT-band llourishtng. aniong the latter are 
several of tlie most graceful and masterly 
•^[►eciniens ever executed by that prince of 
Houri^hers, John D. Williami, wlio ^^as. 
tlie genius of thl* work, as also the 
"(Jems." The work thus combines the 
practiml with ornamental to a greater ex- 
tent than any other hand book of penman- 
ship now in uie. No penman's library i* 
complete without it. Sent by mail on re- 
ceipt of $3.00, or free for a club of sevei^ 
aabscrlbers to the JouiUTAi- 

ii.iii |,iiMI-) Hut a very limited por- 
i : I 1 Mt.d to plain writing. 

I: ij I ' -pccially as a liaiid-book 

iii>l -iii.{> I I ri:tiiiental and profeHslonal 

|ii-ii vsoik. iiii-t(. pages are devoted to 
plain untl prutlicat handwriting; finirtftn 
pages are devoted to alphabets, of which 
there are twenty-three, embracing Itoman, 
Gothic, Egyptian, Scroll, Old Kngllsh, 
German and Church Text, and many 
othcro, In plain and the most ornate style; 
(<•« pages are devoted to principles, exer- 
cises and designs for tlourlshlng, lettering 
and drawing, one of wliich is a page of 
eight flourished designs for cards and 
albums; tveidy-nne pages are devoted to 
cotuplieated designs fiir engrossed testi- 
moniaU, memorials, n-soliitions, certifi- 
cates, diploma^*, &*■. &e.. allogetlicr pre- 
senting an amount and variety of practical 
anil artistic designing, lettering and orna- 
mentation unappniached by any other 
work ever publlslied. The original pen- 
and-ink specimens of wliich thes*- pageri 
nre/a^-»imiU reproduetions were all exe- 
cuted with great care and labor, most of 
them being copies of works executed to 
onler; sum> asbigh a4$500have been paid 
for the execution of what represents a 
single page of thii» book. 

A pecuTiar and valuable feature of tlds 
work i«, that, uoUHe others wtilch havt" 

' jjiia JAs^^H^i& il ^ /j iVlt'.f 4lSji 

been engraved thereby chan^iie the 
eharactcr by perfecting the original pen- 
work to th»- Bt«>ne, its pages being trans- 
ferretl by phoU>graphy direct from the 
original |wii-work lo the stone, for print- 
ing, no line or mark of tlie original coiilii 
Ik- cluuigal, in/ffrm. upon the print; there- 
fore tlie observer of tliis work iK-Tcelves 
the penman's art and skill alone, unaided 
by tlio engraver, while the pupil or 
Imitator will feel that what others have 
done with a pen he may do, and will strive 
with gn-atereonlldcncc, knowing it to he 
attainable, tliati i» piissihle for himto do 
whili- coiierious of vainly striving for tlic 
iinpoKsihle (to tlie pen) perfection of the 

In thiti work are practical designs and 
examples for nearly every form and style 
of work that a profession nl jienman will 
he culled upon to execute. It is Hent to 
any address for $5.00, or free for a club of 
twelve subscribers lo the Jouknal. 



iireeiuh of 24quartn y. 



of the OM hn::li-li 
with the ali>hulji:u 
; and several pagi 


, of text i 

\ lettering tastefully JI< 
1 ajiil ornamented. The book of llourigh- 
i;; Liivi-s a variety of exercises for 
ciiii^liiiig, embracing the principles — 
ill!-;, quills, &c. They are good works 
>i' tiir money. Sent, post-paid, on rc- 
i|>Li>f5U cents each, or as a preuiium 
tr two subscribers to the Journal. 


!in entirely new work, by the "Spencer- 
III Authors," and is being issued in Partd 
-ti iiiji light to ten in number— each Part 
>iii|>ri-iiig nine* beautiful i>lates UxI3 
iiiiile from 

. thf U 

i and beautiful 

together or separately, po*t-paid, at W 
cents each. The publisher's price. 

Other Parts will be announced succes- 
sively as they appear. 

Mailed from the ollicc of the Journal. 

, 1881. 
ug, that 

those leaves arc not more different than 
Smith's B's and Jones' It's, and suppos- 
ing a fraudulent oak wished to produce a 
leaf which would be mistaken for a hick- 
ory leaf it might possibly throw off an 
imitation whose shape would be all right, 
but whose veins would be all wrong — 
that is what we judge by; it is the inner 

Miiscious individuality u£ tlie 
tiie these N's, each ot tlieui 
tlie center imiiereeptibly and 
^lovenly turn, now up, now 
riu: more and more slovenly as 
1. oil and the hand tires. See 
K (.hanged the position of his 
iiwLcii the * ' ' " ' 

the scribe. 

no show you some^iing," 
ier, drawing a couple of 
s pocket; " uiis is an anon- 

iit to a lady at home in 
:ind that is anotlier letter 
Hid. Look at them." The 

•■ You see when Mr. 

tvouble of s|)oiling words like "how" and 
"maybe," which almost everyone who 
rail write eaii fti)ell. ami tlie liaider words 

i tlie regular teachers of our 

hooU are not retpiired to 

the requisite knowledge and abil- 

of EdunUio'n. That good work 
■u done no one will attempt to 
or deny. It is tlic mission of spec- 
1 go forward in jierson and show 

,-l„ nu;ii.t- llir ;l.U;Uit;iu,.- to be 
- Imi lliun-.nMl-, ill |.l,i,r r.f hun- 

and continue in the 
aware that our writing is sadly neglected, 
and that something ought to be done to 
change the condition of affaire, but we 
are considerably in debt now and as soon 
as- we can see our way clear will consider 
your proposition." Must one of tlie im- 
portant requisites of an Knglish educii- 
tiou be neglected for snch reasons as 
these ? Certainly not, if the utass con- 
sider the best use of their limited means. 
The conclusion is easily reached; either 
employ specialists or demand that the 
regular teachei's prepare for the work. 
If the latter cannot be done, tiieti the 
necessity of pushing the former cuiniot be 

Blackboard Hints. 

Piling the uiisL Louards the 
.-liadiug; this brings the 

iK edge and side and with 

Mint shades are produced. 

:in' tlie whitest and smooth- 
1 1 1 n'litly more spirited. Very 

ire made by dropping the 
\\ on ita side. Neat letters 

i.y liohliiig two crayons, of 
■ I-, -ill.- liv -i'l<' a- a neat 

In, ■,-,!. M;im ^^,ilr|■s sllHllo 

of a variety of birds, swans, quills ami 
ornaments, all of marvelous beauty. 
Part III. presents six plates of the 

hohle^t ami ^nipi >■^rv [ - 

li>h.'d. U is esiieei.illv it-inl i.. il„.-. 

I'ait, IV. isabi nr ormimental use to suit the In- 

l':irt V. comprises o great vaHctij of 

" What is the tirst step you take whei 
a piece of forged wjiting is submitted tc 

■ I MM 1- I 1 1 was coming t.o. 

Vuu v;u. i-il .t L.e.m.ui by hls haiulwrit- 
iiig as readily as by his tongue, or :v 
I-'rcnchman either. Spain and Portugal 
write IIS a rule one hand, while Italy 

I'aru of the country. ' ' I culiai anil ai^tinctive it ia- Thi oak ami 

' f he Parts 1, 3, 3, 4 and Cf are suMUaa ' Ihft Wckftry liave ^erpu^ jeaye^ ^u.t 

M ,,, . Mitagood pcu tor business pr 

h ...: I i: |..1^^■^ ^cud 30 cents for a quftr, 

;er groi= ot :- Ames' Penumirs fftvorite " 

w.M K II I hi' liuai\l, llic ci'iiyou shading 

iii.i\ lir l>i Miiiilnlly blcudcil by rubbing it 
with III.' liitu'Ls. To make very strong 
whih liih-. III in printingupoutheboard, 
iiii I r;n MM -hntikl bo wet; wlicu this is 

I ii ihn- \(ry white and is not easily 

,i;i-.,| r\ii|.iiiig by the use of a wet 
.iM[ii 111 IniiiLi; nice writing upon the 
Im.ii.i :iii< iImii slioultl be umdc to pi'oducc 
-iiMi]^ up -iinkeri. They should be of ex- 
it.! tiiirl.!ir~- and smoothness, and suffl- 
rti iitu -ir.iii'_' that each letter may be seen 
ilcinly shupeii and the Word present a 
I'lcan cut look. A less skillful effect can 
bo produced by the contrast of light lines 
and strong shades— but the best penmen 

Jard this as the best work. lu 
the best work the lines look strong and 
white as if painted. They are made with 
a tirni pressure and rolling the crayon in 
the lingers to keep upon it a keen edge. 
When the edge is worn off break a small 
bit olt the end and proceed. 
In standing at the board the breast 

, !i neat rile^ 
^lliesi.leof tli 
dside in mak 

l.r r\rl| with tllU 


rii u ithout a base 

iniaii lexl or old 

t is iiruduced by 
crayon and using 
ng each stroke. — 

g the best of oi 

r educational ex- 

EfhiffttV'Tinl Munlldij, 

■ l.v W IV Ileiikle, 

i: I l>ri, itiailili- 

I iiiu Ir. nrgenorai 
I wr may mention 
' Causes of Disor- 

•■ and "A Plea 

• Willi. ;ill these 

hat V 

of eppiea itJl U^v UtlailC ut ^»,..t.llt'l 



=t- - - ^^-^il V 


Educational Note*. 

The Ulilvi-rvity of Itmlat'eal. In Hun- 
Kury, haft 8,000 MtiidpnU nnd LV^ profpHrtort). 

TUfiTv an ras CliIm-«' clill.ln-n in the 
Sun Knini-I<M-o iiublk- *>< r)i<K>li4. 

The Khcdivr nf Ek>'|>I< ■» lnt«nH,u-,| In 
the ciliiratirm of women, ami U ahniit to 
hiillil at I'nlro. at hi< own CKpfiinr. n 
M-hool fur the liuitnirlhm of girlit of thi> 
hi)(hir ilaMiit.— A'l <?- i'hristian Ailtocatt. 

Wi-iit VIrKliiIa, wlihli In 1805 lia<l only 
\.ntV,MhmAt\UlT\vU, VXA xchool hoii-u-K. 
:iM7 uat h.Tpt and an alUndame of l.-i.UTO 
\}i\\>\U. hat now .l.riSO dUtrlctH. .'t,r>r>7 
xi-liool hiiu««-x, 4,'>2'1 tt'arhem anr] nn at- 
t>-tidii[M-r of 142.4.10 (.n|illit. In lHOr> only 
iwrnly c<iiiiill<->« in the Slate had any free 
«hi.oU.-JV: r. TiibuM. 

'I'he elty of Vienna nti 
naricR for the training (i 

I>r. Ilt-nnann ( 
)»rovcd by uxaniina 
HM^>^Ht)oii Iiv thir 

] ti ■irr'rilioilt to PStrtb- 

I !■ ■! iM liiiiUon which 
I l(i-litutc, nnd 


t>l<' Ik 


A »:l:i-*>. for woiiHMi hoa boon orfi;nnix(>d 
lit Vale Citllc-;!', tht- loctun-s and InHtrnc- 
lioii n. I..' .l.liv. ivd by Profs. Sumner. 

Willi MM f.,, ^.,,, ;,nd others. It will 
1' ' " ' I '■ i.iihirly known as the 

■I'liii III I :iit I nported to ha' 
rli:tl AiiuTifiHi-; uloiie, amnn;( mi 
are In the habit of si^niiiK thfir 

, l.rme^.ofi 

I tlie XiuUiMtmI Nrien 
. tamper Ui.ion, in 
>l ainri.'. rai-ii.'.l f..r 

lull ;i- Jo ti.lU-j^' stiulenl.-i, 

oily iK-i»inieni niion others 

I'lie I'niUHl States iioti double tho num- 
ber of sehool children of any other eoun- 
tiy hi tlie world. Tho number is otatiM 
b) tlie Hui\<au of Eduratlon to be 0.424.- 
OSO. The neaivst approaeh to thU il^ire 
is made by France, which bits ^.Tiofe. 
Prussia follow* wllh 4,007,17(1, and Euk- 
landinid WaU's. with 2,7l0.8S;t. Of the 
total iM-i.tilailon. ilic HclumWhlldrcn of 
til," I nitod Staler form nearly 30 ikt 
.vnl.; of Kianee. I,' ikt ivnt-j of l»ru.-.sia 
II. iK-r eem,; and of KimKind and Wales, 
about i;J iMT cent.— .V. 0. Christian A,lw- 

The Hawaiian Kingtlom Is making 
marvellous pn>gT«SA In e<lneatlon. Abotit 
T.dOO ehildrun attend a%<btHtl, 5,700 of tlii^ 
number being natives. Tho free eleuwu. 
tMry «ehiHd« are taugtii by natives In the 
Uftvraiiau language, iu^trucUou being 

given in rradinp. writing, geoj;ra|ilij uikI 
mental and written arithmetic. Then' are 
fourteen >u.-let^-t «eliofdft with an enrollment 
of 1.300 pnpiU. who an* in-itructod by for- 
eign tea<-liert nf ex|M-rien(>e and eapncity. 
The KnglUli language ift iw^X, and a 
tuition fee of $5 is cbargefl. Then there 
are several private sehooU and others 
subildi^j-d by the Oovernnient. There Is 
a -temlnary and a college providing high 
M-hool ItHtruetion. and Homdulu ba^ a 
KInilergarten of which it \n very proud. 
Teachers' salaries in the Hawaiian *v\^M^U 
range from $300 to fS.OOO a year.— AVw 
Yvrk Tribune. 

In order to write rUr right, we, at pres- 
ent, write it rite; but when phonetic 
sjH-lling enmes into use it wilt be rite. In 
order to rile rile rite to rite rite rite. 

If she's got to talk «lang a Hoston girl 
will refine and beautify it. *' The proiK>r 
cap«?r" beeome^ '•the appropriate g>'ra- 
tlon;"' "hangup" U "front hair ele- 
v:C.-.t'" '■fni,ihlin-_-to!li.-r-..-K.>r"ls*-falI- 

- I !■ . I ,.,.,,■.■■■■ I ii (listribu- 

Teacbcr: Compare the adjective ill. 

Sebolnr: (after a little consideration.) 
Ill, worse, dead I 

If Worcester spells "Wooster," the 
Elmlra Aihertmr deslns to know why 
Uoeiiester doesn't spell *' Itooster." For 
the reai^on, we itujiposc, that citie'^ are 
generally feminine. 

etiool liouse 

'lo hi. f 1 father, who ha> a^kcd biiii 

where be is In his ela-i.* now— " Oh. \a. 
I've got a miu'h ttetter place than 1 had 
la<l quarter." "Indeftl? Well, where 
arc you ?" " I'm fourttvuth." " Four- 
teenth, you little lazybonei* ! You were 
eighth last term. Do you call that a better 
place ?" " Yes, sir; it's nearer the stoTc." 

Prof.: "Mr. A.. diwt Lriiblenus 
•say of Krutus. sir?" Student. (prompt- 
Ins): "Last of the Ilnman-t." Mr. A.: 
" Laceda-nionlans." Prof.: " No. sir. 
von ilidn't quite eateli the sound, sir." — 
Trinity Tahlet. 

The bishop of Manebcfiter was present 
lately at an examination of the Latin class 
in a ladies' college, wliere the now mode 
of pronunciation Is in vogue, when one of 
the scholars prououneetl vicisaim we-kiss- 
em. "What's that word?" a.skcd the 
blsliop. *' We-kiss-em, my Lord'' — by 
turns. "O, you do, do you? I begin 
to comprehend now the popularity of the 
new pronunciation." 

Teaelier: First boy may spell foot-tub 
nnd give the dellnition. 

First boy: F-o-o-t-t-u-b — a tub to wash 
(lie feet in. 

Tcactier: Second boy may spell kncc- 

MosKs. — Teacher: Why did Moses' 
mother hide him among tho reeds ? 
Pupil: Uecauso she didn't want to have 

A SuFFiciRNT Kkason.— A masUM* 
Nplalning that the land of the world 
continuous. He asked a boy. 
Jack, (roiild yotn- father walk 
he w<.ild?" "No, sir," said the 

A Very Fine Writiag>. 

A few day-J ago J. E. Kiclinrd^on. the 
music teacher, rcix-ived a po^ul card 
from bis brotlier Geot^\ in Iowa, con- 
taining over Ave thousand worsts, written 
with a iwu. To-<Iay an answer to this 
remarkable epistle was maileil, containing 
0,571 words. Mr. HIctiardson wrote It 
with an ordinary SiK'nivrian pen. An 
exceedingly good eye can read it unaided 
by a glass, but it Is just all it can do. A 
glass brings out every word and every 
Dear EtlUor: 

Tlio above is elipnod from the Stockton 
Daily Eeening Mail. I thought it udght 
be of some interest :i-; :in iti-m in the 
JooHNAi.; liemv 1 -. ti.l il t.. you. 1 
have seen the canl imi ii i- iii>l> ■ li a very 
small piece of wiiiioj I in -iiiallest 
nnniberof words in aii\ ..n.' Iiii<- (writ- 
ten cro^iswisjj the card) is thirty, and 
the l:iri;est number tlfty-nlne. It Is the 
>iiii:ille-it (large) piece of writing I have 

Very truly, 

E. B. Stowr, 
Stockton, Cal. 

Great Works i 
Veiid.ll I'hillip^ 

. Olden Times. 
tliiiiks the ancients 

f which hiLsbuen lust in our 
-ciUtiu tliat those most famil- 
iar with steam 
]iower and niud> 

Prof, in cliemistry lecture: "The per- 
son In seat nuuiber'l57 will please take 
down his feet aiul tiot obstruct the llglit." 
— VhrtmieU. 

".)..lin, vsh.ii 1- ili.-.-hief bnmch of .-.!- 
Uraliuii in ^ mi, mIiooI?" " Wllh-w 

l>r;ui. I,, -II , i..;i-i.i-, used Up nearly .i 

\ I who invented the fashion 

'..■ 1 turning down the corner of 

.1 wMuii^..ial; but the fashion of turning 
down the corner of a street was lirst 
thought of by the man who owed a small 
bill to the tradesman bo saw coming. 


IIS little U..b' 
.•iu-<Ia\. ^^hl 

.il.l l':i 

"Who made tlie \Vt>ihl in sis il»>^ uiid 
rested on tlie seventh ? ' " 1 ilid," 
scn.>amed tlie ubtld, bursting into tears; 
•■ but — I'll — never— -do so— any moret" 

Pn>f. " Mr. v., for what was the war 
with Pyrrhus ivniarkable':'" .Mr. V. "1 
think that It was the lir»t time that the 
Konians ever saw the elephaut." 

" Mother," said a little square-built 
urchin about tlve years old, "why don't 
the ti>acher make me monitor, sotuetimes? 
I can lick every boy lu tny eUssbut one." 

Teacher: " Peicr. you are such a bad 
boy Uiai you are uot tit to sit iu the com- 
pany of gOi«l boys ou the bench. Come 
up herv auU :jit by me, sir." 

ing that 
le start- 
i in the 

s; The 

"a true 
tion Is 

LL-n eating 

■et long, 
it. higri, 
1 tliiitcen ft. 
ic, stand In a 
twenty feet, 
nine othurstoncs 

thirty feet long, 

ten tiigli, aiul ten 
wide, are joined together with such nicety 
that a trained eye cannot discover the lino 
of iuneture. 

A column iitill stands in the quarry, a 
mile distant, whidi is completed, witli 
the exception that it is not detached at 
the bottom. It Is sixty-nine feet long, 
seventeen high, and fourteen broad, and 
one cannot nnderstaiid how it can be sep- 
arated at the bottom from the quarry 
without breaking. The ruins of this vast 
temple inspire respect for the g«tiiu-i t>f 
former ages. — CUiyviUr .'<t:iUiiui. 

Special Bates to Clubs. 

111! thoughtful p.'.>|,l.' ^I.nul.i 

tion. The fuel th;a w,- have I 
i-ggs destitute of liUI. Il.oiaLiv; 
dimply horrifying.— ,V('/rc JJaiu 


Figures and letters are so closely allied 
that a failure in the formutiou of one will 
always indicate the other. The fact that 
the pupils of our public schools make 
tlioUKauds of figures every week is con- 
clusive evidence tJiut they should be made 
well. Poor figures indicate iwor writing, 
careie!^ tiguros indicate carelc&s writing, 
and eareicMnen teiU aittaya yrtcatt yrogrca. 
A comiuirisou of the forms of ten figures 
with liity-two letters is a clinching argu- 
ment that the Uachiny vf Jigurea »fu/uJd 
yrofcU (hat of UtUm. Besides a true coii- 
cc^iiou of ligures, witb Uie ability to ex- 

A copies.. 



.... 40.00 

O.oul IJW gopiw.. 

I subscriber will be mailed, as a 
, with tlie Urst copy of the JOUR- 
NAL, Its they may designate, either the 
" Hounding Stag," 24x^*^ ; tlie Flourished 
Eagle," 24x33: tlie Lord's Prayer," I9x 
^'il or the " Picture of Progress," 22x38. 
For 50 cciita extra all four of the pre- 
ini nma will be scut. Tliesti premluotH 
were all originally executed with a pen, 


A good handwriting o|*eus mon ave- 
lues to btiaineaa succ^'-'h than aofoiuvr 
iuglc attaiuiiieut. 

LKT tfavKsxtrrH 

n copies fiirntiilicd t^ 


HIhrIc Inacrtlon 2 


1 Incli. ISIlnvs.. 

imyiililo (iiiarti'i-Iy I 

L months und o 

Without 8 
frail) tliti foi 


iluin t« the sender, we 
, one yofti- with a choice 
, to vuuli 8ubaci-ll)er, as 

IScoptcs ) 8 25 

fort', :^pcak uf it in reajject t^ ](i.'iiiiiiiii>ltiji. 
but we know that it U not {iractkal, t;ven 
were the managers so dis|>o»e(l, to ^ve in 
a three days' session, the time whl<.-h 
ouglit to be devoted to practical and 
artistic penmanship, and at tlie same time 
pro[>erly consider other subjects of equal 
or greater importance to an a'isociation 
composed essentially of Business College 
proprietors. It must therefore be quite 
apparent to professional penmen, that if 
they are ever to enjoy tlie full advantages 
properly derived from associating together 
and comparing notes as teachers and 
artisU, it must be in a new and entirely 
distinct organization. It lias been sug- 
gested that a Penman's Convention might 
be held in some place, and at a time to 
closely precede or follow the sessions of 
the " liusinees College Convention." This 
we think very proper, as many of our 
best penmen are identified with business 
colleges, and would desire to attend both 

There needs to be no antagonism or 
jealously between two such Associations, 
their int^i-ests would not clash in tlie 
slightest. Tiie two Associations would be 
necessary only that sufficient time and 
attention might be devoted topenmauship 
to cover every department of the art, and 
to cousiderevcry measure of interest to the 
profession, which cannot, as has already 
been shown, be done as a side issue in a 
Business College Convention. 

It is, of course, too late to think of hold- 
ing a Convention this season, but tt is a 
subject worthy of consideration by every 
penman in tlie land. We shall hope to 
hear from many through the columns of 
the Journal, and what is more, we ex- 
pect to be one in the composition of a 
Peniniin's Convention in Jiilv or Aiiuust, 
1883. Who next? 


vhile tht 

ither -iide 

Komlttuncea should bo by post-offlce order or 
by registered loiter. Money undOBed Ui letter is 


205 Broudway, New York. 

SiilweriptJoiis to tlio Pknman's Art journai,, 
nr onli-i-s lor iiiiy «'' our publlaitioiis, will 

, Kugland. 

M:\V VdKK. Jl'LV, 1831. 

A Penman's Convention. 
Several times, since the publication of 
the Journal, an effort has been made 
through its columns to induce the holding 
of a genuine Penman's Convention. Why 
can it not be done ? Three years ago a 
vigorous effort was made which resulted 
In a so-called Penman's Convention in 
this city, but under the broad invitation 
which included Business College proprie- 
tors as well as authors and teachers in all 
branches of business education, the pen- 
men were so completely outnumbered, 
that in a permanent organization they 
were practically omitted, and the Associa- 
tion at once took the name of the "Busi- 
ness College Teachers and Penmen's As- 
sociation." Under this title It convened 
at Cleveland in 1879, and also at Chicago 
in 1880. At tlic latter meeting the title 
was changed to that of the "Business 
Educator's Association of America," and 
penmen and penmanship scarcely had a 
l»hice upon the programme of exercises, less 
thau one hour having been devoted to that 
subject during the entire session. It is 
therefore quite apparent that, whatever 
may be the future of that organization, it 
is not to be a Penman's Association, or 
ouc in which penmen will i-oceive very 
much more recognition or attention thau 
ill any other of the various educational 
conventions of the land. We have uot 
yet seen a programme of the proceedings 
Cor the coming 3es-.ion, and eaimot there- 


The following are some suggestions 
made to Williiim Allen Miller, Chairman 
j of the Committee of Arrangements of the 
Penman's Association in 1878, by that 
veteian penman, W. C. Cooper, relative 
to the advantages to result to peumeu 
from such association : 

KiNGsviLLB, July 20, 1878. 

Ist. Such an Association will give the 
profession more character. 

3d. It will increase its influence. 

3d. While on the one hand, there is no 
penman who would not be benefited by 
membership, a majority would be mate- 
rially HO. 

4th. It would introduce all penmen to 
eacli other, and make correspondence pos- 
sible and mutual encouragement possible 

Gth. It would put the profession in a 
position to overcome outside antagonism 
and command employment for all merit- 
orious professional labor. 

(ith. It would tiike a large amount of 
teaching and business now in the hands 
ot jiertom utterly unjit, and kept there by 
other associated influences, and place it 
in the hands of the profession. 

7th. It would neutralize a very formid- 
able opposition now actively arrayed to 
rob many good penmen of business, while 
it would advance the interests of all mcri- 
torious pen publications and movements. 

Inasmuch as there is no possible doubt 
that the ingenuity of the craft mio-ht by 
well managed effort create new channels 
for pen-work and pen jobbing, and draw 
into the hands of the craft a great deal of 
work of a documentiiry business charac- 
ter, especially it would be of gi-eat utility 
in this direction. 

While it might appear to militate against 
the interests of some in minor features, it 
would in other directions more than sup- 
ply any losses in this respect. 

The country needs four meritorious pro- 
fessional penmen to every one that it has, 
and would properly give them work 
enough, if compelled by a united, wise 
course on the part of the Profession. Let 
us then, with faith iu united effoit, try 

The Whittaker Court-Mar tiol. 

The Wliittaker Coiirt-Murtial after a 
session of ucarly four months has closed. 
Its verdict will reuminasecret until it has 
been reviewed by the Secretary of War 
who will then make it public. 

The trial has been unusually protracted 
and the investigation has been most im- 
partial and searching. The Court wjis 
composed of nine distinguished U. S. 

was conducted by skilled and zealous 

Ex-Gov. Chamberlain, the counsel for 
Whittaker, was indefatigable in his ef- 
forts and conducted the entire case with a 
degree of ability and courtesy which has 
been rarely equalled in a court of justice. 
The Judge Advocate, Major A. B. Gard- 
ner, who conducted the case on behalf of 
the prosecution, If not the equal of the 
astute and experienced Governor in all 
the nice technicalities of the law, could not 
have been outdone in the general manage- 
ment of his case; his final summing up 
of the evidence was clear, logical and 

It is a general impression that Whit- 
taker has been found guilty of perpetrat- 
ing the alleged outrage upon himself and 
of writing the note of warning. 

It is not our purpose at this time to re- 
view at any length the testimony of the 
experts in this now celebrated case, but 
we desire so far as we are able to cor- 
rect a few of the very erroneous impres- 
sions that have gone forth through the 
press respecting the conclusiveness of the 
expert testimony. 

It is the general impression that there 
was a wonderful contradiction among the 
experts who were called to testify respect- 
ing the note of warning, and tliat at the 
different trials the same experts have 
given strangely contradictory and hence 
unreliable testimony. 

This erroneous impression is largely due 
to the garbled and unreliable newspaper 
reports which were often apparently col- 
ored to suit the prejudices of the reporter 
or the publishers, and sometimes from 
misunderstanding or confusion of testi- 
mony, and then again false impressions 
were created by publishing detached por- 
tions of the testimony. As a specimen in- 
stance of false or blundering statements 
we quote a section from the New Yori: 
Times report respecting our own tes- 
timony : 

absolute, that the writing of spccinuMi. 
Nos. 93and 189 were identical with that 
of the note of warning, and in our opinion 
were written by the same hand. So lung 
as we believed the fictitious writing to 
be that of a Cadet, we thought it to 
be barely possible that its author might 
have written the note of warning simulat- 
ing that of Nos. 23 and 189, but when that 
writing was shown to have been fictitious, 
our West Point report was rendered (as 
was our testimony in the late trial) posi- 
live against Whittaker as being the author 
of the note of warning, which fact, how- 
ever, was entirely unknown to ns at the 
time. The 307 different writings which 
We examined being designated by num- 
bers, any knowledge respecting their 
authors and a consequent exercise of favor 
or prejudice was utterly impossible. 

Sadler's Counting House Arithmetic 






3 recalled, and by es- 
8 subjected to a rigid 

" Expert Ames i 
Gov. Chamberlain 

cross-examination. He aOmitted havl.ig 
made three examinations of the liaud- 
writings of Whittaker and other West 
Point Cadets— two of these for the West 
Point court of inquiry, the third fortius 
court-martial — and ha* come to three con- 
clusions. The first examination resulted 
in the conclusion that the writer of speci- 
men No. 33 wrote the note of warning, or 
that the writing of No. 33 had been simu- 
lated by another iu writing the note. The 
second conclusion at the second examin- 
ation was that either the writer of No. 189 
(Whittaker) or the writer of No. 33 wrote 
the note, and most probably the writer of 
189. The third and last conclusion was 
that Whittaker himself wrote the note of 
warning. 'Now, is there any valid rea- 
son,' queried ex-Gov. Chamberlain, 'why 
if you made a fourth examination, you 
would not reach a fourth conclusion dif- 
ferent from all the others '/' • 1 don't see 
any probability of reaching any other 
conclusion,' was the reply. ' My last ex- 
amination eliminated all the doubt that 
was contained in the first two conclusions. 
I didn't make in the first two examina- 
tions that extraordinary and detailed in- 
spection that I did in the third." " 

Had it been the intention of the writer 
of the above to present the exact reverse 
of the truth, as elicited in the court-room, 
he could not have done better. We did 
not reach three conclusions, nor did we so 
admit. What is stated with reference to 
the first examination at West Point is 
fairly correct. As regards the second alleg- 
ed conclusiou in which we are made to 
say that either the writer of No. 189 or No. 
23 wrote the note, it is falsely absurd as 
both Nos. 189 and 33 were written by the 
same hand (Whittaker's) and were pro- 
nounced to be identical with each other 
and with the note of warning by us on 
both examinations at West Poiut as well 
as at the late trial. The only doubt we 
ever entertained or expressed was induced 
by a piece of fictitious writing which was 
purposely made to resemble the note of 
warning, and placed among the writing 
at our first examination at West Point. 
In our written report at that time we 
stated definitely that but for this (lictiti- 
ou.>) writing our report would have been 

the last number of the Journal as being 
in press and nearly ready for sale, is now 
complete and a copy is before us. Wt* 
had anticipated something quite beyond 
any work hitherto published in the fiuiii 
of a practical arithmetic, but this work 
entirely exceeds our expectation both as 
regards its magnitude and the exhaustive 
and practical methods of presenting and 
performing all manner of ai 

The numerous short and 
methods of calculating would c. 
Daboil and astonish Barnum's 
calculator. The work consists of 500 
large 8 vo. pages, printed in bold, clear 
type, and is thoroughly practical through- 
out. In addition to giving itiiprovcd 
methods of calculation and practital l'x- 
amples for business it is re|)lete with 
reference tables for bankers, brokers, 
mei-chants, business men, accountants, 
farmers, mechanics, teachers and stu- 
dents. The worK certainly more fully 
meets the demand of the counting room 
and business college than any other work 
we have ever seen. It is mailed to any 
address for $3.00. See advertixeiueiit in 
another colunni. 

, Pa.. 


T/ie Age/Us Herald, of Philadelpliii 
is doing a decidedly good work through- 
out the country by publishing a list of the 
names of the numerous swindling indi- 
viduals and their various aliases under 
which they have run swindling opera- 
tions in the various cities of the country. 
Most of those exposed have been denied 
the privileges of the U. S. nuiil on the 
ground of the fraudulent chanictcr of 
their business. 

These names alone occupy over a col- 
umn of fine type, and embrace almost 
every line of business. The Ihi-aU is 
otherwise an interesting and valuable 
periodical, especially so for aH classes nf 
agents. Fifty cents a year; single copit^s 
ten cents. 

Eaton & Burnett's Course of Business 
Trainii^ in Commercial Law, 

Is a work of 130 pages, devoted to the 
concise and practical presentation of such 
a course of Commercial Law as is practi- 
cal to be Uiught in a commercial college, 
for which purpose it is admirably adapted. 
It is in the form of questions and answers, 
convenient for use in the class-room, and 
covers the whole subject in the briefest 
and most practical manner. Every teach- 
er In this department of education as well 
as every man of business should send for 
a copy. Price, $1. 

King Club. 

The King Club for the past month is 
sent by L. Asire from Marquette, Mich., 
and numhera aecenteen. Mr. Asire sayn: 
" I am now here on Lake Superior com- 
bining pleasure with business, and have 
good prospects for both." The denizens 
of Lake Superior will do well to avail 
tbemuelves of the instruction of so skillful 
a teacher as Is >lr. A^ire. 

? ?»Mi V».-i.-Tyg|?%'^ ^jjjj j jjjyji ^^ 


''i it aii|irn]M-iiito, 111....:, uj 

Icli! wlilfli in |)lioto-Dnj;rave(i fro 
"" "' mil- reiultTs (lc-<tirc i-opi 

President Oorflold. 

Aiii.MiK ll»- wi-11 - nljih liihumiM-ablf 
l"n.liili« uiliutv. to till- wisdom mill ex. 
■■(■lli.ii,,. of ilip nets iiml «ayiiijf» of Prwi- 
lU'iil (iiirrli'lil, nillcd forth li)- Ihi' lute 
ntt,.iii|,i upon liis llf... f,.,v are i„„,.o ^p. 
piolMlnl,. lo Ilia own ,liviiiu«Umw8 anil 
w..itl.y of rcpftillon tluiu thu Inclilcnt 
whli'li ni-i-uiTCil 111 thU city onllicday , 
iifi.i ilio assnsiiinalloii of Abraliain Lin. [ 
folii. Nor ran wi' do better tluin to give 
tlie narrative In tlie fltly eliosen words of 
the llev. S. 11. KoMllcr of the North I'l-es- 
byterian Uliureli of lliU elty. In an elo- 
■lucnt dUeonrsc delivered the morning 
after the atumipted a*.a.<si nation of I'resl- 
dent Garneld, Mr. Kosslter said : 

■• It was the morning after I'lvsiil.iit 
L.liu'oln'tt asiMUi^lnatloli. The eoiiiih-y was 
eNelled to Its utinosi tension, aii.l' New 
\ork ei.y s„;,i,e,l nady for the >>...,„•, „f 
.f ll"'"! '"■*"';""•,"■ (he inU'Mlp..- 
the win . .,v, I 


nuw«.aiii, iliar s,wai-,rs throat 1 

and lliiit aihiiipis had been mad 

""•• »"■■ "' > 1 jiMwrnnienl oItU-.... „ 

Was a ,lai k and terrible honr. What mi"ln 
eonio iiexi no one iiMild tell, and iiTeli 
simke with baled bri-alli. The wrath of 
llie worklnjtnieii was slniplv uiieontroll- 
able, and revolversand knives were In the 
hands of lliousands of Lincoln's friends, 
ready the llrsi oiiiHirtuiilty, lo lake the law 
into Ihelrown haiidsan.l avenge the death 
11 .■' "'?">re<l IV-sidenl npon any and 
all who dared utier a wor.1 against hlin. 
Mfly Ihoiisand iKHiide erowSe.! around 
the bxchaiig>. linlldlng, erainmlng and 
janiining ilie stixvls, and wedgvd in as 
lighl as lucn eould stand logellicr. Oen- 
enil linller il was announvea, had slarled 
from W ashlngton and was either alr.'aidv 
111 the elly or cx|ieel«d every n 
.Nearly a hundrvHl generals, judges 
men, lawyer, editors and elergjinen were 

b',Sl'.i unr eolnmiis the above portrait and testimonial to 

iiuaiity of plate paper, for framing, tlicy ean secure them by remitting I.'ic 

in tlie in„ 
fearfulU ■ 
pie llial I. 

Ic.igl'l, 'Z' 
liarthig th. 
make wav 
ly, and wi, 

al. Tlie 

s broke 

id been Hashed bv 
1.- land. Fear took 
iiids as lo the fate 


lihl. The old 

people asking to 
at died. Butler 
nwd aud elite ivd 

ed ov 

skyward, and a voice, clear and steady, 
lond and distinet, spoke out:— 


"Fellow citizens! Clouds and dark- 
ness are round about IIliu ! His navlllon 
IS dark waters and thick clouds of the 

sk,..s I .I„sti,.,. ;„.d JMd-nient are the e.s. 

'■'''I'-'' '" ■■' "i- II" ! Mercy and 

'niih -hill .... ,...,..,.. Hi, facel fellow 
'"'■"-' '""I I' 1^11- and tile govern- 

inrli. al \V;,,|ii .i^lol, ,1111 Hvesl" 

1 he .■tTiat was tivnieiiiious. Thccrowd 
stood riveted to the ground in awe, gazing 
at tlie motionless orator and thinking of 
God and the security of the govern 
in tliat hour. As the boiling wave 
sides and settles to the sea when some 
strong wind beats It down so the tumult 
of the iieople sank and became still. All 




iron milingof the balcony and stood on 
the very edge, overhanging tne crowd, 
gvsticulatiug 111 a most veliement manner, 
and next tiling to bidding the crowd' 
•' burn up the rebel seed, root and 
branch." By this time the wave of iwu- 
ular Indignation had swelled to lis crest. 
1 wo men lay bleeding on one of the side 
sireets, the one tiead, the oilier next to 
dying; one on the luvenienl. the oilier in 
the gnller. They had .said a niouient be- 
fore that " LiiuMlii ought to have been 
shot long ago." They were nol allowed 
10 say il again. 

A telegram has just been read from 
» .ashington, " Seward is dying." Just 
then a man slei>|ied forward wilh a small 
flag in bis band and beckoned to Uie 
crowil. "Another lelegnim from Wash- 
ington." And then, in llieawful stillness 
of the crowd, whose stefw had been ar- 
rested a luonieut, a right arm was lifted 

Oarlield, of Ohio, 
lid like to n;|ie 

\a|„.l,.oirs guns at 
as Ceneral James A. 
lid in tills hour we 

,. — his own memorable 

words. Fisher Ames said:— "A mon- 
archy is a man-of-war, standi, iron 
ribbed, and resistiesi when under full 
sail, yet a single hidden rock sends lier lo 
the bottom. Our liepublle is a raft, liard 
to steer, but you can't sink her." 

Another |icculiarly touching quotation 
is the following from General Garlield's 
s|ieeeh in Congress on the flrst anniver- 
sary of I'resideiit Lincoln's death:— 

There are times in the history of men 
and nations when they aund so near the 
veil that sefiarales mortals and immortals, 
time from eternity and men from their 
tf od, that they can almost hear the breath- 
ings and feel the pulsations of the heart 
of the Indnile. Through such a time lus I 
this uatiuu j>>:>3ea, wli^u two liuudrea ' 

and llfly Ihousanil brave spirits mssed 
fniin Ihe Held of honor Ihrongh Ijial thin 
veil lo Ihe preseni.e of 0™l, and when al 
lasl its iiarling folds admilleil the mar- 
lyriHl IVshlent lo Ihe eom,«ny of ,he 
ilMd heroes of the Kepuhllc, the na- 
lioii stood so near Ihe veil lliat Ihe 
w-liis|K'rs of tiod were heard by Ihe 
• liildnii of men. Awe stricken bv 
i- the American iKHiple knell In 

irful I 

and I 

ciiaiil wilh God and each other that this 
nation should be saved from ll.s enemies 
Ihat all lis glories should Ih' ixatoriHl, ami 
"11 the rniiis of slavery and treason Ihe 
eniples of fnedoin and jusllce should he 
iiiillt and stand forever. It remains for 
CIS, vonsecraled by thai gnat event and 
under that covenant wilh God lo kiH-ii 
the faith-to go forwani in the great work 
until It shall he coinphud. Following 
the lead of that gn-al man ami obeviiiE 
the high behests of God, Id us remember 
Iliat shall 

OlIIKlMt forlli 

llelssintnuoiit ih< 

Judgment s« 

he swifts my soul, t 

iioluro ills 
Him; be Jiihlliuit, 

s mtirclihi^ parly 

all them.' ,1 ,,f i|k,i |,ai .. 

The Convention. 
In reply to .several liiipiiries rehitive to 
the time ami piuce at wliich the next con- 
vention of tlic "Business Educato™ 
Association " is to be held, we would say 
that the convention is announced to mecl 
in Cincinnati, Oliio, on August th, and 
continue ka session three days. Kespect- 
iiig the progiamine of exercises we liave 
no information. 

W. H. Kitto, whom we mentioned a 
siiort time since as the youngest man In 
the L'niled States who ever received the 
ilS" In nmsoiiry, lias recently liecn aj)- 
polnted Secretary of the "Clilcago, St. 
Haul, Minneapolis and Omaha Hallway." 
at Omaha, Neb. Vivo years simc Mr 
Kllto was a telegiaph nu-sseiii;.r l„,i. 
llis rapid advaucement to liis invscui ci,. 



The Wasliiiigton Clilrogiaphic t'hih, 
oigiiiilzed ami liislructi.d by the Speluci 
ihcrhir,, Hi,iMl»rs over Ave hundred 

"" " ■ ' I''"l mainly of ladles and 

^' """"'" ''""' II"' government deiuirl- 
im-iiu. I. lului i.vii service reform good 
wmiiig is a necessary qiialilleatlnn for 
securing and holding clerkships In any of 
the departmenld. 

Hark Twain'a Advice to Scribbleri. 

" dsnf,. 

.Maik r. 

ill wlii 
lii-.i.l. by 

wholly inicolillecled wilh the 
ills Icller-box ; " Don't write loo plainly 
it is a sign of plebeian origin. Scrawl your 
article with your eyes sliul, ami make 
every word as illegible as you can. Avoid 
all palnslaking with proper iiaiiics \\',. 
know tlie full name of every man. »<,maii 
and child in tlie United Slaus, ami iln- 
merest liint at tlie name is siitllciriii Fm- 
Instance, if you write a cliaraclcr s.iim- 
what like a dr^ 

I iln 

V al . 

■ y.i 

mean * Samuel Morrison' even Ihougli you 
think you may mean 'Lemuel Messenger.' 
How we do love to get hold of articles 
wiitlen in tbU style ! And how we should 
like to get hold of the man who sends 
them— just ten mlnntcs— alone- in the 
woods, and a revolver in our liip pocket."' 

•• I assure you, gentlemen." said the 
convict upon entering tlie prison, "that 
the plai« has sought me, and not I the 
place. My own affairs really demanded 
all my time and attention, and I may 
truly say that my selcellon to llil this 
position was an entire surprise. Had I 
consulted my own Interesu I should have 
peremjilorily declined to ser>e, but as I 
am in the hands of my friends, 1 see no 
oilier course but to submit." And he 

Sztra Copies of the Journal 
will be sent free lo teachers and olliera 
who desire to make un effort to secure a 

club «f 8ubauribei«. 

(;. II. P.. Kcokiik. 


ii'tical questions, an 
*;iiirf tliey seem to be propoumled moi 
to the readers tlian to the editor of tl 
JouKNAL, we Invite and will Jiwait m 
sweni before making anyntU-niiit 



W . .!.■ 

j„^ _- U, -p,! tiiij; this inquiry there 
wi.iilii hi' iliin-ioiit iinswere from different 

,„. ,1. suiiii- pn-fer a fine quality of 

Hiistol boiinl, while otliors prefer Wliat- 
iii;iii"s liot-in»;B^(il diiiwiii"]; paper, and 
whrri-- h]-n<«h :ii)(l lint is t'lnployed the la1> 
Itr is «inlc»iiht*'dly the hi'st; but for pure- 
ly pen work wc prefer and alwai-s use a 
fine quality of Bristol board, using India 
ink, freshly ground from the stick; for 
pens wc. use a large variety, for fine writ- 
inji and drawing, Gillott's 303 or Spencer- 
inn nrtistic No. 14 are mostly used; for 
nourishing, tlie Penman's Favorite and 
frequently a fine gold pen; for Old Eng- 
lish and Text lettering we use broad 
pointed ateel pens, the points varying 
according to the width of the desired 

i.lictts is special teaL-herof writ 
• Public Schools, East Saginaw 
e is a fine writer and a popula 


1 duri 

icatiou, at Penn Y 

ti. W. Michael of Delaware, Ohio, is a 
live, entcrpnsing teacher of writing, and 
we judge from reports, a popular and suc- 
cessful teacher. 

A recent issue of the New York Merean- 
tUe Rrvieto pays a high compliment to 
Brown's Uusiness College of Jer.sey City, 


'f-i^'%. *. 

ifor the OM Ir 

■tUlic KuSde In onirtnic 
,< CL'uiiit of »4,5U, c 

Good Figures. 
Cadx & Walworth's Uusini 

at fmilt i 

N. J., 




Messrs. Eaton & Burnett liave i 
orf?aui/.ed tt Cbirograpbic Club i 

■I hum 1- 


formerly proprietor of 

','"' ''""„,^ 


iid.^ B 


-1 iL-ach- 

- i- ill 

M .■ , 

mII satis- 

t;it tiuU 1M 

II W h" 




Mill.-i ,v 

l>l il,. 

, Prop 

ieturs of 

Ihc New . 

t-. \ 1'. 


of New- 

ark, N.J 

ll.lV >' 1 

-ii> >1 : 



W IlK'll 

~ ill k 


with the 

good judij 

nt'Mt :i 

d i-nti 

■prise which has 

zed Che 

r cntlrt 




niMM I uuM', Iowa, sends 
cetuteil s]KMiinen of tlour- 
'eral well written card 

. West Danby, N.Y., sends 
I- "i oiT-hand (lourisliinj;. 
1 1. HIS both in design and 

In.prietor of Fort Worth 


teacbinff fig 
too large. Tliesi 
V tn the inch. I furnisi 
1 ruled to that width 
. ul' them ? 

C. E. Cady. 

Tnily J oui' 
We thinl; well of them, Ijrother Cady, 
so much so timt we liave photo-engraved 
.ind present herewith one of tile speci- 
mens in perfect fae-nmiU:, except the 
ruling of the paper which I think is a 
good idea. We fully agree with Mr. Cady 
that figures are an essential feature of 
good writing especially so with account- 
ants, entry clerks, and others having much 
to do with figures; also, we agree witli 
him in the assertion that figures are usu- 
ally made much too large. Large figures 
are not nearly so rapidly made, nor arc 
they so readily distinguished as smalk-r 
ones, as they more nearly fill the spa. . 
between the lines and are therefore ofhn 

ii'g In 

;nt they are rarely e.xeellcd. 

/J J Y^-i 7/ f ^ 
/ a J '/J- ////y ^ 
/as -¥ r ('r Z'a a 
/ ^ J '/r ('7 r^f ^ 

J J ^Sk J f a ^ / 
J ■'/j- 6 J S' ^ t) / Ji- 
^/ J- li 7 r ^ a /JJ 
^i 7 ^ f 7 ^ ^ '^■ 
i 7 1 f e 7 J 3 -vr 

7> / J^J -^ J'& 

,n- dtiiil lii-ldy indit^lble. 

/ J.J Y -fi 7 S' f -^ 
/JJ ■'7^J'& ///^ 
/J. J Vxi 7 S V ^ 

/ f-a . / 7 


^/ 7 '7 a i..ra 

and acquiring "a symmetrical style 
copy slips c ■' ' "" "' *'" 

,vUirU lie at 

mould a beautiful characteristic style of 

IJut this requires study, and why should 
not the penman study a- u<n i- 'In- 
scholar? There is no an , n ;mI' ■>' i""- 

fession under heaven, tliai ^^iH i' \ a 

man who has left hiswii- 1m liiii.l Uim. 
i^/'fli/i is tlie first and lastluvt wiUi \\\w\\ 
every worker has to do. No young man 
wants to have it said of liim, that he is 
nn ainmated stereotype. Let the young 
wrtt.T^tiulv with his pt-ii. Let him put 

'/Hhl peumen, it 1^ m 
■ personality shiiu- < 
IS plainly as the pi 

lege teacher. 

E. K. Christ, of New Britain, Conn., is 
paid a hlgli compliment by the Wv^i^m-y \ 
(Conn.)Xntfnca(tfor the skillful manner 1 
iu wliicli Uc wygulli" engraved u set of | 

M, .-1- (■|M>^-1lill^^ilrsl.lls,oftllo7,:l^.■s- 
l ' Iiiiii 

pr.' '.\ cul ..f it Miioiigli the JuuUNAI,. 

i'Ue artist was U. B. Parsoua. 

.Siilis.rititicuis to the Journal may 
.l^ite fioiM any time since, and inclusivt 

,,f .1 ,iy 1878. All the back num- 

l.<i. Ill IN tiiat date withthe four pre- 

,,,i - Hill be sent for $3.00. All the, 1. ..f 1880 and 1881, with either 
two of the ])reiniums will be Bent for 
$1.75; with all of our premiums, for $2. 

lated iniu iiiU-lliyt-i.L l;uit;u.ifit'. 

Art^forma spring from tliu j)riiici 
individuality brought out by study, 
are ideas actualized. No ix-iiman 
artist whose style is not a liLnt'miati 

ductof hisown persoi.iiiii^ It -^t 

be a projection of him-' » : ■ i \ i k. 

There must be Tuiinl iim. miiiri- 

into form. Pen study i- H" m' m- liy 
which genius manifcstaand nali/-.s iLself. 
li, i^^ tlie omnipotence of brain work ad- 
mitted into penmanship. 

Beware of Overwork. 

How to ;KO'ini>li~h tlif -t g'lod work 

has taxed Ms oerved Wo loo^i < 

riili..tM.f .lalmriU- »li(l llit/Tr-.tln^' Wf.rk. 

Kyf-ry mirli cxiM-rience \» dotiin>cnUl to 
Dip healtri, anil Hhi.iilil t>c avoided by Ulc- 
infT niiit at refpilar inur^aln, ami tll(^ ri--( 
ui tH> (if Ihf greatt^t bcncrlt mIiouI*) 1 
taktn rM-fon- tlit.- |N-ninaii tMi-oiniA a^^ 
Ihat Im- n«-«tU it; hi; <«linuld nlwtt;>s -i 
iM-ff.n- ri.- \n llrid (w,t are w.-1| aware h. 
iIiIn nilif:itiiMit ulwayx hvvUmiy follow.. | 
and riixtiMiiirx HiilUd In n-Kard tii Umc. 
tint thu rule Ik pHul all ihv wiiih). 

What U iv«t? For t\w mini w)i«i tins 
Im"-i) Mhfiv<-lliij( dirt all <la>'. an raxy t-halr 
and a |ia|K.*r woiitd Ix; th*- tic^t n-^t; hut 
for the |M'nnmn. who ha* hi^-ii bniding 
all day over tiU di-<«k, with hU allenthni 
rivi'Unl to H ]Afvv of paper p<»<uiihly no 
larger than thn hand, a brink walk and 
livi'ly roiivrwitinn would bv niuuh mure 
hiiii-nrl:il ihiin tbi- f liair and pa|H.T. Tlit* 
number nf boiin which a petiriian may 
work without real, will diju-nd -oiiuwhat 
on thf; nature of bU work. If It \n Jlnc 
pciMhiiwInj:, retpiirln}; the cluw-it attt-n- 
tiori, three boiirtt io. as long at any one 
Kbr>uld work withuiit an interval of rest. 
If thi! work ia a variety of writing and 
ilourinbing, wlicrc great accuracy U not 
iieiciirtary, four hours luiglit not be too 


.. I as 

for wtitto Ink U 

ItlM-k Canl Ikmni 

llliukf-iirTls iH-rlc 

ULuJi CarUii per tlKiiiMtiid, by cxpraw _ „ 

pcrNfanet. quirv. 

Wtiufs <]r'lnf{-papcr, hol-pi 

rANuwIoa'astiiirniip. itiil, hik. slick 

I Cardfl, 13 (leDlgiiH, per jiiiuk of 
&^ curd^i by mall.. 


i-i->e in tbf 


Send $1.00 Bills. 
WrwM, <HM ,.,,:,,„,- ,,, i,,,.,- iu mind 

ll'iit ive lin 1 1. 11. I -r suunp8in 

payuirtir f..r ..,i,,,,| -. ;,,„| tliattliey 

.h.niullH- M,.i..ul> 1.., I.;mIu.iui1 |,inu 
of :idc.1l;ir. A .lullai l.ill i^ nuuli inon- 
.unvrurnt, and ^;.f,. t- n-,nit tliaii the 

• |.<.«l-iiia-.t.r w uill a^^uule all the 


PIAM.VN W.\NTKl»- A (1i->iI.<'I^m toiichiT of 

Vfry hnlu hn.- ■ ' ' i '. ' '■'],!' ■"";', 

Willing to Join «. 
ilitMN, lit uaoc. \\ 

JlWT I' 

C'oiiK(lo»*» Normal SyiiteiiV 

JJolliKloiirlHlilncnn'1 T.cH. 

Keyf'N "" !■'. 

te':'./::' ■:,:,.:::■■ 

r KloniiiliiUK. . no 


An Invrntloii whkli enables any oi,c to make iht; Smmiiml Itoman Ictlere oiwlly nn.1 oonwllv 
Kvery pcm>n uho w...... to become a good on„«ucn.aI >ctterc.p .met tho.o v,l,JZZ only^n^Jj 

olng more for sUiUeala In tbit« 

I Ml I u. I, iimnn by llic 

■'•'[■ '"■," Tiihlui. 

'I iii.iii:iii iK,vi9 Of tho coimii-y 


1 UK 

and wgmentAof lii. i> 

inhulBbtcuu buntj.ri i... ■,. , ,. -hu,, .,,, 

alUotaMtrnlglil ("ii." ^ . . .' . ,i t.i ,.,. 

It la ba%'lll];il I:m L'< -,ii. <[i.| I ,.,ii I., ,:,.■ 

giving It the hlgiiest piiiif.f. H\- niipcml a. ti» . 

From }y. if. tyiaMM, n'Mt/ler/oni, Tiixas. 

II. W. KiHHK-/)tar Sir: Voiu- Magic I<ett«r 

l»g Tablet came to band In lino order. I tlilnk 

It a grood succcsa. 

Ftvm Uriah McKee, ObtrUn, 0. 
II. W. liinuK—Iftar Sir: Your Miudo Lctttir- 
ing Tablet euiimto hniKl »>oino two " ' 
I hiivo given tbo Tablet a llioi-oiigh 1 

It long fell by Icii 

From A. 1/, BrtclbttOtfid, Stn FranriMn. Val 
-J. W. KiUHK-Dear Sir: ' " ' ■ 

Miiglu Kutlvildg Tablel" 

'Ill WlliO.1 u.UK nil (illKKIIinil 

regular, buaiitiriil luMurliig 

I and iiii>|(llty Mitli wliioli 
nenmun am uxwnto regular, „„.,. 
by Its uUl uuema almost iiULrvoloiis 

lag Tablet rccuivud. 
1I« work well. 

ttir Mtigm ] 


From U, tS, BtartttUy, Arhi. O. 
H W. KinnK-Ztear air: Your Miiglu U 
fngliibletwcelyed. Am well ploaaud wit 
Would not do without It for $10. 

V "■"'"■•'-— '««r,«r.- 1 reneivoil your l, 
ring rablet and am highly pinasoil with It. 

From ttto. It. liUtck, (^rtmr* 
W.liimiVr-lJearSir: Tlio I 
n In due time U la all and i 

III i> p' II '1,1 ink copy. UuHlnufut { 
"I"*- Speoliil oiler. 

luH. AddreuH, 

7 llolmrt Street. UHai. N. 

Tlii>ory, AL-timl I 



TIio roUowliii,' IK a cni-ofiilly coiiiplUtl list o 


porlor r:iv«i: 
Minn); III '20 :^ 



Shorter Courso of civil Gov't 

" Coaimei'cial Law 

CaUiearro Youth'B Speaker 




COI'NTINU.IIOUSE book.keepim; 


The book 1- . 

Iv^v^ ami htf(li '>>ii.->i- 1 

I «in tw 

Hlek-.k ~ 

Newmi.i. 'r. . 

K I'loVlBO ui)dk- 

■ .: 

;.,::' -''^ 


Arts and Selene 
Natural RvMMitvc 





JfL-it l'uh!f<fu,l, 




UalUmoro. Sid. 

Tliu work is coniiwited of qiiosUonB and nnr< 
The purpose of this liiiB been to Indicate disi 
ly tlK' "pi-cial poluttt to be noted. The luti 
■ '.•,.■! III.' most Imiiortnnt toplcxfor cwnitn. 
-In!. iir.;iml business men. and eomprl-i- 
\'-\' \-. SutiOnABI-K I'Ai'KK. A«KNCY. I'AHl 

-Mil', ( •iiii'ua.tTio.NS, IlAii.uKNTa and S.\,i.i 
fKicsoSAL I>R0P1UITY, and u largo &nmh< 

I'riee. fl. 

oeollegvd or others reipilr: 

Caskeirs Business Schools. 

Jer^rir Cliy Biimhcm CoIIckv, 

Aand^UNuwark Avenue. Jersey City. X.J. 

U. &. Uiu<KELuIflDclp«l. A. U. SrRraE.<tH». svc'r; 

Brj-aus St Slntllon College, 



les, 96 pages. Uvtall price, 

ended In tliu highest 


In America. 31^ pages. lU^inlf. 

ilL.VXK IIDUKS. The necessary blanks lu 

Iwcn proiMir-'' "• "" ■"i»<- >- -• -•- -• - 

books, and y 


prominent e....^.... , 

mid for partleiiliir>« address 
pnblUber. J. <;. BKYAST. 

MaItIi«ws_l(ro». and Ilryant's 

I be supplied at tile lowmt ii 

s conlalnlns eommeiKliitloii 


. BKYAST. llii 

TAVLUR ^ It).. 

I \ K -'» 'wliK*. for all kimi, a„,i ^„^ m. 

«t . Illalli.1 r..r .mU- 1— ...... .., mm « 


^. «.««««, ; M m4siJln|worktl.aiianyiK5«7,;i««H 

n St?;iEs OF 

bcHnnk PENS 

Shading T Square. 


Glass Book of Gommercial Law, 

S( HOOL AM) (^OlNTINii-ltOOM, 

Principal of the Albany Business College. 
Tilts work l8 a pliiin, pructlcal explanation of 

-i"Cially tor class or privtUf i 

Mil- thai wliicli 8tndent8 of book-keeping eannot 

««1 Kivcii HM r.xiifrt <Mi ■iHiidwriliiiK nnA . 
DISri.TTdTS 1(111 AllVKKTlSlMi. 



S ^ B 1* ^ !?» ^ B 


Wcfilve horowlth s 
migmved dlrcotly fi' 
tlie scinavc, with tin- 

1 . Ml 1 ,, \'^P- 

Of theal)Ove\y 

ivk. hcgi. 
c'«l the si 
d in ovfi 

1. - r>ii receipt Of 



■_■- Ailmny,N.T. 


Ti Schools to take 
■ds. Agent's sample 

aiv' I'.T. ".'"i. ;' 





Alt! si:(<»>i» 

I'Airr I lusT 

! inti'Oductlon of Arithnictio ^ 

e teachers who 


Opinions of Prominent Educators as to the Merits of 


■k Of reference' in the Uuiuiting-iooni. liii" !■> -i i iii^ ' '■^' ' n-i mh mv 

From Charlrs ci.-icliorii. '■'■'"•'I'"* ''•■>'"*'| '^ '^^'''^^'""7'V'V*'*'" ^"'l ■ -"'ll-'^'nse In 
my school liiis a - 

"Sadler-- i,. '\ ."...,,',[;,,_■ ii. ."i-. \i'r ,,,..,■,,--.. .i -..i ■-i '■ i ^ -' '*■ It is very 

full on all leading ioiiiiiiiiti:il lopus. 

From O. F. WilUamii, Prof. a»?„™^;"„»««»i»«{^' Ko€!iei.tcr Bi»incKN UnlveriiUy, 
A I p^ononnce them oxvcllcnt, anil have 

IMV —30 recipes ft"- iH 
IINIV. silver, whil.'- m 
stumps tuken. W. swi 


e yon those beautiful cj 



own blui^klioiiras on WckhI, Walls. I'apcr or UioUi- 




Made only by the 

New York Mlt«-atc Book Slalo Coin| 

TIJK t M \\n 

X "18 l"'St" '■'"'^""■^ t" prnniaii«hlp 



ilM'M\liM « 1 

. , ,. .1 M„-l,, M« 

f:,:-;-::;" ;.'■ 

^tiibllBllad «nd 

:. _'.•. the only one 

INK. >\:;:',;';, 

::;;v, ''■^'::'' ■ ^ 

/- ■ \/ '''^ii ' 

I'lV.' .'■'■ ' ' ■ ■ ■ ■ 


N"S..'.- '■:'•' 


t«nreo(tli. HI 1 
COOrKR. kLi.^-> III 

-y-OUll name writ 

vn on one dozen gilt edge 
•iits. ijamples of wruien 
CS3. H. G, l.annhee. 



,■'(;»« ^Vro'Styli'uTS;; 

_ .^ ,,i,.\ I, I, .( -, 1 ,.i I I ""iiilechitiigo 


From S. Uosii 

"It is giving giejii 
so and polnlcd. 1 

■Infield. III. 

" It is far ahead of all otliei-s. We hav 

( Wll.l. BK SKVr PKKI'Ain 

, .s < ..I m.-, .l.-r*oy Cily, N. J. 

- „,„i mil liiglily pleas " '"'■ 

u itli i.illi< r books. It \'. 

ii-.iii4'<«HO«ll(^fro* Newark, IV>j 

ii.-iiMD' . oiMTlin. Oliio. 
M^iiK'N- ( ■•ni'uc l^nlcHbtirftrf llfl 

■■vs.. t oiivi:)-. C'halliani, Oiil* ^ 

!. .1,. \ i'lK- cviihiDatlonn 

, .T.'-s with mt 

-. . II:, Ml. ( i.'i'k, .Tlicli. 
..sH Crtllcgo, Albany* W.l" 

1-, for ell 
T OF ' 

\y. H. SADLER, Publislier, 

Nos, ? and a N, Qharleg gtreet, Baltimore, M« 

■"■0 THE PRAC1 


N „.^r<^^- 

^HE. '^'OfiJWMbt^TAL ^"^ peN 

" ll,J^!rr^l at tht Pt,>t Offift of Xrx Tart, N. T.. c 

mul-clajti iiuiUcr." 

D< T. AnEM, frMitor and Proprietor. 

, r. KKI>lil-:V, AMOclnte 



Vol. v.— No. 8. 

In-iirtM In llilit coliiiiii). onvyvnr for it.M. 

D. T. AniM, 

Examlnvrof Qniwllonrd llandwrlllnir* 

aas ItroMflwny, Sew York. 

ThorniiKhly liiiislit by mnll or penoiiKlly. aitu- 
alton* iimcnirurTror punllo when ouinpolunl. 
»im<l for Klroiilnr. W, O. Chaitkb, Uftwugo. N. Y. 

U. If. RHAVrt/rK, 

UniKiml Aiconl Spuncorlan Copy Bookn, 

KKUAN, Taylur & Co., Nuw York. 

cnlunt frou touny addroK. 

twn avHtnKHs coi.i.RfiiF^ 


Sew York. 




Kt>1nbUi>hL-<l IMO. 
W. II. NAm.KII, I'rmllfciitor 

UiialiiavtCoIlHgo, Halltmoiv. Md., piiblUlior of 
Onon*Hn<llor'* OiuIuvm Caloulnior. Mallod forfi. 


tibuniliMi-of Couiinoifc. Detroit. Mich. 

IllA MAYIIKW. I.L.D., ri-u8ldont. 

ao t:ilir !*lrt.-i't, Nuw York. 
Photo- KlvvtmtyncM for llliintrntloiiB mo choapcf 

*niK nAunEC ntrNiNESs eoi.i.KCE, 

Kort Wnyito, IntUana. 
It* tnoal tJioiTiiigh mill pmotlcal. 

AUIMS ALDKU. Pi-lnclpnt. 

t with good work 

PEinvtrN NORnAi. PENnA^vsiiiP 

Practical Writing. 

A nuMiiberof our clasK asks. 
1 to learn t«> write well aiul rapliUy nt the 
saiup tlnu'? When 1 write slowly niid 
Uki- iwhi*. I write tolerably well or at 
lewt form iny iettere well though my writ- 
ing i» greatly wanting In ease and graec; 
but whnii 1 niteinpt to write mpitlly. my 
letters are lll-forme<l and writing Isnilser- 
able. Should I et>nttnuc to write ra|iidjy 
while learning or adhere to slow and eare- 
ful pnietloe and tru«t to aequiring a|>eed 
aflcrwani?" \'\wn thU point teachers 
differ widely. »onie hold that the true way 
U> ai^ulre si>««h1 in writing is to praetic« 
rapidly from the outset. With this tlieorj- 
we disagrve. totally. As well a^tk u ehllil 
to run iH-foiv It walks. Skill and dexterity 
in all things t-onie only from loitg and 
habitual praeiitv and by slow decrees. 
Writing, a.-* we have said befoiv, isquUeas 
much a matter of thought and study as 

praetlue. A correct inuntiil i-nneeptioii of 
tho forms of tetters and the general rtm- 
structlon of good writing nnist tirst beac- 
qtiired, the eye disciplined and n refined 
taste acquired before good writing is even 
|)ns*ible for the hand to execute; this 
must be by a slow painstaking process, 
form, xhade, combtiiHtiun and all the re- 
quisites of good writing arc to bu thought- 
fully considered, this is best done when 
writing slowly, when this is accomplished 
tlie hand under the guidani'e of a mind 
clear, rcaily and correct in Its conceptions 
will guide the hand more rapidly, and cer- 
tainly in its etTort< to :i<--[iiin' .flnity nf 
movement and the I'M I iiiii'ti n| ^ i .lii<1 

nipid writing. It nui-l hr In.i n. in mnhl 

that the peculiar iiHivnii. lit |ir:irtiii'il will 
have much to do with tlie rapidity and 
grace of tiie writing. l*crson8 practicing 

Micflngcr-movemcnt exchnivcly ran no 

moreconipfl-' uilli li -n-iri-llir mu-n.- 

lar or fori- :inii \-' Ill . ;iii ;i -l.i-' 

coach with llf l(.rulil.iti\<\ llurr;in -iKnlnl 

writing hi- (Xt-i III. il Willi l!ir v.iviil) nl 
unshaded writing. Wo therefore rcpi:ii 
our advice, to all our class to peraisti-nii; 
adhere to deliberate practice until (Ik \ 
have Acquired the ability to give a correct 
form to all the letters, practicing tlie mus- 
cular or foi-e arm movement; at the same 
time adopting a medium si/c atid unshad- 
ed hand as the most probable coui'se to 
good and rapid writing. 

We repeat tlic following movement ex- 
ercisu which should be carefully practised. 
Kcmember that aimless, scrawling, scrib- 
ling is no more praetiein^ writing than 
is the street crier elocution. 

The following is presented as tin- reg'ila 
opy for lesson Xo. 12. 



A Few Thoughts Upon Teaching. 

(II tlu' lliyiiiit and Stnittoii I'ollfgu, Providence, 
R. I. 
Judging from my experience as a stu- 
dent when under the instruction of one 
of the ablest teachers of commercial 
brauehes, plain and ornamental penman- 
ship, and since as a teacher of connnereial 
studies, 1 have eome to tlie Indief. that in 
whatever vocation in life, the art of 
pleasing is an essential constituent U\ 

in no profession should it be more 
tlioroughly cultivated and developed to 
insure success than in the art of teaeliing. 

Relieving the above lo be i>f prime im- 
portance, I will add a few remarks in 
reganl to leaching llie useful, but in many 
scniKtIs much neglected subject of pen- 
manship. I think the connnereial teacher 
should be verj- dUcretl, ami carefully 
arrange his courst' in penmanship, shap- 
ing it entirely dillen-nt from any glvi-n in 
the various text-books. Xone of the test- 
books puhlisht^l fully meets the tieinand 
of the live teacher of writing. 

Whi'ii the yonitg tvaelier enters upon 
the active duties of^tU«- rlass-rooiu he has 
very little to rvly u|)oii but the course of 
tniining nnvlved at the handsof liU tutor, 
wmM-queuily is thrown upon bis own 
uaiHiblllUes, and if the course of training 
was not ihorongb, will soon get discour- 
aged and, as a matter of course, fail. 

It is very desirable that a teacher should | 
be able to select suitable copies, teai li 
them in Ills own langimgt% and be alilr 
to illustrate his copies and ideas on the 
blackboard. In sucli a variety of nov<-] 
and attractive ways, tli;it hi- jin^^il- •.\\>- 
Iield as by magic by tlu- :iiir;i,ti\rii." ol 
liii explanations and ilhi-ii;iii'>ii. 


; ther 

alike in dls] 

ety of wa>- I I '■■' -i.,-^. ,1. M, 

order that :iii ; _ i 

and be nnr ■■ ,■;. i.-. ■( ■■■ 

love Witll thi' •■■vri. !-.■; mI" ,,in Im-i 

teachers are i'on-.t;iiirly proving that nn- 
thtng will so create an interest among a I 
class as a teacher's enthusiasm In the { 
siil)iect (iiUL'ht. and hy a little rare he , 

idea that only a gll'i> 
to write well has )..■. 

elve lessons of : 

ritlng and i 

1 a sill 

r tin 

coinpreliensive instructions, unci' 
lysiematic stuily and pruclice, and i 
sumt belief that he cannot becom 
perfect in his peninansliip. 

Ninety-Nine Tons of Gold. 

and .Mav 1 . -' -'i'l »;>- rr- 

ceivedin th. \- ..^ ' mi,, , uhI. Imi- laik 
of money to si-ml it to the ruitii, ^tiU.lHJil,- 
000 yet remains in the liands of .Siiperin- 
U'luleul Thomas C. AcUin. ThU sixty 
million weighs about ninety-nine tons. I 
A man who should own It would be able ' 
to wall himself up In It as in a well, and 
the well would not be so wide or so lugli. ' 
hut that lie could stand in the inid<lle \ 
and touch every briek. The number of l 
grntlemeu in tills cfiuntry who could 
iierforin this interesting exiH-rimenl witli ! 
tbi-ir own gold is small. The bricks in 
the Assav t>llli-e average about ^.000 \ 
aplei-e in value. The most of them are 
not much U) look at. They are as black 
and dull In color as a cheap quality of | 
stovepipe. If you i^cratch one with a : 
knife you make a bright yellow mark, 
and this mark will not get black again. 
These black bricks are composed of melted 
foreign coins, contaimng about the right 
amount of alloy for American coinage, i 
and so the alloy is allowed to remain in 
them. When the melted gold i^ poured 

1 ■ ..I. ■ <■ ! -11 at inter- 

.■ iM . I '. ,..i..i II, iLi' :i golden 

-! I ^.: I - Ml ii-Mi I iiMiiiii- day ond 

" I know just ns well how much gold 
there is in this room." superintendent 
Acton said, as he gn/.nl about at the plied 

ork. Down the 
them the sweat 
were grimy with 

.ry -ni.l. 
is of a 
^'ht to a 

" We would not have all this trouble," 
I said the chief weigher, as lie put a fiUO 

I ounce weight genllv on the seales with 

Im- ri^'lit liau'l ;iri.l wip.-d u\\ liin brow 
uith hi-, ■■ii ^s^■ )ia<l :iriiv.-d at the 
li.<.i, of the 

W I 

ihc I 


of all this weight came to this country as 

f;ood foreign coin, hut its lackof nniform- 
ty with i>ur mintage compels the United 
States to recoin it, anil me to light the^ie 
weiglit.sall day." 

A larger supply of foreign coins than 
usual has tome Into the country sini'e 
August last, because the rate of exchange 
has been in our favor. It was explained 
that tlie most of the gold other than for- 
eign coin tame to the A-^y Office by ex- 
press from mines and from various busl- 
ness houses. It sometimes liappened 
that a deposit of original dust, in small 
daky graiiii^, was brouglit into the office 
by a bronze-face miner in person, who 
had brought It East with him on a visit 
to his former home. 

Tile method U lo take the gold on de- 
posit from the bankers or others who 
send it, and to give them a check on the 
Sub-Treasury after ao assay had been 
made. Each deposit of gold is melted 

rj- ca^se before 
iiall qiiftiititif* 

uhiscUed off from two (liffereiit 

hricki and sent one to eacli of two men 
ill the a»9ay room. Here seven grains 
and a lialf of each quantity are carefully 
weighed out by each man on a separate 
pair of »cale« enclosed in a glass case. 
Tliis seven and a half grains corresponds 
with a Krencii weight which has been 
divided Into a f.|ii:il parrs. 
Kach of the ("" .■•-.i;. ■ '- ■■■■■■i i.- -■i'-" ''' ^ 

hut in A slniil;ii ■■ ■ . ■! -i i ■ 

a»»iiy. Their M-n; m - ,. .ii 

in a very aniali u.k imn I i. n .I'l'i- i^ 
the weighed golii a dfimiK' .|ii;iiiiii> ui 
silver. This is done Ixraii^.- ili>- miiii 
acid to which it is to 1««- -iii.j;' i'"'. ^V" 
not ferret out very small .iNiuitiii.-- »( .m1- 
ver that are enveloped in iliu gv-ld. \mi if 
a large amount of silver is melted up 

with tlie gold tlie acid can fr" 

the mass and eat it all out. 
particles of gold and &ilv 
wrapped up in a little ■'ii'i'i i>i |.iirf I'.ni 
of a known weight tlKii i- iii-i u\i-i..i 
info the shape ot a coriiiir..]ii,i h. n , . im 
them. This pellet of g*'lil ^iml •\\\>i n"! 
lead is then melted in ii fupd, a little 
porous white cup made of ilie awiies of 
bone pith. A draft of liot air passes over 
the melted mass, and this oxydizes the 
lead, and the presence of tlie oxidized 
lead for some unknown reason aids the 
oxidation of the copper mixed in the gold 
and carries it down with it in a similarly 
mysterious way into tlie pores of tlie 
cupel. Tliere is left a little button of 
gold and silver lying in the bottom of the 
cupel. This is hammered to knock off 
tlie scales of oxide tliat cling to it, and 
tlien rolled into a ribbon nearly half an 
inch wide. Tliis ribbon is coiled up and 
put into a little platii 

Pen-holding, Poaition, Material and 

Preceding i 
the columns c 
portaut to oiitli 

rics of articles through 
e Jot'RXAl., I (leemitim- 
general points. 


Pen-holding, Position, Material, 

The pen should be held between the 
tliunih and first and second fingers. The 
inn. 1 . iirner of thumb nail opposite the 
(i.-t juiiitof first finger. The first finger 
. [..-iii;r holder BO that the upper part is 
i.|il.n-it.- third joint, and lower part di- 
i*-,il> under right corner of finger nail 
miU opi)osite the root of second finger 
nail. The KND of neiiond finger turned 
under so as to nearly touch the tliumb. 
The hand is then supported by third and 
fourtli fingers, resting on first joint 
OF LiTTLK FINGKR. The end of holder 
sliould point toward right shoulder, and 


out of tlie iU4m.1I, an 
porous, wliicli make it 
is pinched the little co 
pieces in the fiugers. 
subjected to just enough 
particles to adhere " 


1 poll 

, - V.y 


i<! frn 

I liii^rr.; 4th, 

ill Ijody leaning 
>t touching the 
tate the paper 
a the desk. the 
tlie elbows 

slightly forwuid and i 
desk. This will neces 
being placed diagonally 
FOBK-A«MS resting nes 
the lower edge of desk (about six inches 
from body), either arm pointing toward 
opposite corners in the same relative 
position. The wrist should be straight 
and not toucli the paper. The hand and 
fingers slightly curved. The tliird and 
fourth in excess of the others. Tlie feet 
should be apart, and clianged in position 
to rest the writer. A choice of the several 
positions known as the/rmit, ri^ht, inght- 
oblique and f^/(— either standing or sitting 

some of them perhaps have been numbered 
among the criminals of the land. 

I heard a gentleman j;ay. that as a stu- 
dent under Gen. Garfield at Hiram Col- 
lege, he acquired habits of thinking and 
reasoning wliich have made him, to some 
extent, successful in his pursuits as a 
business man. 

Men should not wait until thf imtrufior 
who has led them from ttie darkness of 
ignorance to tlie light of i»rai'tical knowl- 
edge, lias readied some higli oflice, or 
passed away before they pay homage or 
mauifctt openly tlieir gratitude for the 
great good they have received at his 

The bestowal of a fortune upon you 
direct would unquestionably arouse your 
gratitude towards the giver, which you 
would eloquently express with tongue 
and pen. 

The instructor who has! given you 
mental strength and power to be respected 
in the world and to amass a fortune for 
yourself or at least gain a liberal main- 
tenance, is a tiiousand times more your 
benefactor than one who bestows inherit- 
ance of wealth. H. A. S. 

Richmond, Va., July 21st, 1881. 
Editvn Penman's Art Jov/rml: 

Gentlkmex: — I am a subscriber to 
your valuable paper, and am muchindebt^ 
ed to it for the advancement 1 have made 
in penmanship within the past six 
months. You will, at a glance, see that 
my writing is something above the aver- 
age; still f am almost in despair of ever 
being able to do creditable work under all 
circumstances. I am and have been en- 
gajied in active business for the past ten 
years. During that time I have acquired 
a very thorough knowledge of accounts, 
and I can, at any 

I desire, take 


tary to the person and at 
the same lirae, unfortunately, discourag- 
ing. For every one thus suffering there 
is certainly this consolation at least — he 
has company. — and although we do not 
believe that one's nature will be malerially 
changed, yet we think that by purposely 
subjecting one's self to many and re|k'atcd 
trials such as our correspondent experi- 
ences, he may and will oveicoiuc all such 
embarrassment from sheer force of liabii. 

Virginia City, .July 33. IHSl 
SdUdtrit of Journal : 

Allow me to add a suggestion 
columns acknowledgi 
giuitly wrirtiMi Ictic 


■eeeipt of ele^ 
II Flirkiii^'ei 

and thus get an idta i>! iinn -ivh 

Accept my COllgiatnlMli^u- t-M ih.rx- 

cellent paper you arc |.iibii>iiiii- 

Vours truly. D. U. Tavluu. 
It would be a pleasure to us to comply 
with the suggestion of Mr. Taylor were it 
practical to do so; but it is not for several 
reasons. Principally because the letters 
are not written with a kind of ink and in 
such manner as to be reproduced by our 
process, while many of them are too much 
of a private cliaracter to be properlyso used. 
If some of our i-ecognized masters or even 
aspiring amateurs would take the pains to 
have some of their elegantly written let- 
ters — letters confined to 

only w<ii;iis ^>. 
metal brought ii 
873 parts in 1,000 of gold. ( 
words, 87 3-10 per cent, of it c 
All gold is melted before it 
and having been assayed 
melted again in order to be refined. An 
additional quantity of silver is added to 
it for the same reason that has been ex- 
plained in the process of assaying. It is 
then melted and granulated by fiirting 
the molten gold from a ladle upon tlie 
surface of water. The idea is to make 
the gold fall in a sheet on the surface so 
that it will break up into little fiaky 
This gi-anulated gold is then 
dried, and for convenience oi handling i 
pressed into cheese shaped n 
are cut up and the pieces ; 
boiling oil of vitriol. The i 
the silver and copi)pr. wlii<-h turns it 
blue. This blue liqui'i i- 'trim 11 -ir witii 
a siphon. The boiliiii; i- > !- !> >i -i ii i ii 
times, varying in lunni i _ 

the purity required, all' I _ ' 

is melted and run im- ii i. v -\\a[- a 
masses, to be carried tn the rrciisnn 

The blue liquid which contains tin 
copper and silver is nm into a tank am 
weakened witli tin' :iiiilitiuii .if \v;iirr 


;id eats out 

of little consequence after control 
r the arm is once gained. 
Beginners— 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 10 years of age 

liii|iei . [iiior pens, or lead 
allitiU' is this law that all 
riejit it. knowing that its 
.'ithout exception in otiier 

"of a liivgc si 
cleiir the luui 

;; ■■';;'[ 


"i" '!„',"' 


you get a SI., 
tiuite so com 
i-uii mid com 
mice ill this 


";,',' ':„' 


copper, wliiri: 
greater ease Uim n 

Tlie blue li.iui.l is 
ill a lead-lineil tank 
peuded also many 





formed, with points a- 
and whose scratch U 
crystals are blue vitii' 
copper, and are sold ix^ 
ing of Paris green ai 
products.— JV: T. Hun. 

cry rcsjiect to either 
all the muscles and 
of all work easy as 

If you want a good pen for business oi 
school purposes send 30 cents for a quar- 
ter gross of " Ames' Penman's Favorite " 

alone, as it utili/.c: 
renders the executi 
well as graceful in i 

The Teacher's Position. 
The highest pu-it 
in trntli, su ■ 
society, is 
ipecialist : 

w man and to 
th.1t of Uuchcr. Wliether a 
s an instructor in an art or 
science; a business educator or teacher of 
classics, his power is creative of useful- 
ness and even greatness. Without him 
a majority of the Illustrious and 

which ■ 


C clods, and 

charge of the office, and command a much 
better salary than I now get were it not 
for my trouble, which I will now explain 
in the belief that you, with your large ex- 
perience, will give me some advice wliich 
will benefit me and perhaps others in my 

When called upon by any member of 
the firm to do a piece of writing in their 
presence, let it be ever saslmple, I become 
awfully excited, and it is only with the 
greatest efloit I can write at all ; my 
hand becomes so very nervous and I 
become so much worried with myself 
to think that I cannot overcome such 
weakness, I almost resolve never to try to 
be a penman, or do anytlilng that will re- 
quire tlie use of a pen. 

I have spoken to penmen concerning 
tills and they only tell me tiuit in the 
course of time it will wear off. Instead 
of such being the case, I find the difficulty 
increases. 1 never drink spirituous 
liquors of any kind, or use tobacco in any 
form, or sit up late at night. 1 am per- 
fectly temperate in all things. Now, if 
you will give what I have written a place 
in your next issue, that any one who may 
suffer as I do, may see what advice you or 
any of your readers may give to help me 
get rid of my trouble, you will greatly 
oblige a subscriber and friend. 

Very respectfully, L. G. H. 

In answer to this correspondent, who, 
in the letter before us, writes a ci-editable 
hand, we would say that a sensitiveness 
of the character he mentions is often an 
evidence of well developed powers of 
criticism and not infrequently keeps pace 
with such development. This fact may 

photo-engraving — ^we would be pleased 
to do them the honor and our readers the 
favor of presenting them in the columns 
of the Journal. 

Questions for the Patrons uf the Journal 
(MI.r..Kf..Kuk.Inwa.— Wliywas50to 

wy . li..- • .1 iiMiprr main slant for 

w 1 1 \\ -\ -ii iM lii^t adopted it? 

-I.I! Ml II- ;ii ii.p and bottom 

nl -II. .11 .n.ii . .,i.i,.|..l Irli.TS bC tllC SamC ? 

:;. \V I.J rl.i 111.1:^1. :>>sieius liuisli w /V«« /' 
at half siJHce above base line. 

4. Are the first parts of r, }) and final ( 
of less slant than those of any other letter. 

5. Does Ml,' iTiiRMliict.irv line of small 
e have grciUi i -i.ini i li.m iIkU nfany utiicr 

nbj.-itiuNi.bk' to take off the 
making the introductory line 
/ and one style of c'i 

Send $1.00 Bills. 

We wish 

< lirii 

that \ 

payment for subscriptions, and that they 
should be sent only for fractional parts 
of a dollar. A dollar bill is muuli more 
convenient and safe to remit than the 
same amount in 1.2 or 3 cent stamps. 
The actual risk of remitting money is 
slight — if properly directed not one mis- 
■iagev^"- - =" "- ' '-"' '" 

close the bills, 
taining money ar 
the post-master 

ind whe 
! sealed 



Educational Hotes. 

Till' Moliainmf'lan Lnirentfty of ¥.1- 
Aznili. in Cairn. K;E}'pt. ar<'<inllnjc to l>r. 
C'liyliT. In (lit- /ivU/ir/ufmt, lia« "trn tlioil- 
•laml -liKlcnu. all bmy over their KnmiiK. 
aiitl \tr*'itar\ug to Ih* prieAt* anil tni».<«)nn- 

Tlin number o( pupIlR rei-«>lvinK In- 
4lriu-tl(in from tlii^ ('lilncM! profeittor al 
llarvanl, htu^ williln a sv»r, \ncrv:uvti 
itw linnilreil jht crnt. The (-la»4 now 
nfCientPiUi* two. 

Clihia U fotcjirtni iiitarnali:. Sthoul- 
bookit. wHtlvn by a contemporary of 
l>anii*l, till- prnpli«t, are uhcI in her pnbllc 
HuhonlM toHlay. — l*r'/. W.J). Gutmimj. 

Harvard ('ollejce haA opened free to the 
puhlic for the 
)feolofO', iKftanlu t^rilcn. H< 



ori'al Hall and .Sander 

Prof. PIntt K. Spencer, proprietor of tltc 
Union HntineM CoIIuk*^. Clevelund. Ohio. 
reporiN ld«t Kt-liool In a tlourlrthing i-nndl- 
tion. Over one hundred pnidlt art* now 
In attendance. The fiuulty of tin- lollfp- 
iMtnitiHtfi of five conipt^tent ingtriiclion. — 
Tearhcn' Guvie. 

New Yorli State containx 23 collegefi 
iind iintvcmitieH, having a combined nt- 
tt-ri(hi('i- of -I.M'i studtMiis, conducted by 

'MV> |,i,,r..-Mi- HI. I 1 1-. ;irid po»t8eA8tng 

|,>..|M IP, ■. ,1m. .1 n *n;.ii'M,(H)0. Of these 

1 -.. ini:M,. viz: rninn. 

<'<.i.i..ii.ii. (Mii.-.. I 11 and N. Y. 

t'tiivfi>iily. I iiirrT'itt/ t^uarteritf. 

There have been graduated at Yale 
College fonrHigncrnortlie Declaration of 



I- aJHO Yalo i 
Th,- Iicad m 

Ing vttvcU—J'tMt/ur* Uuulc. 

[•■at'luT of spelling. Many a person writ*-- 
a woril jHMirly tNfcau-iehe i* not eertnin of 
ilM orthography, and M* iMrnnianithip pre- 
ventu detection. A mi«»pelle<l wunl looks 
wont' whi-n well written than if only 
Mcrawled. I have »«>n the word t^-yrth-rr 
miN4)M-lleil many tirne^. hut never did it 
look DO uitt-rly nut of pl«-e a.i when it ap- 
[>eared In the rounded characters of a 
well-known writ ing- teacher. Agrntlenian 
who rttjindt higli among the teaeheni of 
Wi<H-on»in. in writing the fliphthnngK ri 
and ie, make>i both letlen> exactly alike, 
and plavcit the dot above and ju^t half 
way l»et ween them. There it* nollrng to 
l»'hi<ii8le«lonmore«trenunn!*ly than plain- 
nextt in writing. It will prevent attempt- 
ed deception aj» well as a great wawCe 
of time.— a. //. ^fUUr. in E<turat'onal 

The seven wonder of the world, in an- 
cient time.-*, were the Pyramids of l^g}'i>t. 
the PliaroA of Alexandria, the walls and 
haniring gardenti of Babylon, the Temple 
of Diana, the statue of tlie Olympian Jove, 
tlic Manscdenm of ArtemMn and the Col- 
os^utt at Rhodes. 

The seven wondew of the world, In 
modern times, are the prtnting-pres.'i, the 
Mtuini engine, the telegraph tlic daguer- 
reotype, tlie telephone, tlie phonograph 
and the electric light. 

The so-called " Seven Wonder* " of the 
ancIcniH are easily eclipwd by those of 
tbo present time. Our " Wonders," un- 
like thoxe of foraiei- liiiii-. |>i. --.■-- i;rt*at 

utility. They show ilin ( - AiHihi-* 


A E<.od joke is told of a ivrlain Dublin 

1)n>fi?ssor — a stickler for ventilation, 
teing put in a room at a hotel with an- 
other guest, he a.sked the latter to raise 
the window at night. a.s the atmosphere 
wa.-* so clpiH*. " I (iin't. raise it." siiitl the 
guest, after working at the window for a 
Willie. " Then knock a pane of gla.s8 
out." said the professor, which was done. 
After a while the )>n>fe<uor got up and 
broke another pane. Then ne said he 
was able to sleep; but In the morning 
he discovered that they liad broken into a 
bvok etue. 

A Galveston school teacher liad a great 
deal of trouble making a boy undci^tand 
bis lesson. Finally, liowever, he succeed- 
etl, and.drawinga longbreath. remarked : 
••If it wasn't for nic you would be the 
greatest donkey on lialvcston Island." 

'less genius, ii 

■f Ik 


suit, strata, sool. -<> 
romance, robust, 
pristine, radish, ra|ii 

I Sixty years ago oral ntpclllng, even by 
I penton who did not trip, was a laboriuii 

' pron-ss. !is Us aii-omplislininit nccessl 

DeaSorn,, :..■■.■,, .;„ ,. :,,, ,,,,,, 

of the(;; !■ ' ..>.■-■ I iM hrxi 

nmmt lui'r:iiM . i.i.-iiii.n jn i i\i..i .| i- I'l.-i- 
dent of Maj^.lal.ii. whii li is w.-ilh about , 
$10,000, Maedulen beln^ a very wealthy 
college. — ]\'e«t«rH Edueatvmal Journal. 

The educiilioiial p^.L'l■l■^-s uiiidc bv Ten- 1 

ncsAeestiKT i-^;: i- .1. -. >i :i. ^^MM,^,■l- 

fnl. Intl.;u ,. M ,:, „ ,,i ,,,- 

Swedes, h is -. 
in which ni'glec 
An Knglish trn 

Thoy xliuuld, ut u 

mt "KiUioatlonnl Notus" 
tig Ilustnusa CoUeKVH. 

}, bu bi-iof and of gcnerul In. 

In .\-vA ilicDead So 


A student at Oxford University, on 
being asked "Who was E«iu?" replied: 
" Esau was a man who wrote fables and 
sold his copyright for a mess of potjish." 

A Koxbury girl showing her cousin, a 
boy about four years old, a star, snid : 
" That star you see up there is bigger 
than this world." "No, it ain't." said 
lie. " Yes, it is," she replied. " Then 
why don't it keep the rain off ?" said the 

fcvsor of eight and a half pounds, 
lively as a cricket. He has been named 
Frank Kosimnn Goodman after Uoger 
Kastman. the well-known teller of the 
First National Uank.— AWAnti^ (Tma.) 
naUjf Al 

JTs i ""'*' fellow. 

Harvanl College n.>oeutly conferred the 
houontrv decree of Doctor of Laws upon 
Oeorg<> William Curtis, editor of Harttcra ' 
WertTj,. j 

Aivortiing to the official report only I 
ahowt flfteen per cent, of the number of 
criminals in 1- ramv. during a rear, are to 
be clatised as haviugactimmon education, 
while eiglity-ltve i>er ivnt. are illiterate.— 

Good penmaiuhlp it a mo«t affldvnt 

and of languages illustrated : — 
Senior — ** Professor, wliat is meant by 
* rcpirtable writings ?" ' I'rofcssor — " Ke- 
putable writings are the writings of wri- 
ters of reputable reputations." — Uhit€rnty 
A young lady graduate may. In after 
' years, forget the title of lier essay, but she 
j will always remember how licr white dress 
! was nmde and trimmed. 

" What did Cain say when the Lord 
asked him where his brother Abel was?" 
askeil a Sunday-^^hool teacher of hiscla.'^s. 
None of the chihlrcn spoke up. but llnatly 
little Jimmy snap^ied his tingers and 
said : " I forTOt what Cain said, but he 

» mt bvntMth the sbnde, 
inSUie other said: 
I m that von bcA 
Hnvo smiled ti 


y voice Is miiR melody— 

s 7 to be thy loved I, *- 

jf Oy nyininn, wilt marry me J" 

icn llspea Shu soft: " Wliy. I31y!" 

• Tis 7 to be 


A book is a man's best friend, and the 
only one he can shut up without giving 

Scripture Examination. — Quettion — 
What do you know of Jonah ? 

^In,«p<rr— Jonah hi-l tiiiii-irif for fnrty 
days and fori\- niu'lit^ in iln- l<.-U\ »t' ;i 
wlialc; at tiir .u.l •■t iiii- rimr h.-\\;,- 
huiigry, anil li- |.i.i\.il an.i ~^ii.l. Al 
iDOSt, thon pci'.>nudt'--t iiu' U) lie a Cliris- 

A disputed point. Yale says lo was 
changed into a l)ul1. The Vosair authoi^ 
ity says Into a ** crazy cow."— KflOT«r Mit- 
ctUanij. Give Yale credit for a bull. — Notre 
Daine ScAoUuti/J. 


said the teacher, holding np 
viiugcr to make the scholars 
What is Indian meal com- 


Front off tlie running rlvnlot the ley clmln Ih 
of the winglol of tbo dovetet Is 
the diitiklet In tlio bitrnklet wo 
iit the piglet will presently ap. 

■ Now, 

ammy, liavc you read 

'r..r/,.r \\ . II. iIm-ii. what wrong did 
ih.-y do u Inn iU.> -nUl their brother? 
I'tijnl—" 'I'liey tiohl him too cheap." 

It is written in the Talmud: "The 

world is saved by the breath of school- 
children." The writer evidently never 
sat in school next a boy who grew fat on 
garlic. — I/otre Dame i^Jtoltwtir-. 

the h< 

LitlU- 1> 

inucb neglected in his reign." — I'uneh. 

Just before the public school in New 
Haven closed for the vacation, a lady 
teacher in one of tlio departments gave 
out the word " fob " for the class to spell. 
After it was spelled, as was her custom, 
she asked the meanin^of it. No one knew. 
The teacher then told the chtss she had 
one, and was the only person lit the room 
that did. After a little while a hand went 
hesitatingly up. Teacher-" Well, what 

" Please, 
Daiibitry Keiea. 


I beau.' 

u«»«d th« Lora back.* 

Special Ratea to Clubs. 

To favor teachers and pupils in schools 
where numerous copies of the Journal 
are desired, we oiler lo mail It one year 
on the following very favorable terms. 
3coi>iea 11.751 Uooplcs S8.8S 

3 copies S.33 I SSooplM 12.50 

4 copies S.W 50 copies 32.50 

5 copies SJOl 100 copies 40.00 

10 copies 0.00 I ISO copies 57.00 

To each subscriber will be mailed, as a 
premium, with the first copy of the JoUR- 
XAL, as they may designate, either the 
'* Bounding Stag," 24x32 ; the Flourished 
Eagle," 2£e32 ; the Lord's Prayer," 19x 
83 ; or the " Picture of Progress," 22x2S. 
For 50 cenu extra all four of the pre- 
miums will be sent. These premiums 
were all originally executed with a pen, 
and are amon^ the masterpieces of pen 
art. Eittier of them, to an admirer of 
skilled penmanship, is worth the entire 
cost of a yeu-'t lubflcrlpclOD. 

The Peomaa^s Convention. 
IS'lU'trt Pe>*nmn» Art Journal: 

(iBSTUtMKX.— I oliserved your remarks 
in a late Issue of your Journal. res|H<eting 
a |tenman*s convention In the I'nlted SuU's 
—with the matter lam in full acconl. I re- 
gretted exivi-tlingly the ignotninious ter- 
mination of the pH'vious association. This 
language may not be relished ; but at all 
events, it seemed so to us Canadians. Af- 
ter the llrst convention was held, we felt 
our plumacc swell out until our propor- 
tions would s*"em to indicate a tremendous 
importance : but when the last meeting 
terminateil our wings tiei^n totuck them- 
selves in. our heads and tails to ilroop, 
and vcrv shortly we thought that after 
all the f*enmaii'i< pntfession is an upstart. 
These, of course, were llrst thoughts 
— and consequently somewhat un- 
timely, But the fact remains the same 
still, and the Ignunng that the Profession 
has undergone can be turued aside or 
taken away, only by re-organization, — 
and that next summer. The profession 
needs an a-isocialion that will impart a 

life-Ilk.- r..M.' . ii t !- ;, -. ... ■<:»., titAuy 

rate. x\u\i u ill .■ , [. i m.i ii ■ i: i.!. i-, .-nlargc 

ter ; i 

lights of 
; nut-of- 
:>s little 
ii -should 
. in tho 
1 besltji- 
i< which 
.'' in tho 
n. Wo 

. u, acknuwl.-^lKc 
"1 ' that thero may 
\\ liy, editoi-8. will 

d, and lauded) 
Is, in this city, 
g because I said 

ity ? W I 


slinii;ir t'l 

In CvMiHln ^v<> !M-.- .|.-h-nnined to have a 

coiiv.iiti 1 n -July, 1882— but 

will ti\ I - iiiild it before the 

Anicrii I \i' may send official 

dclfg;ii' ■. I I -ill • I !■: Miiiig the idea of all 
attendin;^ it. 

That was a good idea, suggested lost 
month, namely, to hold the convention 
immediately before or after the "Busi- 
ness College Teachers' Association. 

I am. tlear sirs, yours very truly, 

Daniel Sawykk, 

Stenographer and penman, Provincial 
Normal School. Ottawa, Canada. 

The Pen 

Art Journal. 

puhli.-h. i .. I'.'i !' I Ann -, of New 

York, iin.l f.ik- ,. I. ■.>,,,. u, r, l.rringtoa 
pendniwin;.'iii Jaiiu-s A. Gar- 
Held, President of the United States, 
which we justly consider to be one of the 



execut4'd rustic border, und all 
tistically embellished and Ornamented 
with that simple but powerful instrument 
—the pen— of which Prof. Ames is mas- 
ter. — Ohio TratU and Uvme Journal. 

How to B«iait. 
The best and safest way ia by Post- 
ottlce order, or a bank draft on New 
York, next by registered letter, ^'or 
fractional parts of a dollar, send postage 
stam|Mt. Do not send personal checks, 
especially for small sums, or Canadian 
postage stamps. 

A farmer, on being asked to write a 
testiiwniial for a patent clothes-wringer, 
produced the following: " I bought your 
clothes- wringer, and am hugely pleased 
I bought a jas oiwood which 

the whole load tin 
have used tha w 


burn; I i 
;h your wringer a 
for kindling e< 



PiibllNli«>d Tlonflilr a« »1 per Tear. 


205 Iti-oadwfty, New York. 
Slndlc copies or the JotmSAL aent on receipt of 
lOc. Spet-tmwi copies furnished to AgeaU free. 


Single Insertion «5 cents per line nonpnrell. 
I Column 'fSs'oo' Ik'w |1WM $1^^ 


1 three months pay- 

:. iwr line. 



hope to render the JodRNAI. sufBclently 

,,i'^,' , j( I,,.. "i, !,■; i..n ihcir earnest 

, .,',' r 1. . li- ■ ■ ■'! IT is worthy 

lunship," rcluils for J5. 

TO cEjVBS : 

without SPECIAL premium to 

efour premiums 
9 tl75 I 

..$ 8 25 

,.12 50 
. . 22 50 

e Will pay- e<iituUy li 


) Broadway, Nc 

saribei*!) at the expimtioii of their subscriptions 

NEW YDllK, AirtiUSr, INSl, 

The Beginning and Ending of Sub- 

i'rrsniis -iiMuUiij; niiint-s of subscribers 
should ahviiys spucify ilistiTictly the num- 
hcr untl mhnne with which tliey desire tlie 
svibscriptioii to heglii, otherwise it is enter- 
ed on the list as beginning witli tlie num- 
ber prewdinji tlii? thite of tlie subscrip- 
tion iiiul tliiit iininht'i- is mailed and also 
the preuiium, which too should be care- 
fully desij^niitt'd as subscribers are enti- 
tled to then- choice of four premiums, viz : 
the "Lord's Prayer," "Centennial Picture 
of Progi-ess," " Flomislu'd En^U'" and 

"Bounding St up." 1 n in- i uimi !•; 

UUMltionod Wr ■!., , ■ . ,. ,.■ „, 

for 1881 whi.'li i- ih. I ■..■■.;...■ ;:_ - , ■ I,,, ill 
cases iV pOStaU-aul .> lu.uka,:;. wnu hmLUV, 
and the paper discnii tinned at tin* expira- 
tion of the subscription. 

The stopping of the paper has been con- 
strued by some and especially by om" 
friends and acquaintances as an unwill- 
ingness on our part to trust them for the 
price of a subscription, and they have 
tlicrefore taken offense, bntamoment'sre- 
tlectton will show tiiem the injustice of 
svioh an inference. If they can suppose 
thatwe pei"sonally superscribe the wrap- 
per and perform all the detail of mailing 
monthly the paper to our many thousand 
subscribers they might believe that we 

could discriminate in favor or aj;ain-t 
them. But these are matters of which we 
can pei^onally take no cognizance. We 
have been obliged to give our clerks a 
general rule to be observed uniformly 
with all subscribers. At what time the sub- 
scription of any particular subscriber ex- 
pires we have personally not the stighcst 
knowledge, and if we had, how should we 
know that there was any desire on their 
part to longer have the JOURNAL. 
It is our earnest desire to deal in a just 
and liberal manner with all patrons of the 
JoURXAi*. How otherwise can we hope to 
secure and retain their support. And 
whenever any one imagines that we are 
doing otherwise we invite them to at once 
make known their grievance, and we shall 
do our best to have it removed. 

That many aggravating mistakes occur 
we know, and they seem well nigh un- 
avoidable in printing and mailing so 
many papers and in dealing with so many 
])atrons. We are also certain that we are 
ri„. J,:,, ri.'- most frequently annoyed and 
ihjini <l )>\ Mm '.I' ruistakes, as the loss of a 

i<:i{" I "' 1 iiiin is to be made up by us, 

ill In I v\ < .i;iii(i the aggregate of the loss 
:inil :iiino\ :liii (■ from the complaittts, while 
u^ )p(iiioii- rlii\ come seldom and singly. 
W e :i-k itinii to bear this in mind, and 
view us ratlier as objects worthy of their 
sympathy and ijondolence, than their cen- 
sure and repioaeh. 

The Annoyances of an Extensive Cor- 
are largely and unnecessarily augmented 
by the thoughtlessness or carelessness of 
writers, and tlie writers themselves are 
also frequently sufferers thereby. 

The following letter, just received, is 
one of many indefinite ones, which ex- 
plain why the Journal or mercandise is 
not forwarded promptly. We give initials 
instead of full name. 

We may add that this writer has the 
advantage of a large number of others 
who neglect to convey tlie information 
to enable us to reply, Uy tlfe 
of their name or address. From 
this cause many important letters remain 
unanswered until the writer, weary of 
waiting the expected response, writes a 
letter of inquiry, which, from impntience 
at a supjjosed slight or neglect, is i-fri n 
impertinent and sometimes insuhiiiL: 
Correspondents would save all pji tii - 
trouble by carefully reading all comnuini- 
cations through before mailing them: 

Augusta, Mk., Aiig. 12. 1881. 
J). T. Amei^ : 

Dear Sir: — I have not received the 
following numbers of the Penman's 
Art Journal: No 3x-4 0x7 Will 
you please inform me why they have not 
been sent, and oblige F. W. L. 

Does our correspondent mean No 3 of 
the 4th volume and No. G of the 7th vol- 
ume; or No. 4 of the 3d volume and No. 
7 Of the 6th volumej or No. 12 (3x4) vol- 
ume not mentioned, and No. 42 ((isT) vol- 
ume ditto; or No. 26 (3x4-10-4), volume 
ditto, and No. 42 (6x7), volume ditto; or 
volume 30, minus four numbers, and 
either the number or volume 42; or No. 
30 minus 4 volumes, with number or vol- 
ume 43; or perhaps he wislies a number 3, 
by 4 inclies, feet or miles, and either the 
same or another 6 by 7 ditto; or still, per- 
haps, and despairingly, it is the statement 
of the simple equation 3.x-4=6x7: to And 
the value of x. 

On receipt of another communication 
from this correspondent, making trans-r 
sparent the opaqueness of the above, his 
request will be promptly attended to. 

New Copy Slips. 
We are in recei|it of a package of copy 
slips recently published by .Messrs. Howe, 
Powei-s, and Keynolds, of Chicago, which 
in some respects is a departure from any 
of the so-called standard systems now in 
use and whicli it is claimed by the 
authors, and not without plausibility, 
greatly simplifies the writing and dimin- 
ishes the labor of its execution. This de- 
parture consists. 

J-'irAC. In siiortoning all the eapiudsaud 
looped letters to two and one-half times the 
height of the contracted letters instead 
of three times the height as has been uni- 
versal among other authoi's ; thus con- 
tracted the writing is executed not only 
with greater rapidity but with much less 
strain upon the muscles of the fingei-s and 

Sewnd. — All flourished or superfluous 
lines are omitted, and the simplest and 
most legible forms for all the letters have 
been adopted. While this plan will un- 
doubtedly appeal strongly for favor to the 
stern and practical demands of business 
for which it is specially intended, it will 
be shorn of much of its grace and beauty 
in the eye of the professional penman, 
and the lovers of the beautiful in pen- 
manship, but this is a practical age, and 
the scrawny nag that wins the race at 
S.lOi takes on an air of beauty with all 
who make speed the criterion. There are 
in all 66 copy slips which are put up in 
stylish and convenient packages and 
mailed to any address for $1.00. 

The King Club 
for this month comes from C. W.Boucher, 
teacher of writing at the Northern Indi- 
ana Normal College, and nnmbers,/?/)!y, 
which makes, with three other clubs sent 
by Mr. Boucher within about a year, an 
aggregate of four hund/red and seventy-five 
subscribers ; this is by far the largest 
number ever secured in so short a period 
of time by any other person, and speaks 
well, not only for tlie energy, but skill as 
teacher and manager, on the part of Mr. 
Boucher. For the first requisite in secur- 
ing numerous subscriptions by a teacher, 
is that he have the respect and confidence 
of his pupils, which is won and retained 
only by good instruction and fair deal. 
An unpopul,!!' teacher gains no hold upon 
the confJlatta^or esteem of his- pupils; for 
him to advise or solicit their subsciption 
to a paper is most likely to prevent their 
doing so from aversion to him, or a suspi- 
cion of some mercenary motive on his- 

The second largest club comes from G. 
Bixler, Delaware, Ohio, and numbers 
eleven. Although this is not the season, 
owing to the vacations of schools, for 

iiiiiiirr.iii- in laipi' rluii-, >-ct We have been 
li;i|i|iil> -III |.ii-' il ill ii-iriv trig by far, more 
iiru >iil,M riliri- Hull during any corres- 
pdudiug r'criud since tlie publication of 

the Journal, for which our friends will 
please accept our thanks. 

The Business Educators' Convention. 
We are in receipt of a postal card from 
Robert C. Spencer, President of the 
Business Educators' Association, announc- 
ing that the convention which was to have 
been held at Cincinnati on the 6th inst., 
has been postponed to June, 1882. In the 
announcement of tlie convention in our 
July issue, the figure 6 in the date ac- 
cidently dropped out of the forms in going 
to the press room, and was not observed 
by us until the entire edition was printed. 
Tlie accident was one of more than usual 
annoyance to us. 

Portsmouth, N". H., the Premium City 

in Writing at the Centennial and the 

late Paris Exposition. 

We have frequently urged the advant- 
age and economy of employing special 
teachers of writing in the schools of our 
cities and large villages, as well as 
throughout the country. In many of our 
large cities this is done, and in all in- 
stances, so far as we are informed, has 
proved highly satisfactory. For some 
years past Mr. J. S. Montgomery has been 
employed as a special teacher of writing 
in tlie public schools of Portsmouth, N. 
II. In a recent communication upon the 
subject the Mayor, Hon. Wm. H. Sise, 
says of his work and the system used : 

" Mr. Montgomery has been teacher of 
penmanship in our schools for quite a 
number of years past, and during tliis 
time has created a decided revolution in 
this branch which is plainly seen by con- 
trasting the scholars' present work with 
that of the past. Our penmanship and 

book-keeping was laiik'il tli-' I'l-t .-n i-\:- 

hibition at the late 1 > nr ] ,\ imJ ir thf 

Paris Exposition, I- -11. .1 > jm.i 

the Silver Medal, i 1.. -. .. : -\ ni.i 

which lias been used iiinn- ' t tiii- 

result is, in my estiniali.m, ilie \n<t sys- 
tem now in use." 

Colleges and Schools 
wishing college currency, diplomas, cir- 
cular letters in elegant script, letter or 
bill-beads, blank certificates, receipts, 
orders, notes, portraits, etc., etc., are re- 
quested to address us for samples and es- 
timates. We believe our facilities fur a 
prompt and economical execution of 
orders in this line are unequalled in the 
country. Also parties having engraving 
or pen and ink copy which tiiey desire to 
have re-produced either by photo-litho- 
graphy or photo-engraving upon relief 
plates will do well to address us before 
giving orders elsewhere. 

C. H. Peirce, who favors our readers 
with airanicle upon figures in this issue, 
sends for our inspection specimen figures 
made by twenty-three pupils of liis present 
class, which are highly creditable both to 
teacher and pupils. One specimen writ- 
ten with the left hand by a pupil, whose 
right hand was amputated a year since, 
is quite remarkable, and really compares 
quite favorably witli the specimens writ- 
tenby others with tlie right liand. 

The following appeared in our July 

Prof. E. G, K<ils„m, President of the 
Albany (N. Y.) Hn.-.iiie^s College is in- 
structing, as is his custtiiii during his sum- 
mer vacation, at Penn Van, N. Y. 

In ^place of "instructing," our copy 
re^id "rusticating." 0, if printers would 
only learn to read ! 

Any person qualified to take charge of 
a business college, or desirous of purclias- 
Ing a *"'ell located and paying college, can 
learn of such opportunities by addressing 
this office. 

The " Complete Accountant" is a pop- 
ular text-book on book-keeping, exten- 
sively used in business colleges and 
schools. It is published by Howe &. Pow- 
ers of the Metropolitan Busine.'fs College 
of Chiwigo, 111. See their advertisement 
in another column. 

J.N. P., Montpelier, Ind., requests u 
to publish a list of all the " Diaplomatic 
Penmen in the U. S." We are in doubt 
as to wliat our correspnndent means by 
the term " I)i;i]'luiji;iiic i'eiinieir* but pre- 
sume that it is tliusc wIk. have Diaploiiias. 
Itisquiteinipi'ssihleforus to comply with 
his request from want of the necessary in- 

S. A.H., Vallejo, Cal. Besokindasto 
inform me at what time in tlie month the 
Journal is published that I may know 
when to expect mine ? 

It has been our endeavor to issue the 
Journal during the first week of eacli 
month, but in Nov. lastour printing ofllce 
was destroyed by fire which delayed the 
issue until past the middle of the month, 
since wliich time tlie Journal has been 
mailed about the 15tli. We sliall endeav- 
or to mail it earlier in the future. 

R. M. N., Calumet, Mich. The law 
regulating license to sell pictures is a lo- 
cal matter, respecting which, in your 
state, we are not informed. Your town 
clerk or any attorney will give you the 
information you desire. 

J. A. W., Atlanta, Ga. Do you 
advise the use of an oblique pen hol- 
der, and if so why, and where can they be 

* of nilvniitnge depends upon tho manner 
ri whli'h nnc U {ncHm-d to hold their pim. 
I;m\ jDiil ji.iliai.-- iim-t |nis(iiis expiTl- 
iir.' ;i ;:n;it .iim.iillv in fcnlii^' tllO hliud 
vfi- to till' left siitn.iriitly In brlnn the 
lihs i»f the pen to i^qiiHifly fiiiri.- the piiper. 
A' here this U tlic utisc un ohlhpic hohlor 
- a vtM-y great aid and tht- writing cxe- 
lUi'il hy its use will he rendered much 
lion- Kuiooth and fice ilien withastrulglit 
lolder. Tho holder may he procured 
lom thi* offlee for 30 cent'*. 

peu-urtist in the office of the Journal, U 

rutttlentiri}; during his vacation at Lake 

WiniiiiH -.- , N 11. 

Fiiiiiin- -. iii.ti. M. the aiTOinplisiied 
tea< Ik I n,.l |M h MtKi of tlie Hryant A: 
at Newark. N. 

: his 

Silvan I'Unuly. of West Liberty 
writer an elegant hand. 

(J. W. Slui^er is haviu): line 
(caehlng writing in West V'a. 

O. ('. Vernon is having good snceess 
tcaeliiiig writing elas^cs at ^)lgouier, Ind. 

('. W. Itohbins ia teaching writing at 
(lie (Jem nty Business College. Qnlney. 

1j. Madarasz, the famed eanl writer and 
penman Is now teaching and also writing 
i-ardsat tlio Sierlliig (HI.) Business Col- 

E. ('. A. Becker, formerly |»n>iirlet4>r of 
the KockfonI (III.) HushioAs College has 
sold Ills school, bni expects to resume 
leaching again in the fall. 

Albert J. Ostrauder of Morniontown. 
Iowa, for a lad thirteen years of age, 
wriU's a gow\ letter both as regartis com- 
IHtsitlonand style of writing. 

C. N. Crandle. artii<t penman and trach- 
er of writing at Vali>aniiM>. Ind.. send^ a 
club of ^ub-icribers to the JoruNAl.. !dr. 
CmmMe 1^ highly i-ommeiided as a skillful 
writer and teacher. 

Mr. Charles Kolllusou, who for some 
time past has been a popular and skillful 

.) \\ i; L , ! ,!i, I :. iihing writing clas- 
ses at -. ,wii. \ , , :md vicinity. He 
writes a vny (jood and correct Iiand. A 
llourislied bird wlilcli lie Inclosed was very 
credltitble considering his limited practice 
at Ilonrisliiiifr. 


1). W 
tlnit Miiir 
otliei-s pii 

" I could not (111 w iiiiMiii III. ,ii 
tlio specimens of rii;:i<..-iii- w hi, 
arc alone wortli iiiaii\ lii.i.'v it, 

J. W. Weaco, wlio Ims for m 
|HUit been tcacliiiig writing in 
(;ity Business CoILl'- -.h ttmw 

about to go to I'ol I I.Hil I If j.n 

ritin,!lnaB„-in. • , 

Mr. We 

t'liued teacher and is open fur un engagu- 


A. 11. Papp. iK-ninan in Iln.Urs Sun 


.11 \\ ' : 1. ii to teach 

1» ■■ i^- _.. ,i„„lyearat 

tin- 1 . ^^ . li'i ■ I ..iu j;f. and also 
in 111' M . I , -College which is 

coll. ill iii-picesof the flrst- 

luiiir 1 Mr. Whlteluather is 

an ;k. M.I h-ii. I A nrrandwill.wctrnst, 
win liouor ill hi^ new and responsible po- 

Messrs. T. W. Jamison and W. H. Dev- 
on, teachers at Saddler's Bryant & Strat- 
ton Business College, of Baltimore, Md.. 
rei-eutly vislttul our sanctum under iiuito 
favorableanspiees. having been introduced 
by tliat plumed knight of the (|uill, H. A. 
Silencer, a.4 pilgrims homeward bound 
from that shrine of spiritual inspiration, 
Martha's Vineyard. 

W. J. Coskey. who conducts a Book- 
keeping. Penmanship, and Phouograpliic 
Academy at 1510 Chestnut strt'el. Phila- 
delphia, and who, by the way, 1^ an ac- 
complished writer, renews his subscrip- 
tion and says : " The Jovrsal has 


;(h-r uf u 

- teach.i, .1 
r in liis I 
« wliicli he i 

I.I sMii iiini.Mihtedly 
w [xisilioii. The 
closed are of n high 

M. M. Beaver, Bingham Canon, Utah. 
sends a creditable specimen of writingaiid 

A. U. Bailey, Sheflleld, Pa., sends a line 
specimen of the figures which he employs 
In keeping his books; they arc O. K. 

J. C. Brown, teacher of writing at the 
Central Normal College, Danville, Ind., 
sends a specimen of flourishing In form 
of a bird and quill, which is creditable. 

C. H. Peiree, of I^eirce's Normal Pen- 
manship Institute, Keokuk, Iowa, in- 
closes in an elegantly written letter, an 
off-band Italian alphabet, also standard 
capitals, w^hich are rarely excelled. 

J. M. Pearson, of Bryan, Texas, In- 
closes in a gracefully written h-lter, sev- 
eral specimens of good practical writing. 
He says, •' I find the Jot'RNAi. very vM- 
uablc and instructive, an<l would bt* a 
nubhcriher were the price several times as 
much as it ia." 

L. J. Grace, a pupil with PUtt B. Sp«n- 

All elegant speciiiii'n of practical writ- 
ing: coin.-s from J. C. Miller, teoclier of 
writing at Allen's Business College, 
Miiiistield, I'a. Mr. Miller is not only a 
graceful writ*T. luit is also an accom- 
plished artist in crayon. A recent issue 
of the Elmira (N. V.) Suwlay TtUijram 
pays him tlie following coniiitlment : 


work I have ev.r-- u 1 .n . iiii.iiiy,, at 
our post-office, li i i I'rof. J. 

C.Miller, prln.i|ii: t i Miiiimhlp 

department of .Vlh n I in i[;< < uliege. 
The scene repn--iii- U.i.u-i.u .^ciuare, 
New York City, and i. ... lii.-iikr ihai one 
can imagine himself tli<-i«' in Wu- hurrying 
throng of pede--^tri:ii|.> trviii;; l<> kee|> out 
of the way of the pas.^ing omiiibusses, 
carriages, drays, etc. It }» said t« be val- 
ued at $150, and is a piece uf work the 
artist can well be proud of." 

Extra Copies of the Journal 
will he sent free to t^^achers and othtT» 
who desire to make un vlTurt to secure » 
club of Bubsuribers. 

.Subscriptions to the Jot;HNAl. may 
date from any time since, and Inclusive 
of January 1878. All tlie hack nuin- 
bi-rs from that date with the four pre- 
miums will he ^••nt for f't.fH). All the 
numbers of 1»»SU and 1k.>41, with either 
two of the premiums will be sent for 
•1.7(1; with all of our premiuma, for tS. 

ill the outset in order to comprehend the 

1. They should be light. 

2. Tliey should be small. 

3. They should be near e»ch other. 

4. They should be slanting. 

5. They should be made by counting 

Tlie I and are made witli o 

The fi, 8 and are made with two 

The 2, :J, 4, 5 and 7 are made with tliree 

Figures generally occnpy one apace. 

The 6 and 8 are one-half space iii, 
tlmn all others. 

The 7 and 9 extend one space below 
base line. 

1. Form (taken singly) ; 2. Arrange- 
ment; 3. i3peed (taken singly); 4. Mixed 

zures; 5. Habit established. 

iterpark. — F^rheffumern leaveoffail shade. 

Note.— Pupils should not be satisfied 
with their work until execution is easy 
and graceful without looking. 

Result.— Business figures at tlie rate of 
sixty per minute. 

Based upon Time, Length, Shade, Out- 
line, Points to be Avoided and Com- 

Time. — One count. 

Length. — One space. 

Shade. — Increasing or decreasing stroke. 

Outline. — Straight line on main slant. 

Time.— One count. 

Length.— One space. 

Outline.— Length two times its width. 

Points to be avoided. — 1, Making too 
round; 3, disconnecting at top; 3, extend- 
ing beyond with last line. 

Time.— One count. 

Length. — One and one-half spaces. 

Shade. — Increasing and decreasing 
stroke on first part. 

Outline.— First part sli^'luly cinAinji. 
make short turn at base lim im niin- ;iii 
oval one-half space in hei;,'lii, ni um-iiiii,! 
the length of figure and t'lniiiii: ;ii l.iwi-r 
point of oval, The width i>l oval, two 
times that of space at left. 

Comparison.— Like last part of capitals 

Time. — Three counts. 

Length.— One space. 

Shade.— On firet line with decreasing 

Outline. — Made witli three curve lines 
(for beginners three straight lines will do 
better). Fii-st part three-fourths nf a 

higher than first and parallel ^^ 
crossing second part so as to Ini m ;i 
square at the same time having th(-<'ri<K 
of second and third parts extend about 
the same distance beyond main part of 
figure and ending on base line. 

Points to be avoided. — 1. Beginning 
too high. 2. Making last part below base 
line. 3. Making third part on end of 
second. 4. Making too narrow. 5. Mak- 
ing first and second parts join with curve 
instead of corner. 6. Joming fii-st and 
second part with loop. 7. Ending second 
part downward. 

Outline Ih. iii-i i.,i -tiiUlcs the 

printe.l s , ihr M>nmi pari a .ii|;ht curve 
crossing at iiiiiliUe and extciiiling one- 
half space beyond the main pai-t. 

Points to be avoided. ^ 1. Starting 
downward in straight line and making 
backwards. 2. Starting downwsird in 
straight line, turning to the left and 
forming an imperfect capital D. 3. Mak- 
ing an ordinary 7 and crossing with a 

Comparison. — Same as capital S re- 

Time. — Three counts. 

Lengt.h.— One spa(5e. 

Shade. — Second part. 

Outline. — Make first straight line, one 
half space in length, retrace one-half its 
length (or form loop) making short turn 
to tlie right, forming an oval aiu' ending 
about two-thirds tlie height of figure. 
Last part & dash (aamo l«uj{tti at tlrac 
line) and Joined at top. 

Outline.— Base two times the length of 
l<>|i Bii:iri uitli dot and retrace, making 
sin. it unii 111. (-inj; into a curve line one- 
iiiii'l till Irii-iii of figure, make small 
luiip III' iiiiiiatinii uf loop and end with 
uviil uliuut Iwo-iliirds the height of figure. 

Points to be avoided. — 1. Making top 
too large. 2. No loop at centre. 3. End- 
ing downward. 4. Making with 


Com pari! 


capital E 

Length. — Two spaces. 

Shade. — On first or second downward 
stroke (never both). 

Outline.— First part one space and rest- 
ing on base line; setiiiul piut two spaces 
in length. The last. |iail ii.t< rrnines the 
slant of figure. Il.-iii crir spine in 
height, funninj- :i iiin,iili..d .,v;il on 33° 
slinit, (■iii\iiii,^ UN Irti -iilr, nearly straight 

I'.-iiii- im"i„. :,vni,|r,|. — 1. Starting 
.lownu;i..i hi.r -mall ... giving wrong 
slantaiiil lia\in- M|„ii ai top. 2. Start- 
ing upu;nil, luMiiiii- houk and giving 
different imiM, I, ., I i, -nlu. 

Time.- Three counts. 

Length.— One space. 

Shade. — On main downward stroke. 

Outline. — Begin with dot, retrace, mak- 

lini'. <-iKling with compound curve at 
iw u-iiiiiils the height of figure. 

T'lijus to be avoided.— 1. Starting with- 
uin ilut. )i. .Milking no loop at base. 3. 
KlidinglK.ii/i.rUally ni iluMr.uan.l. 

Conip;u!-i>n riir la-r -ti..k.> is like 
the Upp'T pai: Ml iIk' r:i|iilaU T and F, 
lower part ot /, atn) 7, l;i-I |.art uf final 
( and upper part of figure 7. 



like on liist part, 
lit. one-lialf space 
-.liort horizontal 

Outline r.- 
in height, n ii;> 
compound LLuvL, iiRij;iiig into a small 
loop at height of one space, dcscendiilg 
ouo space below base line. 

Point to be avoided. — Making with two 
or three straight lines. 

Couiimrlsoii. — Same as figure 2. 

C. Ii. Peirce. 


A few ycaiT* ago while in Texas, H. A. 
Spencer, well known as a business edu- 
cator, was non.inated for Comptroller, the 
third highest office in the State. He re- 
ceived about fifty thousand votes for the 
position, which of course was not enough 
to elect him against an old time bourbon 
candidate of the strictest democratic sect. 
In canvassing the State lie won the esteem 
of even his opponents by his fairness in 
debate which, on some occsislons. In> held 
with ex-goveruors and congiessmon. 

Ths following tiorregpoadeaue oUpped 

Sherman 1 1 x 

H H A Spe e 

Could you come to Sherman on the lOtli 
of July and take part in a joint discussion 
to take place here at that time between 
tlie democrats and anti-bourbons. If so, 
please inform me i in mediately- 1 can 
state tliat your expenses for the trip will 
be defrayed by our local organization. 
J. W. Bridgks, Sec. 

New York, July 1. 

J. W. Bridges, Enq., Sec. : 

I regret that other engagements prevent 
my accepting the invitation of your com- 
mittee to meet the bourbon orators for 
*' joint discussion," July 16, in the city of 

The bourbon parties must be defeated, 
through the ballot box, before freedom 
will iuure to the people from domination 
and spoliation by the gigantic monopolies 
which, under venal legislation, those 
parties have created. 

H. A. Spencbr. 

Mr. Choate'a Hand-writing. 

to themselves. It 
Choate himself coi 
iting when t 

who believed that the only 
pondence was to be read, anil iiiai n \\ a- 
the duty of everybody to maki' hiiii-rit in 
telligible whether by tongue o\ pin 

On one important occasion, ai a .i iii> d 
period in Webster's political litr. Mi 

Choate sent him a letter, to tril iii t ih. 

arrangements made for a puhli' ini:: 

to vindicate his position. Mi \\ rh-i. i 
could not make it out, and -<iii i i^iiv 
half playful and half seveiv, i. iiiii- Mi 
Choate tliat the letter gave him iu> inltu 
mation, and might as well have been 
written in Clioctaw. 

He added: "You ought, ray dear 
Choate, to go to a writing-master for a 
(luarter, and for iny personal benefit I 
will bear the expense of tlie experiment." 
Mr. Webster was in tlic right. No public 
man has a riglit to torture his friends 
and waste their time by unintelligible 


Tbti roUowiiig is a cnrefiilly compiled li»t of 
popular und naeful books, wlik-h will be mailed 
from the offlce of tlie Jouunax on rccui^t of the 

Giic-eij iiiincxed. Any book not on tlie list, piib- 
alicd in Now York, will bu procured at the 
publi9ber'8 price; if published eUewhere, the 
cost of postage will be added to the publisher's 

Towusoad's Analysis of Letter Writing $1 SB 

*■ " of Civil Oovernment.. 1 25 

" Shorter Coui-ee of CivU Gov't... 8fl 

" Cominei'clal Law 3 00 

Catbcart's YoHtb'9 Speaker 7S 

Literary Bender l 35 

The Amcvlcnn llpmUor 1 M 

Umm- r,.aloL-iciil Storv 1 3S 

Hii.-ii.--"-"'':-''"' '' '"/['.'.'.'.'." 1 35 

U..». - ■ ^ I- '-■ ■■|'>r.y 1 00 

K, ,... ■ - ..... 75 

J, r i; \. . , . . 1,1.. II...I-,' UiKik- 

True SiicceSM 

Not Responsible. 
Ihi iMvtinctly understood tliat 
I.I III! Journal are not to be 

111! -inu anything outside of its 

The Penman's Art .In 
lished at 205 Broadway N 
received and as usual i- tnli 

i paper e 

culatlon ninar.iiliriinl. I'^i i > 
one interested in art should he a pcrpL'tnal 
subscriber, as tlie cost is but slight and 
the information valuable beyond (juestion. 
—Keokuk (Iowa) Item. 


T to men (WO train free) for 31"' 
ns. Give expeneniKj. ump'oyr 
np for leplT- tfAWTlia BBUS., 

Natunil Kcsoiirccs o 


Jta., mitlled fur uiily 15c. GK 

Reduced Prifp IJ^f ni Fine Cm 

oniiiiiBci -I ■. - II 

i-omid and i.r..- m ' .. ' 


UNIVERSITY B(in|.: Kl 1 11 \i, 

AFullnnd Complett-' I' 

r paylua Commercial College, 
In the city. For partluulu-a apply V 
CoUage, Cuton, O. 


ThRabovemitwa- i.lir.ln.''Titrrav*-fl from a copy rf«»ti^n«rf fry ^. //. //iHm«R, and drawn in India ink by llinnmn and Ames, ami is jriven In the Joi'ltNAL (us ii 'ipecin 
oi pi-nwork ]ir«rlk-ally Jipili..! f..i liu-iiir-*-* pvirposps through the aid of photo-engraving. 




Arranged for use in Business Colleges, High Schools, 
and Academies, 

tl forniRiiTid methods In t1iet<i.knieoracc 

doing tukt-n from the iictual boohnof biiHtnr»>« lioiioet*. and not ttie result of theoil/Ing it tsemi 

ly practical, and cummouda lt«ulf at once alike to biifilnesft men and teachers of practical ideas 

TuRMRTllouor prc«oiitlnKUie vnrloniiBubJeotMisiiuchaHto render tlio ac<inl><)(ion of a 

knofflnhjt i.f Itiinl. l<<'oi>iiik' '■ii-'y for tin- wtiKlcnt of average ability and Indiiatry The students 

(■(irti-.' i , 111.,;,) l>.,t I . ii 1,1. -ri. r 1,.. -iiljrci holng presented Until the mind has bacn cai ef ill J 

mid II '< ' I :.': ' 1 1 '. I ' I.f ii . <!iiiicuJttcs. 

T 1 1 > . I . I , . , I I . . 1 1 1 , T I < III) the rudiments of the science to the most intrl 

1 the capacity of begii 


r Nuporlor EIVfil.lNH 
iiufBr(iir«;ln'20 Niiui 

»f wrIiliiiE. 
by iiiiill 


r any department of il 

> materliU. and no 

of weight and val ip and only •inch 

lid In any other slmliai treatise 

orkl» Issued In tno edItJons prlii 

hIouh; and tcaoliuni will lliil I i < ' 

The work to bo done by the -■ i ' i ' i > i i i 

In order touocommodiUi -. ii. ..i .i in t i 

The Counting House Edition 

(■oiitiihiH 30(1 piige. of which tM pagt'Jt are ditvoted to Preliminary Kxerclyi-a and lUtail I 
pii^fcA to Wholesale McrehandUtng: IX pngcM to Farm Accounts; 20 pages to Lumber ., 
piigosto Manufaotiirlng; ISpagestoStoamhoatlng; IS pages to Itallrouding; 20 pages b 
M pagCM to Banking: tlio romalning part of the work to mjBcellaneous subjects. 

Itotall price 13.60 Order of Two Dozen, or more $2 10 

inimdiiotlon price S.10 Sample Book, for examination bj express loo 

I'er doion (thuroaftor). per copy S.31 Sample Book, for examination by mail 1 2S 

A complete sot of Blank Books, ruled and Indexed expressly for this work, will be ftirnlshi^d r 
»3 75 per HCt net, retail, $4.50, 

The High School Edition 

luid UeU 

'1-ely what is required tii High Schools. Academle*' i 
t aUempted, bnt whera a clear nnderstandtng of i 

J Wholesale Merchandising. 
M-dlnai-y motliods of Ac- 

Itetail price ..$1.90 ' Per dozen (thereafter), per copy $l.i 

Introduction price 90 Orders of Two Doiccn, or more 

• Sample Book, for examination, bj mall, TA cents. 
Itliiiik BookM, complete for tills edition, (I.TS net, i-eiall, t3..W. 
««- Ordri-H will receive prompt ntttuiUon. 







hoois and t*allc^[u> : 

(• imgvH. Kctntl pricw. 

KVtsKP. Double and Sln^o Kntr}-. fOr Vom- 
erria) m>^»nmii<*of«. Aoiulemte», Romial uid 

IghSi'lHh'l-. ;ui.] Itii-.|li,<^<.t OlIcgOA. IttlpAgCK: 


'in I pntcllcal and com-, 

vu >s I oniatus Mannfftc- 

ilc^'mAiuenv^ Slip 

: WKiKS TbeDecGSMiry blanks twvr 
linrvd to go with wicb of the above 
d will iHrsnppUedat thclowi'st market 


I Mv: Mdluei-uui i-eclpoa lor black, bluegreen. 

1 red. violet, pnrplu. ycttow, brown, gold, sil- 
ver, wbilu. Invisible uuu mdollable inks, mailed 
for 2ftc In stamps. WKI-LS SWIFT, Marionvllle. 
<>nondngaoonnty,>*. V. K.|3t 

principal cf a 

I SlTr ATION. By a teitcher of 

. N T UN K rciinlriug the services of a Urst-class 

uxperlencod t 

cs:sfui In both p 

y addrosts, Xortital GraditaU., i 

ine(.>cs:sf ul In both public school and cotluge m 

gU ing it the highest praise W e append a few 

) hand in fine < 

ing Tablet came to hand 

sidor it Just the thing for 
Thepr*— ' ■ - 

a thorough test and cc 
very nibderatc compared with I 

M. W. KtnB»~Dear Sir: Your Magic Letter- 
ing Tablet leof—' ' " ' - ' '■• ■■ 

^Vould not do - 

I well pleased with it. 

ng Tablet received. It Is very c 
;t« work well. 

innl tering Tablet and am highly pinnsed v 

claim for ii 

The a 

photo-engi-aving made direct from my pen and ink copy. niiMin»ts Cardn, 
Letter llendlngs, Ac, designed and executed for this process in a superior manner. 

The Tablet will be sent post paid on receipt of seventeen .t-ccnt stamps. Special oiler. Every 
perwon who ordei-s the tablet during July, Avigust and Septemtiei-, will rei-clve with it two large 
"engrossing containing a great variety of handsome lettering, flourishing, pen drawings of 

birds, dowers, faces, 4e., well i 

H each tut ooplo 

o West, THOS. J 



imdonbledly the best 
: United States. J. K. 

United Stales whose line pennuinship goea 
I everywhere, will send Vi magnlltcently written 
cards with your name for 30 cenu. L. JU AUa- 
1 BA8Z.Sterl&)g. ill. 

NT BLACK INK, such as used by 

1 directions, 23c. 


Publishing UouM>. 

binder. Scot post paid uii rvfeiut of (1.75. 

t ate Bnmdway. New York. 


r during the last 16 months. 

•r i-1H:1:l:M.i:4a . 


' ^o/>t/i,(fisrffi-Pf^s//\/ use ' 

'N>ttv>«s c>>vti \v>\ >». ^ . — '»vt.-»,\vvON^s,% ^lo wysN^^tKiin^W 


■3 only by the 
Nvw York Silicate Dook Slate Company 

I'Jl Fultoii Streirt, New York. 
Send tor aamplu and oiruular. »-12t 

Speuoei'iaii i .n i n 1.'. 1 1 r 

Engi-b»slnff Pens for !. 11 _■ |.i 1 .|.■' 
Crow-QllilI Pen, very Hiil-, loi ilruwiiig, do 

WJlliaiiia A Pucltaid'a ticiua 


McLees' Alphabets 

Coiigdou's Normal System of Flourisblng. 

" " Lettei-lng... 

Both Flourlehlns and Letteilng 

Tbeae are good works for the mouey. 
Key to Spencerian Peiunansbip 
Fayaon, Uunton A Scrtbner' 

Spencerian Comuoiidlum..... 

Sposffe Rubber, 2x2 in., very superior 

Roll Blackboards, by express, 

No.lslze.a sS feet 

No. 2 •• iiiXiii " 

No.S " 3 xt '* 

Stone Cloth, one yard wide, any length, pei 

yard, slated on one side 

46 inches wide, per vurd, alated boUi 
Lt<iuld Slating, the uest 1- --- •-- — 

itg- No goods sent by uuill until casli has bd 

rtHiflved, AM orders for ' ' ' 

niuai bo accompanied by 

i-^tiuuited cost. No orders, foi- merobanditte ■ 
work, uuCtn postal oainls will receive att«nttou. 

ao5 BnoAnwAY, New Yobk 

(t '^lll'^llK IS a dnsb about Madarasz's card 

I wHthui which la r«.«v rui.«*." il. W 

FLlCKlNG£I^ Phlla. S-ll 

^W^. H. SADLER, Publisher, 

Nos. 6 and 8 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, Md.' 


Entrred at iJir Post Office of A>w York, y. T., as second-class mattrrr 

Editor and Pniprieto 
', Amooi? < Editor. 


Vol. v.— No. 9. 



'niifrht in c)(iu. privntely (»r by mnil. 
IKL, Valpnmiao, Id<1. 

trol of the hand and will than is the sharper 
and less flexible points of tlie steel pen. A 
steel peu of medium fineness and flexibility 
is the best for leaniers. 

We coiiimend to the careful consideration 
of our class an article, following this lesson, 
under the title of " Bad Writing : Its Cause 
and Correction." For a movement exercise 
we present the foll<nving, which should be 
carefully practiced with the muscular 
ment : 


Fort Waytiv, Imliana. 
ii tliorotiftli ond pmoilcul. 

ADDIS ALBRO. Priiici|<iil. 

C. N. CBANULB, Vulpuraiso, liiit., 
Ic« ntl kind) uf fim work lo order, a 


A member tif our class a-sks : " How long I 
shall I pmctice at onetime!" That depends I 
entirely upon your patience or stick -to-active- | 
iicss. So long as you can take the utmost ' 
paius for improveuient you may practice i 
one hour or more ; when you canuot do so, 
you have practiced long enough ( if it has | 
been no longer than five minutes), and every j 
moment you cimtiime lu practice with caro- | 
less indiflcreuce is to go backward rather 
tlian forward. j 

Another uiombcr asks if we object to liis 
using a gold penT We answer, yos. A 
gold pen sliould never be used while learn- i 
ing to write. The very quiUily which reu- 
dora it desinible for business purposes makes J 
it xuidesirable for can-ful practice, m,, its 1 
PUkootlmess, which causes it to glide so easily I 
over the paper as to be less under the cou- 

In making the I we have n 
its being finished at the ha.'so line with a dot 
instead of an oval ; that method is advocated 
■^•yTiianyas fiimishing the most certain dis- 
tinction betwi-eu that and the J. One thing 
should ever be borne in mind, tlmt the I 
should always finish above the base line, 
while the J should extend below. 

Bad Writing: 

Its Cause. Eki-kct and Correction. 

To those having to do with an extensive 
correspondence or the deciphering of vari- 
ous handwriting, the testimony of the poet 
to the fact of human frailty is quite super- 

There are few persons who can read writ- 
ing at all who have not at times exhausted 
thoir ingenuity and patience in the vain en- 
deavor to decipher the hieroglyphics of some 
chirogi-aphic puzzle. And if such be the 
fact within the experience of a limited cor- 
respondence and observation, the result may 
readily be imagined where the diflferent 
handwritings daily read or examined aggre- 
gate hundreds and even thousands, as they 
do in many of our great business centres : 
such, for instance, as the General Office of 
the Western Union Telegraph Co., Rail- 
road and Express Co's, the great Newspaper 
Offices, Mercantile Houses, and Departments 
of Goverument. 

With the view of placing before the read- 
ers of this journal some reliable facts and 
statistics upon this point, we have lately 
visited several of the most important and 
extensive of these establishments, and gath- 
ered such practical and valuable information \ 
as we were able bearing upon (mr subject, i 
which, added to fects and examples within ! 
our own somewhat extensive experience and I 
obsor\'atiou during upward of tliirty years 
as teacher, author and publisher of penman- i 
ship, we here present, with the aid uf such ' 
practical illustrations as we have been able | 
to prepare, thus setting forth many of the 1 
most frequent and fruitful sources of bad 
writing and its results, followed by several 
suggestions as to the manner in which they I 
may be avoided and corrected. | 

One most observable fact is, that illegible 
and essentially bad writing is far from being 
confined to ignorant and unskillful writers, 
as we have frequently met with skillfully 
executed and highly artistic writing wlii(!h 
was, in the words of Sheridan, " curst hard 

To note and classify all the faults and 
mistakes liable to occur in handwriting, or 
to prescribe a cure-all remedy, is quite too 
much for us to undertake — they are as nu- 
is and varied as are the circumstances, 
habits, tastes and accomplishments of the 
writers ; but it is quite safe to say that a 
very large proportion of all the " onpleas- 
antnoss" in writing comes from sheer care- 
lessness on the part of the writers, which is 
manifest in the awkward, nondescript or 
uncertain forms which are employed — forms, 
often most easy and graceful, but which, 
taken separately, represent no intelligible 
character, and, apart from the contest, are 
liable to be mistaken for any one of several 
letters that are similar in their construction. 
ilThis fault is specially grievous where it 
occurs as an initial letter, in short names, 
abbreviations and cipher-writing, as in such 
cases a context famishes the reader little or 

Another prolific source of annoyance and 
not infrequently illegibility, arises from the 
inexcusable use of flourishes and superfluous 
lines; we say inexcusable because, at best, 
they mix and confuse the writing, and, | 
when hurriedly and carelessly made, they 
frequently take forms which are liable to J 
be mistaken, by the reader, for letters or j 
parts of letters, and thereby puzzle and an- | 
noy, if not entirely change the intent of the i 
writer. Another frequent fault is the per- ' 
sonal eccentricity which leads writers to | 
adopt, Hs their style, forms for letters, and 
especially capitals and in autographs, which ' 
are entirely outside the pale of any known 
system of writing, and whose identity c^n 
only be guessed at by those unfamiliar with 
their style. 

While, as we have stated, it is quite im- 
possible to name all the sources of bad writ- 
ing, or to formulate rules for its prevention 
or correction, we do believe that there are 
many of the most common faults— among 
which are those enumerated above — that 
with a little thought and care may be 

Probably no organisation in the world, 
during some years past, has liad a more ex- 
tensive experience with handwriting than, 
the Western Uniim Telegraph Company, or 
one that lias experienced more forcibly the 
need of good writing, employing as it does 
neariy 20,00(1 operators, who transmitted in 
1880 nearly 30,000,000 messages, each of 
which required to be twice written and read, 
making nearly 60,000,000 diflerent pieces 
of manuscript, for a correct disposition of 
which the Company was responsible. We 
lately visited, at the Central Office, the 
gencnil operating department, which is a 
spacious and commodious hall occupying ao 
entire floor of the Company's magnificent 
building at the comer of Broadway and Dey 
Street. In this department are constantly 

employed about 5U0 operators, who receive 
and transmit daily about 75,000 messages ; 
each message having to be twice written 
gives upward of 150,000 difierent manu- 
scripts requiring to be read daily in this 
single department. It is not to be supposed 
that all this is done without many annoying 
mistakes, resulting often in controversy, and, 
sometimes in costly litigations, to say noth- 
ing of the loss of time and petty annoyance 
in the deciphering of doubtful or unintelli- 
gible writing. Such being the fact, it is to 
be supposed that, as a matter of necessity, 
every practicable means would be used to 
reduce this annoyance and loss to the lowest 
minimum possible by seeking the sources 
of, and prescribing a remedy for, bad wri- 
ting. We made the object of our visit 
j known to one of the managers of this 
I department and solicited the benefit of his 
I experience respecting the sources of bad 
j writing, and the most effective means he 
I had discovered for its prevention among bis 
I five hundred operators. He replied that 
I first of all every candidate for a position as 
I an operator must write a good legible hand 
before securing an appointment in the de- 
I partment; and that he was then provided 
with certain rules which he was requested 
, to observe in all his writing. These rules 
were a summary of the manager's ob- 
servation and experience during twenty-five 
years of occupation as a practical telegraph 
I <iperator and manager. They may, there- 
fore, bo said to bo the ])ractical outgrowth 
of the necessity, and au embodiment 
of the unparalleled experience, of a great 
corporation, all of whose vast operations 
are singularly dependent upon thea ccuracy 
and celerity of handwriting. 

They have been gradually formulated 
during many years past as observation has 
warranted, in the following manner. The 
manager provided himself with a strong 
durable pass-hook, in which he entered, 
under its appropriate head, every note- 
worthy error, or "complaint-ease" as he 
termed it, from careless or bad writing, 
that came under his observation, adding a 
fac-simile copy of the peculiar letter, word, 
or combination which had been the occasion 
of the complaint. 

When a sufficient number of any class of 
faults had been entered to indicate clearly 
that they were common among writers, a 
rule for their correction was formulated, and 
rei|uired to be ctqiied by the operators. In 
this manner a series of practical rules have 
been originated which have tended greatly 
to diminish the number of "complaint- 
cases" in that department. 

By the kind permission of Mr. Downer, 
the manager, we were permitted to copy 
from his pass-book these rules, and to copy 
such of the fac-simile examples as were 
desirable to present in these columns. 

It will be observed by the readers of this 
Journal that many, if not the greater part, 
of these rules grow out of, and are designed 
to correct, faults which have been repeatedly 
subjects of editorial criticism in these columns 
and now the fact that they appear as the 
result of a most extensive and practical ex- 

--^^ [ fiuJi^j^-iSh:^ !^, :^ 'j 

perience gives to them an importance which | A dispatch signer! t- 
ihi'oM command the careful consideration of down and sent to Ha-Hi 

every writer — and teacher, especially — in 
the land. 

To the exaraplea found in the pass-biwk 
Wf! have in several instances added such as 
have come under our ohser^Tition, and also 
a few others suggested by our own ex- 
perience. In presenting the examples we 
first give them aa they were written in the 
*' complaiut cases," following with their 

RuU First— AH unnecessary, superflu- 
ous or Boorished lines must he omitted, as: 

c/uiyj^ for .JiaM/ 
cAey ' y^ 

E, wli. 

Iiich il 
sequently re- 
as discovered 

Sute JTirce.— Capital letters should not 
lie joined to the smaller letters. 


known at the ftreet a 

was directed, and it 

turned ; and when thi 

and traced to the operator who made it, h 

was asked how he came tn make such 

mistake, and whom he supposed Ha- 

be? The operator replied "Some 

chief, or Chinese"; a very natural 

sition in such a city of all peoples as is New 


liult iSetJtfn.— The capital /should always 
be made above the line, while the J should 
extend below. Otherwise, when used as 
initials or in cipher- writing they cannot he 
distinguished with certainty. 

Rule Kujht.— The small s should never 
be made with the loop below the line, as it 
is liable to be mistakeu for a p or /, as : 


far^^ .^ %^/. 

nxOe iVtn€.— The letter Q should not be 
made the same as the figure 2. This is 
liable to become troublesome in cipher or 
code writing. Where letters and figures are 
used arbitrarily and separate, the proper 
distinction maybe made by commencing the 
with a dot or very small oval, or as 



nication i 

Tlie latter exampl 
\ ah initial letter in a commu- 
itly received at this office. In 
addressing the author we could only do as 
we are often obliged to do with doubtful 
initials — make a /ac-stmtte and leave it to 
the postmaster to decipher at the office of 
delivery. We add four specimen autographs, 

ting to crack : 


I fonns of lettters a writer must fail of be- 
coming expert and skillful. He has toa 
much to learn to Xcartx it well, and, like 
I "jack of many trades," must fail. 
I The ease and rapidity with which writing 
can be executed depends largely upon the 
' simplicity of the forms of letters used auA 
the size of the writing. A medium or small 
hand is written with much more ease am* 
rapidity than a large hand, from tlie fact 
' that the pen can be carried over short spaces 
» time and with greater ease than over 
ones, aud can execute simple form? 
easily and rapidly than complicate** 
To illustrate : Suppose «me writer 
bitually make the capital R thus r 
which requires eleven motions 
' of the hand to execute, and that 
anotlier were to uniformly make it 

requiring only four motions of 
the hand. It is apparent that the 
diflerence of time required to make 
each avnnot be less than the proptirtion of 
eleven to four-'^That is not all. The com- 
plicated form, consists of many Hues, all ot 
which are made with reference to balancing 
or harmonising with some other Hue, and 
requires to be made with much greater care 
and skill than the more simple form, s^ 
that the disadvantage is even greater thatt 
indicated by the simple proportion between 
eleven and four. 

We here give the entire alphabet of cap- 
itals such as we would recommend for all 
business purposes, as combining simplicity 
of form and ease of construction : 

fa^ //C 

Bufe Four.— The capital T should t 
he looped at the top, as : 


Several expensive litigations have grown 
out of the delivery of messages having the 
latter combination, as Seventy when it was 
written for Twenty, or vxct vtr&a, by the 
sender of the dispatch. We are not in- 
formed respecting the precise circumstances 
of any of the cases, hut, suppose the error 
to have been in orders to buy twenty thou- 
sand bushels of grain, shares of stock, or 
other thing of similar value, the consequen- 
ces might have been serious. 

Bwte Five.— A capital H should never be 
so made as to be mistakeu for an A or other 
combination, as : 


Mutt Six. — Cross all I's with a single 
horizoQtal line at the top : 

^^^^ .J2/4^r. 


"Rule £(eue».— Letters should be connect- 
ed in their parts, and with other letters, 
by the proper and characteristic curved or 
straight lines. It is a very common and 
grievous fault in writing that a straight line 
or the wrong curve is employed in the con- 
struction and connection of letters, thus 
leaving them without distinctive character, 
or imparting one which is false and mislead- 
ing, as, for instance, a form made thus 
ypp^ but may he taken for an /'T'^ a 
^^^^ aud possibly for a _^,^^. Incases 
where the context does not determine, its 
identity becomes a mere matter of guess, and 
when extended tlius, ^4-^44^ ^^ signifi- 
cance, as will be seen, is still more vague and 
uncertain, as it might be intended for either 
of the following seven combinations : 

Witli a properly trained hand no more time 
or etlbrt is required to impart the true and 
unmistakable characteristics to each letter 
thau to make forms wliose identity is open 
to doubt and conjecture. 

Ru.U I'wcd-e.— All eccentric forms and 
conspicuous personal oddities which so often 
render i\Titing, and especially autographs, 
illegible, should be avoided, as : 

Such outlandish and meauingh 
are simply a nuisance and are discreditable 
to their authors, who, however, often seem 
to be under a delusion that their idiocy is a 
mark of genius. 

Rule rZiiXcen.— Adopt as a standard one 
plain, simple form for each letter of the al- 
phabet small and capitals, and persistently 
make that form and no other. 

It is an obvious fact that most — and espe- 
cially young — writers vacillate between from 
two to six different forms of the capitals, and 
as many as are possible in the small letters, 
apparently in the belief that variety is the 
chief element of good writing, which is a 
double mistake, as it detracts from the good 
of the writing, at the same time 
ances the difficulty of learning 
and of executing it. 

For example, we have known writers 
who, in executing a short piece of writing, 
would, for many of the letters, make use of 
forms as varied and numerous as follows : 


It is a somewhat prevalent idea that gooi 
writing is a " special gift"; this idea is not. 
only fallacious, hut is exceedingly pernicious, 
inasmuch as it tends to discourage had 
writers hy leading them to believe that not 
having "the gift" they are debarred from 
becoming good writers. Good writing i» 
a gift than good reading, spelling, 
grammar or any other attainment, and in the- 
way, it is, and can be, acquired, m>., 
by patient and studious effort. Writing is no 
less a subject for study and thought than 
any other branch of education. The cor- 
rect form and construction of writing must 
be learned by study, while practice must 
give the manual dexterity for its easy ami 
graceful execution. The hand can never 
excel the conception of the mind thai 
educates and directs its action. 
C To U foHd'iiuerf.J 
Note. — In the October number we shall 
relate and illustrate the result of our two^ 
days' observation in the Blind Letter De- 
partment of the New York Post Office, 
which we are enabled to do through the cour- 
tesy of Mr. James Gaylc.r, Assistant-Post- 
master, and Mr. Wm. W. Stone, the fame* 
reader of blind letters. If we mistake not the 
article will be one of the most instructive 
and amusing which has ever appeared in the 
Journal. Single copies will be mailed for 
ten cents; wint will be sent free. 

Pen-Portraits of President 

and use more or less variety in oil 
of the letters, thus requiring study 
and practice upon ahorti one hund- 
red iiSereat and unnecessarily complicated 
forme for'tbe alphabet, in place of twenty- 
sis. Thus the labor and uncertainty of be- 
coming a skillful \wter is magnified fourfold. 
Between many systems and multitudinous 

ivill 1 

For 15 ( 

elegant pen-portrait of PrcsidcnuGarfield, 
surrounded by an highly artistic dispUy tf 
lettering, with rustic and floral work. It is 
a beautiful and attractive picture for framing. 
Size 13x15 or 8x10. A copy of each size 
will be sent for 25 cents. Postage stamps 

whidi i 
r'f hum 

Penmanship and Culture. 
Bv Paul PASTson. 
In the«€ days of universal iDtclligenoe it 
has come to be the rule, that a man most 
have some special gift or accomplishment in 
order to be what the world calls " cultured." 
I Itnoiv that, ouly about a geueratioQ ago, 
tliis was not so : a man then una called "cul- 
tured," who had a general spattering of the 
fountain of irisdom on his person — entirely 
superncial and often easily dried up by the 
hot sun of genuine criticiain. If he could 
chatter a little Greek, sonorously declaim a 
few verses of the Latin poets, "talk an," 
and ape old-school politeness in the presence 
of the ladies, why, he vol) a paragon of intel- 
lectual grares— ho was a "cultured " man. 

That lime, however, fortunately for the 
rising generation, has passed. With the 
growth of science, art and literature, and the 
spread of education elevating the mental 
standard of the whole rjie«, our tlimsily 
equipped paragon hius been forced to desert 
his elevation of superiority. The level of 
the great social plateau has more than over- 
topped his little hastily built mound, and he 
IS now obliged to toil honestly up the 
heights of knowledge along with his neigh- 
I'ors. The woild's work has now all 
branched into specialties. Jacks -of- all - 
trade are no more, either in the mechanical 
■•r iutellcctuni departmouls of life. If a 
man wishes to make his mark, he must do 
it by repeated Mows in the same spot. lie 
can no longer peck here and there over the 
whole flcH of human achievement; ho must 
sink a single shaft, and that a deep one. 
He must be a man of single endeavor. 

The world's work having divided itself 
into a great many branches, there is now 
room for mucli and varied achievement by 
every kind and degree of human talent. 
0,.e of the great blessings of this universal 
division of labor is the dignity and nobility 
lias conferred on every department 
I labor. There was a |ime when 
Ilie artisan in steel was considered "less 
worthy than the artisan in words. To-day 
It IS not so. The machinist, the invenlor, and 
tlie constructor in metals is just 
aud just as henefieent a iiian as the ai»hrr, 
the inventor and the constructor in words' 
Lvery profession, every art, every trade, is 
now dignified, raised to a common and right- 
ul level Personal effort is the only ,hi„ 
mat will change a man's allitudo to-day. 

Penmanship stands side by side, in beauty 
and dignity, with her sister arts. She is 
younger than they_perl,„ps „.itli undevel- 
oped possibilities slill before her. She of- 
'",' "'",""'' "''""l-le opportunities for 
riillure. The cultured man of to-day is 
Iho specialist — he who uuderslnnds one 
'hiiig, aud that thoroughly. The e»pert 
I'lumau exhihii. a p|,„,e of modern euhiire 
He IS imisler of a heniiliful and valuable 
art. He has abilities which are admirable 

and desirable t to bo won in a day nor 

with an easy eSort-pow.-rs which are' the 
just marvel aud delight of all who behold 
Ihom. His skill enables biin to produce 

forms of beaiity-delightfu siruetive, and 

elevating to himself. He is improved and 
eunobleil. while he serves others with his art. 
penman is uot a mere machine: be 
docs not simply produce— he creates, modi- 
es, mtcrprels. His mind always moves 
with Ins baud, aud his heart is uo less 
achve than his miml. If there -jiro vast 
achievements yet to bo made in literature, 
science, and the classic arts, so there are 
also in Penmauship. Human endeavor can- 
not be devote.1 patiently and exclusively to 
any one line of effort without sooner or later 
producing the desired result. The culture 
of to-day will expand into the culture of to- 
morrow. Every fresh success, every signal 
achievement, will W an upward step for the 
whole Art and all who profess it. Surely, 
then, incentive is not lacking to the penman, 
aiiy more thau to the author or the invenlor. 
There is r<jom at the top for both; there is 
a liner and uiore valuable acquisition of 
cultu re in every aspiring effort. Let faith- 

ful labor and eameat study do their perfect 
work, and the penman shall not fail at last 
to attain the rewards of a permaueot and 
ever-brightening success. 

Elements of Success. 
Ai>i>itic!>s OF James A. Gai»'if.i.o dkiuiii.: 
THE Students of the SPENCEfiiAX C0IJ.KGE, Wasiii.ngto.v. D. C, 
June 29, 180. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : I have con- 
sented to address you tbi8>vcning, chiefly 
for two reasons : one of them personal to 
myself, the other public. The personal rea- 
son is that I have a deep and peculiar sym- 
pathy with young people who are engaged 
in any department of education. Their pur- 
suits are to me not only matters of deep in- 
terest, but of profound mystery. It will not, 
perhaps, Hatter you older people when I say 
that I have far less interest in you than in 
these young people. With us, the great 
questions of life are measurably settled. Our 
days go on, their shadows lengtlieuiug as we 
approach nearer to that evening which will 
soon deepen into the night of life ;-.but be- 
fore these young people are the dawn, the 
suniii?, the coining noon, all the wonders 
and mysteries of life. For ourselves, much 
of all that belongs to the possibilities of life 
is ended, and the very angels look down 
upon us with less curiosily than upon these 
whose lives are just opening. Pardon me, 
then, if I feel more interest in them than in 

I feel a profounder reverence for a boy 

furnish their graduates with a belter edu- 
cation for practical purposes than either 
Princeton, Harvard, or Yale. 

The people are making a grave charge 
agaiust our system of highereducation when 
they complain that it is disconnected from 
the active business of life. It is a charge to 
which our colleges cannot plead guilty aud 
live. They must rectify the fault, or mis- 
erably fail of their great purpose. There is 
scarcely a more pitiable signt than to see 
here and there learned men, so called, who 
have graduated iu our own and the univer- 
eities of Europe with high hononi — men who 
know the whole gamut of classical learuing 
— who have sounded the depths of mathe- 
matical and-epeculative philosophy — and yet 
who could not harness a horse or make 
out a Bill of Sale if the worbl depended upon 
it. [Applause.] 

The fact is that our curriculum of college 
studies was not based on modern ideas, and 
has not grown up to our modern necessities. 
The prevailing system was established at 
a lime when the learning of the world was 
in Latin and Greek ; when, if a man would 
learn arilbmotic, he must first learn Latin ; 
and if he would learn the bisuiry and 
geography of his country, he could acquire 
that knowledge only through the Latiu lan- 
guage. Of course, in those days, it was 
necessary to lay the foundation of learning 
in a knowledge of the learned languages. 
The universities of Europe, from which 
<mr colleges were copied, were founded he- 
fore the mcdcrn languages were born. The 
leading languagea of Europe are scarcely 

The above cut was photo-engraved from an original flonrish by A. A. Clark, 
teacher of writing in the public schools of Cleveland, Ohio. 

than for a man. I never meet a ragged 
boy of the street without feeling that I may 
owe him a salute, I know not what pos- 
sibilities may bo buttoned up under his 
shabby coat. When I meet you in the full 
Hush of mature life, I sec nearly all there is 
of you ; but among these boys are the great 
men of the future — the heroes of the next 
generation, the philosopheis, the statesmen, 
the philautbropisls, the great reformers and 
moulders of the next age. Therelore, I say, 
there is a peculiar charm to me in the ex- 
hibitions of young people engaged in the 
business of education. 

But there was a reason of public policy 
which brought me here to-night, and it was 
to testify to the importance of these Busi- 
nes.s Colleges, and to give two or three rea- 
scnis why they have been established in the 
United States. I wish every college presi- 
dent iu the United Slates could hear the first 
reason I propose to give. Business Colleges, 
my fellow citizens, originated in this country 
as a protest against the insufficiency of our 
system of education— as a protest against the 
failure, the absolute failure, of our American 
schools and colleges to fit young men and 
women for the business of life. Take the 
great classes graduate.1 from the leading col- 
leges of the country duriugthis and Ihe next 
iiioutb, and how many, or, mtber, how few, 
of their members are fitted to go into the 
practical business of life, and transact it like 
sensible men ! These Business CoUeges ' 

six hundred years old. The reasons for a 
course of study then are not good now. 
Tho old necessities havo passed away. We 
now have strong and noble living languages, 
rich in literature, replete with high and 
earnest thought, the language of science, 
religion and liberty, and yet wo bid our 
children feed their spirits ou the life of d.-ad 
ages, instead of the inspiring life and vigor 
of our own times. I do not object to classi- 
cal learuing ; far from it ; but I would not 
have it exclude the living present. There- 
fore I welcome the Business College in tho 
form it has taken in the United States, be- 
cause it meets an acknowledged waul, by 
affording to young people of only common 
soholastio altaiuinents, and even to the 
classes that graduate from Harvard aud Yale, 
an opportunity to learn important and indis- 
pensable lessons before they go out into tho 
business of life. 

The present Chancellor of tho British 
Exchequer, the Eight Honorable Kobert 
Lowe, one of the brightest minds in that 
kingdom, said in a recent address before the 
venerable University at Edinburgh: "I was 
a few months ago iu Paris, and two grad- 
uates of Oxford went with ine to get our 
dinner at a restaurant, and if the white- 
aproned waiter had not been better educated 
than all three of us, we might have starved 
to death. We could not ask for our dinner 
in his language, but fortunately he could 
ask us iu our own language what wo 

wanted." There'wasono test of the' insuf- 
ficiency of modem education. [ Applause.] 
There is auotber reason why I am glad 
that these Business Colleges havo] been 
established in this country, and particularly 
in the City of Washington. If there be any 
city on this coutiuent where such iustitulious 
are needed more than in any other, it is 
here in this cily, for tho benefit of the 
employees of the United States. 

Allow me, young ladies and gentlemen, 
to turn aside for one moment to speak of 
what relates to your business life. If I 
could speak one sentence which could be 
echoed through every department of tho 
Government, addres.<ing myself not to those 
in middle life whose plans for the future are 
fixed, but to those who are beginning life, I 
would say to every young man and woman 
in the civil service of the Government, 
" Hasten by the most rapid stops to get out 
of these departinenis into active, indepen- 
dent business life." [Applause.] Do not 
misunderstand ine. Your work is honorable 
—honorable to yourselves and necessary to 
the Goverumeut. I make no charge on 
that score; but to a young man, who has 
in himself the maguificeiit possibilities of 
life, it is not fitting that be should bo per- 
iiianeully commanded; he should bo a 
commander. [Applause.] You must not 
contiuue to be the emiiliiyed ; you must be 
an emploi/a: You must be promoted from 
the ranks 10 a command. There is some- ■ 
thing, young men, which you can command 
—go and fiud it, and command it. You can 
at least command a horso and dray, can be 
generalissimo of them, aud may carvo out a 
fortune with them. And I did not full on 
that illustration by accident, young gontlo- 
lueu. Do you know tho fact* If you do 
not, let me tell it to you : that more fortunes 
have been won aud fewer failures known 
in the dray business than iu wholesale 
merohandiaiug. [Applause.] 

Do not, I beseech you, be content to enter 
upon any business which docs not require 
and compel constant iutcllectual growth. Do 
not enter into any business which will leave 
you no farlher advanced mentally than it 
found you ; which will require no more abil- 
ity and culture at the end than it did at the 
beginning of twenty-five years. I ask you 
whether your work in the departments is 
not mainly of tliat liind, and whether it must 
not continue to be of that hind. If you take 
advantnge of our magniaccut libraiies here; 
of the law colleges or the medical colleges; 
hatever your plans may be, you ooin- 
pleto and utilize your education by taking a 
course in the Business College ; if you hold 
offioe in the departments for a few years to 
enable you to live while you obtain a legal, 
medical, or business education, you aro do- 
ing a worthy work. It always pleases me 
to see yiMing men obtain such places for 
such a purpose. But while it is commend- 
young man Iu secure such a place 

, Iv 


it, but to get out of it as soon as 
possible, and take a place of active personal 
responsibility iu the great industrial family 
of the nation. 

There is another reason— the last I shall 
give in illustrating the imporlnnce of Busi- 
ness Colleges— and that is, the considera- 
tion which WHS so beautifully and cogenlly 
urged, a fow inoioeuts since, by the young 
lady who delivered the valedictory of her 
Class, that it is almost surplusage to add a 
word to her discussion. The career ojiencd 
iu Business Colleges, especially iu this, for 
young women, is a most important and 
noteworthy feature of these institutions. 

Laugh at it as we may, put it aside as a 
jest if we will, keep it out of Congress or 
political campaigns, slill, the woman ques- 
tion is rising in our horizon larger than the 
size of a man's hand ; and some solution, 
ere long, that question must find. I have 
not yet committed my mind to any formuLi 
that embraces the whole question. I halt 
on the threshold of so great a problem ; but 
there is one point on which I havo reacheil 

a concloBion, and thai U, that this nation 
muBt open np new aveno^a of work and 
oscfolness to the women of the country, so 
that everywhere' they may have something 
to do. Thia i». just now, infinilely more 
valuable to them than the platf< 
ballot-box. Whatever conclusif 
reached on that subject by-and-by, at 
present the moat valuable gift which can be 
best^jwed on women ia something to do, 
which thev can do well and worthilv, and 

little village of Norwich, N. Y. If you 
wish to know his name, go into any hard- 
ware store and ask for the beet hammer in 
the world ; and if the salesman be an intel- 
ligent man, he will bring you a hammer 
1 or the ^ bearing the name of D. Maydole. Young 
shall be ' gentlemen, take that bamoier in your hand, 
drive nails with it, and draw inspiration 

the pride of our country and the mode! of 
nur schools. It is the system you have been I 
learning in this college, and which is so , 
worthily represented by the son of its author, ' 
my friend, Professor Spencer, your able in- 
structor. [Applause.] This is au example j 
of what a man may do by putting his whole ' 
heart into the work he tindertakes. 
Only yesterday, on my way 

imercial classes had risen frequently, but 
n the fartn-laborclass he bad never 

Thirty years ago a hoy was struggling learned a fact which I will give you to show 
through the snows of Chenango Valley, try- how, by attending to things, and putting 

thereby ma 


m selves. 

Therefore I 

say that c 



ghtful s 

tatf-smau will 

look with 



n upon 

such liusiness 

Colleges a 

B are 

opening a 

areer for our 

young won 



that sc 

Hire we have 

special reaf 


} be thankful for the estab- 

lishment of these 



Now young gentlemen, let me, for a 
moment, address you touching your success 
in life ; and I hope the very brevity of my 
remarks will increase the chance of their 
making a lodgment in your minds. Let 
me beg you, in the outset of your career, 
to dismisf> from your minds all idea of suc- 
ceeding by luck. There is no more common 
thought among young people than that 
foolish one that by-and-by something will 
turn up by which they will suddenly achieve 
fame or fortune. No, young gentlemen ; 
things don't turn up in this world unless 
somebody turns thom up. Inertia is one of 
the indispensable laws of matter, and things 
lie flat where they are until by some intel- 
ligent spirit (for noth 
ing but spirit 

ig to hire himself to a blacksmith, 
succeeded, and learned his trade; hut be did 
more. He took it into his head that he 
could make a better hammer than any other 
man had made- He devoted himself to the 
task for more than a quarter of a- century. 
He studied the chemistry of metals, the 
strength of materials, the philosophy of 
fonn. He atudied failures. Each broken 
hammer taught him a lesson. Tliere was 
DO part of the process that he did not 
master. He taxed his wit to iuvent 
machines to perfi-ct and cheapen his pro- 
cci^scs. No improvement in working steel 
or iron escaped his notice. What may not 
twenty-five years of effort accomplish when 
concentrated on a single object f He 


, when his i 

stamped on a steel hammer, it is hi 
liis bond, his integrity embodied ii 
The spirit of the mhn is in each h; 
and the work, like the work 
Mr. Maydole 

the work, you may reacJi 
cess. A few days ago, in the City of Boston, 
there was held an exhibition of photography, 
and to the great surprise of New England 
it turned out that Mr. Ryder, a photographer 
from Cleveland, Ohio, took the prize for 
the best photography in America. But how 
did this thing happen? 1 will tell you. 
This Cleveland photographer happened to 
read in a German paper of a process prac- 
tised by the artists of Bohemia — a process 
of touching up the negative with the Hnest 
instruments, thus removing all chemical 
imperfections from the negative itself. 
Reading this, he sent for one of these 
artists, and at length succeeded in bringing 
the art of Bohemia into the service of his 

The patient German sat down with his 
lenses, and bringing a strong, clear light 
upon these negatives, working with the 
finest instruments, rounding and strengthen- 
ing the outlines, was able at last to print 

The reason is this : in the aristocracies of 
the Old World, wealth and society are built 
up like the strata of rock which compose the 
crust of the earth. If a boy bo bom in the 
lowest stratum of life, it is almost impossible 
for him to rise through this hard crust into 
the higher ranks ; but in this country it is 
not so. The strata of our society resemble 
rather the ocean, where every drop, even 
the l()wcsl, is free to mingle with all others, 
and many shine at last ou the crest of the 
Iiighcst wave. This is the glory of our 
conntry, young gentlemen, and you need 
not fear that there are any obstacles which 
will prove too great for any brave heart. 
You will recollect what Burns, wlio knew 
all uiennings of poverty and struggle, has 
said in hiiTnely verse : 

"Thoiiiih Inuoa and oroura 

I riffbl 8 

; this 



The above cut 

they are endowed «itli 

activity and life D' 

not dream that 8 ime 

good luck is going to 

happen to you and 

give you fortune I iick 

is an ignis fattiiit — 

you may follow it to 

ruin, but not to oni 

cesB. The gnnt N i 

poleon, who heln \r i 

in his destiny foil w 

ed it until ho snw In 

star go down in bla. 1( 

est night, when the 

Old Guard perished ii 

round him, and \\ nttr 

loo was lost. A pound 

of pluck is wortli a ton 

of luck. 

Young men talk of 

trusting to the spur of - ^ 

tho occasion. That ^trust is vain. Occa- 
sions cannot make spurs, young gentlemen. 
If you expect to wear spurs, you must win 

them. If you wish to use them, you must 

buckle them to your own heels before you 
go into the fitrlit. Any success you may 
achii'vp is not « ortli the having unless you 
light for it. Whatever you win in life yon 
must conquer by your own efforts, and then 
it is yours — a part of yourself. [ Applause.] 
Again : in order to have any success in 
life, or any worthy success, you must resolve 
to carry into your work a fullness of know- 
ledge — not merely a sufficiency, but more 
than a sufficiency. In this respect, follow 
the rule of the machinists. If they want a 
machine to do the work of six horses, they 
give it nine-horse power, so that they may 
have a reserve of three. To carry on the 
business of life you must have surplus power. 
Bo fit for more than the thing you are now 
doing. Let every one know that you have a 
reserve in yourself: that you have more 
power than you are now using. If you are 
not too large for the place you occupy, you 
are too small for it. How full our country 
is of bright examples, not only of those who 
occupy some proud eminence in public life, 
hut in every place you may find men going 
on with steady nerve, attracting the atten- 
tion of their fellow-citizens, and carving out 
or themselves names and for 
small and bnmble beginnings ; 
face of formidable obstacles. L 
an example of a man I receuUy 

One thought more and I will close. This 
is almost a sermon, but I cannot help it, for 
the occasion itself has given rise to the 
thoughts I am offering you. Let me sug- 
gest, that in giving yon being, God locked 
up in your nature certain forces and capa- 
bilities. What will you do with them I 
Look at the mechanism of a clock. Take 
off the pendulum and ratchet and the wheels 
go rattling down, and all its force is ex- 
pended in a moment; 
but properly balanced 
and regulated it will 
go on, letting out its 
force tick by tick, 
measuring hours and 
days, and dtiiiig faith- 
fnlly tho service for 
licli it was designed. 
1 im|,l,„o yu. to 
cherish and guard and 
use well the hirces 



3J.Vn*K;i,^ ,y 


—/J re 


il ink (op\ (XKutfd at the olhce ol tin l<> 
u ot (lisplmcd lettcuug 

made the best hammer in the world. Even 
the sons of Thor, across the sea, admit it. 

While I was there, locddug through his 
shop, with all its admirable arrangement of 
tools and machinery, there came to him a 
large order fnnii China. The merchanls of 
the Celestial Kingdom had sent down to the 
little town, wliere the persistent blacksmith 
now lives in nilluence, to get the best that 
Anglo-Saxon skill had accomplished in the 
hammer business. It is no simill achievo- 
ment to do one thing better than any other 
man in the world has done it. 

Let mc call your attention to something 
nearer your own work in this college. About 
forty years ago, a young lad who had come 
from the Catskill Mountains, where be had 
learned the rudiments of penmanship by 
scribbling on the sole leather of a good old 
Quaker shoemaker (for he was too poor to 
buy paper) till be could wi-ite better than 
his neighbors, commenced to teach in that 
part of Ohio which has been called " be- 
nighted Ashtabula" — (I suggest "beltnigh- 
ted"a8 the proper spelling of the word.) 
He set up a little writing-school in a rude log 
cabin, and threw into the work the fervor 
of a poetic soul and a strength of heart and 
spirit that few men possess. He caught his 
ideals of beauty from the waves of the lake 
and the curves they made upon the white 
sand beach, and from the tracery of the 
spider's web. Studying the lines of beauty 
as drawn by the hand of Nature, he wrought 
out tliat_syatem of penmanship whi<di is now 

'rom the negative a^hotogragh more per- 
fect than any I have seen made with the 
help of an Indiii-ink finish. And so Mr. 
Ryder took the prize. Why not? It was 
no mystery ; it was simply taking time by 
the forelock, securing the best aid in his 
busines.'*, and bringing to hear the force of 
an energetic mind to attain the best possible 
results. That is the only way, young ladies 
and gentlemen, in which success is gained. 
These men succeed because they deserve 
success. Their results are wrought out ; 
tbey do not coino to hand already made. 
Poets may he horn, but success is made. 

Young gentlemen, let not poverty stand 
as an obstacle in your way. Poverty is 
uncomfortable, as I can testify ; but nine 
times out of ten the best thing that can 
bapiT&n to a young man is to be tossed over- 
hoard, and compelled to sink or swim for 
himself. In all my acquaintance, I have 
never known one to be drowned who was 
worth the paving. [Applause.] This would 
not he wholly true in any country but one 
of political cfpiality like ours. The editor 
of one of the leading magazines of Eugland 
told me, not many months ago, a fact start- 
ling enough in itself, but of great signifi- 
cance to a poor man. He told me that he 
had never yet known, in all his experience, 
a single boy of the class of farm-laborers 
( not those who own farms, but mere farm- 
laborers), who had ever risen above his 
class. Boys from the manufacturing and 

liny let 
n fn a 
year, if you will. Take 
■ iff tho strunsr curb of 
ili.scipliiic and mornl- 
ity, and you will be an 
old man be'ore your 

Preserve these forces. 
Do not hum them out 
with brafldy or waste 
them in idlenc&s and 
] Do not destroy them, 
nworlhily. Save and 

crime. [Applai 
Do not use thi 
protect them that they i 
fortune and lame. Honestly resolve to do 
this, and yon will be an honor to yourself 
and to your country. I thank you, young 
friends, for your kind attention. [Applause.] 

The Largest Church in the 

St. Peter's Cathedral, Rome, is well 
known as tlie largest religions structure 
in the world. It is six hundred anil 
nineteen feet long, four liun<Irq4 and 
forty-eight wide, and four liiuulred and 
seventy high from the pavement to the 
cross. The foundation, the buiUliug of 
which required fifteen luiiulred iiipii ten 
years, is arched under tligentire building; 
one arch fitting between two others in 
such a manner that the pressure will be 
equal on all parts. 

The most magnificent part of this edi- 
fice is the dome, which was planned by 
Michael Angelo, and partly built untler 
his direction. It has been frequently 
said that " he was the greatest man the 
world ever produced," and he excelled in 
sculpture, painting, aruhitecture and 
poetry. He was seventj'-two yeai-s of 
age when he was placed in charge of the 
building, and he superintended the work 
the remainder of hie life, or seventeen 

The Cathedral i 

. six 

M 'Sll^ 

built In the form of a Greek cross. An 
arm of tliig cro&s, in addition to the 
Cathedral proper, called tlie Vatican, 
covers nine acres; and on its roof are 
blooming flower gardens and fruitful 

In it are twenty courts, eleven hundred 
cliapclg, saloons, etc., some of which arc 
uMcd for the mcetlnf^s of tlie synods of the 
lioman Catliolic Cljurcl]. One mile of 
halls is filled with sculpture, painting, 
flc; and the walls of tliese are covered 
with fn-flco paintings. On tiie roof of the 
Calh.iclnii, is a little village consisting of 
uhciut three liun<lred workmen, who keep 
the building in repair, and their faniiliet), 
making in all about twelve hundred peo- 
ple. They are not allowed to have five, 
and they prepare their food by using 
alcohol. There are no arrangements for 
lire in any part of the building; hut none 
are needed, as the weatlier is never very 

Hefore the cliurcii is a pia;c/.a occupying 
eighteen acres, and around this is a col- 
onnade, con.sisting of two iiundred and 
ciglity-four columns and cigiity buttress- 
es, which supporu an eutiiblature.- On 
this entablature are two hundred statues 
of sainu, each eleven feet higii. In the 
center of the sjiace enclosed by the colon- 
nade, is an obelisk weighing five hundred 
tons, tiiat formerly belonged to Nero's 
circus, wlilch was on the site of St. Pet- 
er's. It required eight hundred men to 
move it; and an order was issued that no 

one should speak during its removal. 

JV. y. Scliovl Juurnal. 

How to Practice Penmanship. 
Uv C. 11. I'i..i„ii!, Kkiiki^k, Iowa. 

The grand practical .jiiesliuu is: "How 
shall we avoid the darkness and Ihe desert, 
and lake our portion in the fair and fertile f" 
In oilier words, IIow is a student to practice 
l.ran.auship six to eight hours per day to a 
decided advantage f 

Success in every art, whatever may be 
the mtturnl talent, is always the reward of 
industry and pains. 

Tliat tliere are thousands of young men 
in this country who practice penmanship 
several hours per day, no one will deny. 
That they all meet with success, is a ipies- 
tn.u. That the Tiatuml talent is all-sufS- 
cicut to carry a chosen few, is an exploded 
theory. That industry and pains are not 
cnongh to win success. That there remains 
for the live, energetic teacher, a work to do 
that is alove and heijond the reach of the 
majority of seekers of fame and fortune. 

To lie more explicit— it is impossible for 
tlio mass of maukiiid to reach tliiit degree 
of skill-consistent with their nature, without 
a competent instrnctor, 

lutcllii-ciii practice is the outgrowth of 
By.srciimtic instruction, and such conies from 
the icu-licr who can lay claim to tact, talent, 
skill, energy, perseverance, euthiisiHsm, de- 
tcmiiuation, iiromptilude, love for the work, 
and last, but not least, a knowledge of 
human nature. 

There are no two students susceptible of 
the same instruction, at the same time and 
iiiid»r the same conditions. Hence the ne- 
cessity (if the greatest good be accomplished) 
"f providing a plan by which individual 
instruction can he practically administered. 

Many students practice from day to day 
with the hope that iu due good results 
may follow. But to he positive of each 
day's results is surely a belter plan. That 
this can ho successfully accomplished by 
following the programmes as given below, 
is an acknowledged fact : 

Finger movement. 

Definition.— The use of the fingers only. 
I'Fignrcs 1, 0, (i, 4, 8, 5, 3, U, 2, 7. 
2* Figures— froui 1 to 100. 
Il'Sliort lotlera — i, u, w, e r s x n m o 

4* Words from short letters— iu, wine own 

istcuded lelterst- 
h, k, 

6*Words from extended letters — join, yes, 
queue, gave, that, all, of, pretend, 
7*SmaU writing in sentences (no capitals). 
8*Capitals — 1st, 3d, 3d, and 4tfa groups. 
9'Proper names. 

lO'Form of business and friendship letter. 
1 1 'Receipts, recipes, and notes. 




W/tole-arm movement. 

Definition.— The use of the ann from the 


1* Tracing 

(lead pencil). 
fist. Pencil (if n 

|2ad. Peu(uos]mde). 
1.3rd. Pen (shaded.) 
fist. Motion off the 

2d. Motion larger 
I than the result. 
I 3d. Time same od, 
as off, the paper. 
4th. Going from cir- 
I. cle to straight line. 
1st. group (11). 
2d. " (ti). 
3d. " (5). 
4th. " (4). 
6*BInckboard Work. — A reproduction of 
all work done with the pen. 


Fore-arm moveiitenl. 

Definition.- The use of the fore-arm, by 

resting below elbow. 

(lead pencil). 
1st. Pencil (if neces- 

Philosophy of 

4 •Capitals. 


1 'Tracing 
2' Extended 


2d. Pen (no shade). 
3d. " (shaded). 
1st. Motion off the 


3*Philosophy of 

2d. Mo 

3d. Ti 

I 4ih. G 
cle 1 

tlian result. 
3 same off, 
the paper. 

Lraight line. 


5* Combinations. 

{1st. group (11), 
2d. " ((J). 
3d. " iH). 
4th. " (4). 
^ Disconnected. 


Combination movement. 

Definition.— A union of the whole-arm and 

finger, or fore-arm and finger. 


2*Eiich of the (20) small letters joined in 

groups of six. 
3^ Words from short letters. 
4'Word8 from extended letters. 
S^Siiiall writing, in sentences. 
(improper names. 
8* Receipts and notes. 
' Finish. 

Jieversed Pen Work. 
Definition.— Holding the pen so aa to make 
the shade from you. 
l^Elements of flourishing. 
2* Italian capitals. 
3» Quills. 
4» Birds. 
0* Eagle. 
7*Gennau text. 
8»01d English. 
y'Fiuals.- Lion, eagle, antelope. 

N.B.— A full and extended explanation 
of the programmes given will fallow in 
succeeding numbers of the Journal. 
A.M. Daily Piogramme. 

8 to f>.— Letter- writing (Townsend). 
!> " 10.— Programme " C." 

11. — Programme "A" or " D." 

11 " 12.— F 


1.30 to 2.30.— Programme 
2.30 to 4.— Programme ** I 
4 u> S. — BUckboard work. 

Saturday morning, 8 to 10.30. — Printing. 
" " 10.30 to 12.— Lectur«— 

How to Organize and Conduct Classes. — 
The Discussion of Systems— The Art of 
Criticism.— What the Buys Are Doing, 

Cynthia's Victory. 

By Paul Pastnok. 

ig-8chool, away 

irae of Cynthift- 

Slie uaed to come with Pitman's boy — n hulking 

of ffllow 
Splic(^(l a la gallows was 

always yellow. 
But, Cynthia, she was 

you, she was pretty. 


in the city 
Such rosy cheeks th' 

But Pit 

that kind! I tell 
of beauty, sir — it don't rise 
maiden had, and lipa aa 

all the fruit that grew i 

cheek" — a sort t 

He moved among the lostties like AI Hassan i 

God's creat 
By sheer sublimity of 
power " 

And if by stealth he slole 

amorous gambols 
Through a fair bevy, they were meek as cattle 

in the shambles. 
He was the "big boy" of the school, and 

strength, as well as beauty. 
Subservient to the tyrant knelt, and paid its 

humble duty. 

Well, just as long as Cynthia-Jane was partial 

to Sir Pitman, 
What need was there to shift the yoke f— it fitt 


culd e 

niiig, ] 

And ladi 

faces gay and gli ^ 
The benches were drawn up 

)e in, and found the 

id the stove, with 

line, and tightly 

i and love, and 

m full blossom — 
Sir Pitman on the dextt-r aide, and uii the left 

Will ClosBon. 
It happened, ton, that next to him. the order 

And Solon Jones, his back half turned, with 

Nellit* Emmons tiiited. 
Poor Will was thus left in the cold, unless the 

lier lord, could do a 

i» nods, and Pitman's 

both due to 

lulls, just after my 

round to Will. At 

a web fhe seemed 

it accrued until he 

le but plain 

Cynthia bodily, and in his lap 

ugh went round the circle— but how angry 
was the maiden ! 

cheeks Uamed like the couch of cloud the 
'tting sun has laid on! 

nged — the coward scamp ! — but 

double duty 
For even Homer 

wit had pans 
As well as cataclystnal spurti 

Bui whe 

to gi'ow entangled. 
And th« great Pitmau's wit ( 

fairly strangled, 
By envy driven to extremes — i 

Will Cli 

Cynthia's ire7 once wakened, 
Needed no chanipiou but restri 

thirst was slakened. 
She wrung the mighty Pitman's 

begged for tjuarter ; 
She scratched his r — 

ran down like 
His oily locks to the four winds 

dom broken' 
The lesson of Thei 
Three cheers for 

would a bard 

, tyr 

lose, until In 
111 the blooi 
in handfullt 
flew off, will: 

pa-on If 
But long us 

of men 
May each 

Cyutbio- Jane ! and 
nore worthy, 
•erer of thy sex ! could sing thy 

ri ling-schools shall last, and sons 

Ittnd them, 

le have a Cynthia-Jant 

) defend them ! 

Writing as Generally Taught in 

Public Schools. 

By C. H. Peii» k, Kkokuk, Iowa. 

Believing that a general discussion of 
this topic by the fraternity will benefit man- 
kind, I volunteer to serve as an advance 
guard, and will be content to do picket duty 
until it ia necessary to engage in the battle. 

Should any or many diflbr from the posi- 
tion taken, it is at my earnest and urgent 
request that they bo heard through the col- 
umns of the Journal. 

It is not my purpose in this article to give 
a remedy for general debility, or even to 
make any suggestions, but simply to 8tat« 
facts, as I regard them, and show where 
the disease is located. If necessary, I will 
be pleased, io another article, t<» propose 
such remedies as will effectually wipe out 
an old custom that exists more through the 
ignorance of Boards of Education and a 
tendency to follow an old route, than a want 
of belter and more improved methods. 

I am frank to say, that many who con- 
trol this present farce will not consent to 
any change, however apparent it may seem. 
But this dues not frustrate my plans, and I 
am content to await the decision of those 
who are up with the times and are ever 
ready to better their condition. Reform in 
this caae is parallel to that of some of the 
intemperate. Nothing short of death will 
stay their well-beaten track. So I can hope 
to win those only who are guided by reaaon 
with an innate desire to better their day and 

First fact. That writing is generally 
taught by the regular teacher of other 

First result. That miserable writers are 
produced, unless in exceptional cases. 

Second fact. That the majority of regu- 
lar school-teachers are utterly unfit to con- 
duct a class in penmanship. 

Secotid result. That there is a lack of 
interest both in teacher and pupil. 

Third fact. Tliat the teachers are li 
censed to enact to enact this farce by Boards 
of Education. 

Third result. That they are in duty 
bound to go through the form of a lesson, 
occasionally, or perhaps daily. 

Fourth fact. That the general or supe- 
rior education of a teacher in other branches 
justifies the present action. 

Fourth result. That writing is crowded 
out of the programiue because other branches 
are deemed morn essential, or because of 
giving too much time to some hobby. 

Fifth fact. That theaver age achool- 
teacher's writing is far from what it might 

Fifth result. That the interest necessaiy 
to success cannot be created without the 
essential elements. 

Sixth fact. That in many instances the 
teachers acknowledge their inability. 

Si:cth result. That this is proof positive 

of the existing evil, and that many of our 

youth contract habits which last through life. 

Seventh fact. That the general treatment 

of the case is a complete failure. 

Seventh result. That all over the land 
wo hoar the cry: "I can never learn to 
write," and so I might go on with fiicts and 
results ad infinitum. 

I may adri, however, that under the present 
conditions we may expect to hear the same 
reiterated as long as life shall last. 

Tlie truth of it stares us boldly in the face, 
and we who dare to think a new thought, 
must stand firm, for reform is our only way 
out of the difliculty. 

Spirit of tho press — How long can the 
ink standi — Keokuk Constitution. Dunno. 
How long can tlie pen holder t — Burlington 
Hawk-Eye. Tell us how long can the 
pencil sharpener, and we'll answer that.— 
Omaha Bepuhlican. They are all right as 
bmg us the weather remains stationary. — 
Omaha Daily Bee. Your puns are enveloped 
in obscurity. That's no wafer to get off 
jokes. — Detroit Free Press. We believe 
you write iu this opinion. — Camden Post. 
Our penchant run that way. — Yonkera 
Gazette. Seal -Axl— Boston Globe. Gum, 
now, it hardly paste to print such i)Bra- 
graphs. — Boston Commercial Bulletin. We 
should like to wax why not, if nueations are 
not against the rule. — Yawcob Strauss. — 
Perhaps for fear of an inkqueat. Is that 
the rubber not i Light is needed we add 

TircnEwiRKN : 

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V)o Dnndnity. N>« Vorfc. 


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will |R< iMiipd ns nrailyn* powlble on 

w b.- IM l>..l.uniii- Oniororby Il^ii- 




lilon. Eugluii 

To the Reader. 

Of the present issue of the Journal we 
mail a largo numbor of speciinCQ copies to 
parties uot subscribers, in the hope tliat they 
may find it suHiRiently iotercstiug tu iuduce 
tlicm to become so. 

The Journal has now reached the tenth 
number of il3 fifth vohime, and attained to 
a degree of imtronage and favor reached t)y 
few flass papers and never approximated 
by any other of it« class. During the 
period of its publication it has exerted a 
widespread and powerful inttueuee in fvery 
departiiiciit of penmanship. To the teacher, 
it has brouglit the experience and advice of 
the best masters. To the learner, it has 
been full of instruction and inspiration, 
luring and guiding him on«ard to duccess. 
To the Artist and lover of fine penman- 
ship, it liHs presented the rarest and beat 
spiciiiiriis of the penman's Art. Among its 
li:iti..iis are not only the professional peu- 
ni.'u ;iiiit pupils of jjenmansliip, but Judges, 
Lawyers, Ministers, Teachers, Artists — iu 
short, nearly every profession and occupation 
have tlieir representatives ou its subscrip- 
tion lists. We believe that any one desiring 
to see fine spoeiniens of penmanship, or to 
improve iheir writing, cannot in any way in- 
vest a dollar to better advantage than to sub- 
scribe for the Journal. If they desire 
u fine picture to ornament the walls of an 
Hice or home, either of the premiums, 
of whicli tvery suhst-riber has a choice, is 
lone worth more tbau the entire price of 
the subscription. 

Xo pains or expense will b« spared to 
render the Journal all that ita most exact- 
ing patrons c«n ask. Subscriptions may j 
begin at any time, and all back numbers | 
since and inclusive of January, 1878, can I 
be supplied. As a «i)ecial inducement to 
those who receive a specimen copy of this | 
isKue to favor ux with their subscription, we ' 
offer, for f l.WI. to mail the remaining three 
numbon* for the year I88I and all the 
numbers for IHt^, making in all fifteen 
numlM-rv. with a chtiicf of the four premiums. 

Good Writing. 

The opinion ati to what is good writing is 
dependent largely upon he who ^vea the 
verdict. If you ask the .autlior, he will tell 
you that that writing is beat which will 
most nearly analyze according to his system 
of the ait. Ask of the teacher his views, 
and you will be informed that the writing 
which most resembles the copies in- the 
particular books he uses is far the hand- 
somest and moat accurate. Ply your in- 
f[inry to tlie skillful writing-master, and 
pointing with tnic professional pride to his 
specimen slieets, wliero, like Roman athletes, 
grace of line and accuracy of form vie with 
each other for suprctnacy, " There," he will 
tell you, " is the i)ei-fected perfection of the 
art." Go now to the man of business to 
ask his views, and here, with Spartan-like 
brevity, you uill be told that good writing is 
that which can bo easily written, and the 
best is that which is the most legible and 
easily read. 

The author would find as difficult the tjisk 
of carrying into the counting-room his stiff 
and lifeless forms of analytic copies as he 
would to undertake the introduction into the 
schoolroom the crude and nnpleasing fonus 
thro\vn from the pen iu the haste and 
bustle of business. No more would com- 
merce stay its busy rush to adopt the fin- 
ished and graceful touch of the writing- 
master, than would the man of business be 
satisfied with his own free and uncertain 
style, where was desired an elegantly en- 
grossed and artistically executed piece of 
work for some special purpose. 

The successful teacher must and does 
adopt a fixed standard of form and an uni- 
form method of practice. Such fonns are 
essential to be studied and imitated, and the 
method will supply rules for construction 
and adaptability wliich the vague and vary- 
ing practices of business would not furnish. 
And so the pen-artist nuist exercise wire, 
deliberation and judgment to secure the 
necessary grace and accuracy of form that 
he may produce the best artistic efi'ect. 

It is in ^^-riting as in dress — the garb ap- 
propriate for the clown would be exceedingly 
bad for the clergyman j and the coat that 
would best become the counting-room would 
be sadly out of taste at n full-dress party or 

The Penmen's Convention. 
TIm' I'fii'' !/r, in I'litnmentiiig upon our 
rccriii 1 . j. ,ii . ti. holding a Penmen's 
C<'\w i ■ the belief that the 

priMNi 1;h,-.iii.,-v. i'^.liicatore' Association, 
which, at its convention last year, devoted 
less than one hour of its four days' session 
to peDuiauship, and this year failed to hold a 
c<mvention at all, " will continue to repre- 
sent the pn)fe8siou most favorably and ef- 
fectively," and cites, as evidence of its doing 
so, the fact that mimy of our best known 
penmen are themselves proprietors of busi- 
ness colleges. Gmiitcd, yot there remains 
the fact that there ai-e scores of penmen en- 
gaged ae siiecinl teachers of writing in our 
city schools, traveling teachers, authors, pro- 
fessional pen-artists, and othci-s specially in- 
tciTslcd as pujuls and lovers of the art, who 
have no more interest in attending a "Busi- 
ness Educators' Convention " than any other 
educjttional gathering, and certainly would 
not do so where a mere moiety of the pro- 
grannne w;is devt)ted to penmanship ; and, 
besides, many of the teachers of writing in 
business colleges ore not proprietors, but are 
I chicjly interested in writing. 

We can »oc no reason why such distin- 
guished penmen as the Spencers, Soul^, 
Packard, Hinman, Musschnan, Willianis, 
Dufl" and others might not unite in having a 
"Simon Pure Penmen's Convention" — cer- 
tainly if it were to hold its session just prior, 
or after, the session of the Business Educa- 
tors' Convention. Certainly there is suf- 
ficient of interest and importance in the pen- 
man's profession to warrant a three or four 
davs' session. Will the penmen of this great 
nation ever hold such a convention f is the 
question, and the columns of the Journal 
is tlie place where the question is to be an- 

We trust that no reader will construe 
anything we have said as being in the least 
degree unfriendly to the Business Educators' 
Association. On the contrary, we wish it 
success, and shall hope to attend all its ses- 
sions. It has ample to fill its programme 
without giving to writing a special promi- 
nence, and if it can in future avoid the mis- 
fortune which bofol it at Chicago, of being 
prostituted by a few for their personal noto- 
riety and aggrandisement, it may be iiislru- 
mental in doing a great and good work for 
business education, one in which the Jour- 
nal will be a ready and willing helper. 


During a few years past the utility and 
importance of drawing, as a branch to be 
generally taught in the public as well as 
private schools of this country, has been 
rapidly gaining ground. And among the 
many systems of drawing-books now before 
the public, probably none have gained a 
more enviable popularity than the series 
prepared by Prof. W. N. Bartholomew, and 
published by the well known house of Pot- 
ter, Ainsworth & Co., 107 Chambers St., 
New York. The system consists of a free- 
hand course of twelve numbers, which are 
adapted to the several grades of our com- 
mon schools. This is followed by a higher 
course, iutroduoiug practical exercises in 
model, geometric and perspective drawing. 
An explanatory guide accompanies the se- 
ries. Teachers desiring to introduce draw- 
ing in their schocds will do well to make 
themselves acquainted with this system. 

Messrs. Potter &, Ainsworth are also the 
publishers of the Payson & Dunton sys- 
tem of penmanship, which is a standard in 
a large proportion of our public schools. 
The demand for the copy-books of this sys- 
tem is vastly exceeding that of any previous 


And now, Mr. Cupid, we should say Mr. 
Keith, by force of Cupid's arts and arms, 
has invaded our very sanctum, captured and 
led therefrom the fair maiden who, for 
some time past has presided over the well- 
nigh interminable subscription lists of the 

Her name was Cora Kelley— his Edward 
K. Keith ; may their joys be not, like tlie 
aforementioned subscription lists, well-nigh, 
but quile, interminable. - 


And now it is the New England Card 
Company which has a new member, Mana- 
ger T. M. Osborn being assisted by a nine- 
pound boy, which arrived yesterday. So 
says the Woonsocket (R. I.) Beporter. 

And now, again, that we are upon this 
subject, while \^e may not directly rejoice 
over an additional member to our editorial 
staff, it has sort of gladdened our heart to 
witness the joy of our associate over a 
promising daughter, lately added to the 
house of Kelley & Co. 

The King Club 

For the past month numbers fifty-iico, and 
comes from A. J. Hall of Winamac, Ind., 
who is teaching writing in the County Nor- 
mal Schoid at that place. "It is my first 
effort at teaching writing," writes Mr. Hall. 
He ako says that his classes have tukoa a 
great interest in theii writing. That fifty- 

two pupils have become subscribers to the 
Journal Is certainly good evidence of ihoir 
interest; and that Mr. Hall, as a teacher of 
writing, is the right man in the right place. 
The second club in size comes fnnn Mr. 
Robbins of the Gem City Business College, 
Quincy, HI., and numbers X^y. This is the 
largest club ever sent from any business col- 
lege, and speaks well both for Mr. Robbins 
and the Institution which thus early in the 
season can fiimish so large a list. Mr. Rob- 
bins says : " You may look for a club about 
Christmas." The third in number comes 
from Pnif. L. Asiro, Marquette, Mich., and 
numbers thirty-seven. Such clubs for Sep- 
tember are quite unprecedented. 

Programme for Graded Course of 
Writing in Public Schools. 

In another column Prof. C. H. Peirce, 
special teacher of writing in the Public 
schools of the city of Keokuk, Iowa, favors 
the readers of the Journal with a detailed 
plan which he has pursued, with marked 
success, while conducting the writing in the 
several grades of the schools under his 
charge. We shall be glad if other special 
teachers in graded schools will present, 
through the Journal, their plans of instruc- 
tion, that they may be considered their 
relative merits discussed and results com- 
pared. Nothing could do more to aid the 
progress of this department of education 
than such a comparison and discussitm of 
the several modes pursued by different 
teachers. Prof. Peirce loads off iu the right 
direction. Who will follow him t 

Not the only Lady Subscriber. 
Miss Jennie M. Van Horue of Hadley, 
Mass., writes a very handsome leltur renew- 
ing her subscription, and says: I am very 
much interested in the Journal and con- 
sider it invaluable, but am I the only lady 
who takes it t Isn't it considered to be a 
paper for ladies f" We are certainly sorry 
if we have been so unmindful of our nu- 
merous lady subscribers as to lead any of 
them to suppose that their name may stand 
" lonesome" and alone among our subscrib- 
ers, for such is far from being the case. 
We have many lady subscribers, and there 
is no reason why they should not bo equally 
interested in the Journal with gentlemen. 

Not Responsible. 
It should be distiuctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are uot to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns ; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, or devoid 
of interest or merit, are received atfd pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and tell 

Special Inducement. 

To any person receiving a spetiimen copy 
of this issue, we offer to mail the reinaiuing 
three numbers fur 1881, and all the numbers 
for 1882, (in all, fifteen numbers of the 
paper), ard a choice of tho four premiums 
for SI. on. Give it a trial. 


Now is the time to secure clubs of eub- 
Bcribers for the Journal. See liberal offer 


The October number of tho Journal 
will be one of unusual interest to all classes 
of readers. It will contain a long and 
finely illustrated editorial article upon "Let- 
ters" ; bow they should be written and di- 
rected ; why and how several million of 
them annually miscarry ; giving statistics of 
the dead-letter office, with interesting facts 
and anecdotes relating thereto. Of many 
of the most remarkably funny and odd su- 
perscriptions we shall give facsimile exam- 
ples in the Journal. 

Several original articles are promised from 
well-known authors and teachers of writing, 
sufficient to warrant us in promising that the 
October number will be one of the most in- 
erestlng and valnable ever printed. 

photo-engraved by the Moss Engraving Company, 535 Pearl Street, New York, fit 
, ^ _ The original was flourished by John D. Williams. 

^ of William's ami Paciciird's gems. 

Wo liHvc called the atleuliou of our read- 
ers to the line of writing and ornamental 
iiilis mado liy Fred. D. Ailing, Rochester, 
N. y., imd again take pleasure iu referring 
them to liis advertisement in this issue. 
Mr. Ailing n.nv offers his Deep-IJlaek Ink 
ill kegs, barrels, and also in coue-bottles for 
the use of teiieliers, eoUegee, and schools, at 
very nmdcrate nites. The lestimonials he 
has received are of undonbtc.l value, and 
we cjin (Iicerfidly advise our readers to pui- 
chase their supply of inks from him. 

■ C- Bryant, author of Bryant's series of 
-books on book-keeping, informs ns 
I the season has opuucd with uuprece- 
ledly largo orders for his hooks. Mr. 
i bud n)Hny years of experience 
L conductor of business col- 
lud in active business operations, 
Miabled bini to produce a serice of 
loks upon book-keeping of far moro 


See hi 


vite attention to the Caligraphic 
Pen advertised in another colnum. This is 
ft regular gold pen point, with a fimntain 
attacliment, unlike the stylographic pen. 
Writiug executed with this pen retains all 
the habitual characteristics of haudwriiiug, 
while it is moro certain and reliable iu its 
actitm. To those wishing any kind of a 
fouutuin pen we shimld certainly reconnnoud 

Wo are in receipt of a series of 103 dif- 
ferent niovemeut excercises, including all 
the capital letters of the alphabet, direct from 
Iho pen of Prof. C. H. Pc^rce of Ketdtuk, 
Iowa, which, as an exhibition of a correct 
conception of form and mastery of the pen, 
are indeed remarkable. We have never 
seen them excelled, if equaled. 

We are iuformed that Sadler's Counting- 
Uuose Arithmetic is having an almost un- 

precedented sale, having been adopted as 
tlie text-book iu moat of the business col- 
leges and in many other schools. It is spe- 
cially popular as a hand-book in the count- 

We call attention to the advertisements of 
C. E. Carhart of Albany, N. Y., and Eaton 
& Burueit of liaUimore, Md., descriptive of 
their text-books upon commercial law, de- 
signed for a short course iu Business 
Colleges and «.ther schools. Both are good 

The Brj-ant & Stratton Series of Buok- 
heeping lately revised by the well-known 
HUihor, S. S. Packard, and published by 
Ivison, Blakenian, Taylor &. Co., are de- 
servedly popular, and are having a largo 
and rapidly iucreasing sale. 

We ejill attention to the advertisement of 
Daniel Slote &, Co., in another column, 
who manufacture every kind of school and 
hiisinrss blanks at popular prices. Send for 
their price-list. 

The sixth number of the Now Sponcerian 
Compendium will he ready to mail in a short 
time. Orders for all the numbers received 
at the Office of the Journal. 

Extra copies of the Journal will be sent 
free to teachers and others who desire to 
make an efl'ort to secure a club of subscribers. 

Mre. SouliJ are her sous, Albi*rt and Edward ; 
they are making an extended tour of tht; North, 
visiting watering and other placos ot uatiunal 

Annie Con-els is leaching writing in the Col- 
legiuie Normal School atPaplow, 111. „,„„. 

H. C. Clark, lately of Pottsville, Pa., has %*' 
opened a business college at Titueville, Pa. """f^^^Vi 

A. E. Peck, who has lor some time past been 
teaching wriliug in Texas, is now keeping the 
booka of an insurance firm at Dallns, Tex«3. 

M. V". Casey, fiom the Eegiater's Otfiee of (he 
U. S. Treaatiry, Washington, D. C. lately paid 
us a visit. Mr. Casey ip among the best writ- 
era in Washingion, and is a genial, pleasant 

N. P. Hummuiid, who was the associate au- 
thor of the Potter and Hammond system of 
writing, lately paid us a visit. He is now- 
teaching wriiing iu several sclioola and colleges 
in Pliiladelphia and vicinity. 

A, W. Dudley, who conducts the Commercial 
Department of the Southern Indiana Normal 
School at Mitchell, recently presented us with 
his compliments in person. He is a live, euei-- 
getic young man, and will undoubtedly do honor 
to his responsilde position. 

During the summer vacation, H. C. Wright's 
Business College of Brooklyn, N. Y., has been 
refurnished with the most approved patlernsof 
furniture, which is indicative of prosperity. 

I. S. Preston, the well-known teacher of 
writing, has been spending I. 
in Brooklyn ; he returns 
Pennsylvauia, where he w 
during the Fall and Winter, 

Maxwell Kennedy has just closed a largi 
normal class iu wriiing at Macomb, III., ant 
receives our thanks for the names of Un o 
his class as subscribers to the JouitNAL. 

on to noriliern 
organise classes 

The wife of Col. Geo. Soultf, President of the 
New Orleans Commervial C.dlege and Literary 
Institute, and one of li.e most distinguished 
business educators iu the United Slaies, arrived 
in New York City on the 6ih Insiantl With 

Gus Hulsizer, of Toulon, III., incloses in a 
handsomely written letter a package of flour- 
ished cards which are unique in design and 
skillful in execution. 

\V. H. Lamsou, late teacher in the public 
schools of Linden, N. J , and aiiihor of Lam- 
son's system of penmanship, has been appoint- 
ed director of drawlog and writing iu ibe pub- 
U« schools of Lynn, Mass. 

P. H. Cleary has been teaching writing 
classes in Michigan during the past year. He 
has improved his Summer vacation to good ad- 
vantage by taking lessons of P. R. Spencer, at 
the Spencerian Business College, Clevelmid, 
^'"~ Mr. Cleary is now teachin^jit Ovid, 

H. Duff, of Duif-s Business College,^ 
Pittsburgh, Pa., favored us with i 
days since, on hin return homeward f^<.i 
in Europe, where he has spent fail 
Prof. Dufl" is a sharp observer, and proinit-_ 
soon to favor the readel-s of the JoukxaL with 
some reminiscences of his travels abroad. 

C. R. Wells, who for many years has held 
a high rank among the skillful penmen and 
leacheiK of the Empire State, is now the special 
teacher of writing iu the public schools of Syra- 
cuse. As the result of hi* leaching, marked 
improvement in writing hss been made. We 
have seen several speciinens of wriiing and 
lettering executed by pupiU under his luiLiou, 
which wei'e remarkably good. 

Joseph Fueller, Jr., is conducting a writing 
and commercial school at Shenandouh, Pa. 
Mr. Foeller is an accomplished writer. 

J. M. Mehan is teaching writing in the Nor 
mal School at Jeflerson, Iowa. 

J. W. Blackman, of Blackmail's Uusiness Col- 
lege, Allenlown, Pa., favored us with a call 
while on his way to Connecticut to participate 
iu a renuion of the regiment of which he was a 
member during the little "onpl 
tween the North and the South. 

The Daily Jmenean of Nashville, Tenn., of 
recent date, pays the Nnshville Business Col- 
lege, conducted by Frank Ooodnmn, a high 
complimr • - ■ ■ 
from cle 



peels for the futine. 

have been in attendance 
flattering pros- 

Subscriptions to the Journal may date 
from any time since, and inclusive of, Janu- 
ary, 1878. All the back numbers from that 
date, with the four premiums, will be sent 
for ly.OO. All Uie numbers of J880 and 
I88I, with cither two of the premiums, will 
be sent for $1.75; with all of our premimnfl, 
for 12. 

Alt 1 -JOliKV VI. 

^Esl l^ihEFJg, JmiiH 

/ifniftViHi- vABiEtVor raVwfflit 

ji srcci^urv. (Im's HeAOff^o ps a speciwei^ or 
OUR Dn>wir^6 PMUTO ef^onAveo urort a niiKf fwti wo 
primisouPoi^AcoMMOfipness AT ti.oonniaoo 


tlvft^li^ED ON RIXJUtST. 

r BDWfon-AflD'PL/suisflaR. 


lJ^ Cy «SJ /f^j/v (y^J'tr, 

Tlip iiluivt' ciita art* all )iliotn-eutrnivi'il from <nir own pea and ink cojiy, and are inserted aa specimens of pen-drawing and photo- en gi-aving as pruclit-ally appUei 
for bii&iufs-b purin)!ics. Tliis method is fast supersediiig other methods of engraving, for all commercial purposes; heing superior in quality and convenience, while much 
'ess expensive. Our facilities are now complete for filling orders for all classes of display and business cuia. Business College currency of all convenient deDomiuntiona 
coosianlly iu stock and supplied at low figures. Fractional currency of the denominalioa of 5, 10, 25 and 50 oenta in stock; also, relief cuts of the same sold at small cost. 

Questions By 
C. H. Pfirw, Kcnkuk, It.wa. 

Fimt. What arc the renfuitis for inalfiog 
tin- la»l part of some cnjiitals below haw; 

liri*- r 

Srcond. Wliy is tlio preference given In 
hrlow the Um with many f 

Third. Why i» tliw tendency t<» make 
8orno tuniH in Hinatl writing greater than | 

Fourth. Wli 
lellcn* t 

Fi/lh. OrifjinnUn rli.I f. 

V. v. Pi-cnilt of the K..n Worth (T^xnn) 
|{iiotiu-aH Cfjilpgti, inc'Ioeen B«>vei'nl iiii)ii?riur 
«!..•(■ imviiB «r iimciiciil writing. 

W. II. Frommeywr. Cinoiniiali. Ohio. Kent 
laxt month a vi'py crudituhhi spwiineii of Hiiiir- 
\Ai\i\ii which WAS ov«rl(>i>kvil in mir nolicvn. 

K. A. Murfran of ])ronifii<h). Iiid., inclusce 
H.-vi-ml flegaiitly wiitti'n caid spi-ciniunn with 
hifi purlinit, f..r \\w JouKSAL Sfiiip-book. 

A Biipurbl/ wpillfn iiotf cmwe from F. W. 
II Wit'Hehnhii, thi< funier) pun-nititit of St. 

. Itnlll 


I'lii'i-, in wliicli he 
hed hird. 

P.I.. 1 

A. K. Dewhum, New Ilartford. N. V.. in- 
. I..BCK ft vt-ry Hiiillftilly exfcuted pitiCM of off- 
Inind tlonnslnng in furni uf a swnn. 

.1. M. Vincent, who is tencliing writing at 
Los Angeli-s, Cnl., incluitps in an i-Iegantly 
written letter several beautifnllj- wriUvn and 
HniiriHhi-d rtu-dB. . 

r. 1{. Chury iH n-Hcliing Ifirtrv wriiing-dnKSfs 
"I Ovid. Mieli.. from which place he eends a 
lurt'i' chih of 8nl)8crihm-(i, and also inclosea a 
v.iy linndKonie Bpocniien of a HoMi-JBhed ciigle. 

what IS popularly kooirn as the *' Harvard 

Prof. Gardiner says: "Twenty per ceot. 
of tho entire voting population of the United 
Stated, and forty-five per cent, of the voters 
of the Southern States, could not read their 

, California has school property to the value 
of $7,000,nO(). and spends *:j,aOO,000 yearly 
I upon her schools. For all this, there are 
' but lOO.OUfl attendants at school, out of a 
school population of loO.UOO.— TTwtem 
Educational Journal. 

In Ihe Syrian Prote-stant College at Beiurt, 
instruction is given in French, Latin, Arabic, 
inalhetnatica, the sciences, etc. The lao- 
guoKC of the institution is English. The 
preparatory department, the college and 
medical school, are provided with spaeiima 
buildings. There are 1*21 students in the 
institution. — New York Tribune. 

In 1860 the number of science-schools in 
England was 8, in 1870 it was 79, and in 
1850 it was 1,391. The number of classes 
in 18fi0 was '20. in 1870 it was 2,204, and 
in 1880 it was 4.93-2. The number of per- 
sons receiving science and art education was, 
in ISno, 386; in 1870, 34,23:); and in 1880, 

The prospective school fund of Texas is, 
snys the New York Independent, something 
wonderful to think of. By constitutional 
pr<iviaiou, the proceeds of her sales of public 
lands go lo this fund, and there are already 
.*2.0U0.001» in the treasury and 40,000,000 
iic.res of land to sell. The proceeds, at a 
very moderate estimate, will amount to 
*iri0.nOO.OUO, which.isan amount equal to 
the aijijrfiiiite school funds of all the other 

i'-hool popiitatir 
her. 1:19,057 are 

V. V. F(. 

of Kai 


■rai »Vips 

I'Ifgimt U'tif r in which hi- inchwfs st 
iLiid n Bi't of oft-hand capiials which i 
(jxcellcd for grace of line and accuracy of form. 
S. J. Kobinett of Meniphrei's Valley, AIn.. 
indoles a dollar in a ImndBomoly written lellup. 
and Bays; "Please mail the Jouhn-ai. nnotht-r 
year; I oan't do without it. It is worth t.-n 

^ We are in receipt of a pholojiirnph. imperial 
Bir.e, of a wry handsomely executed piece of 
penwork. which the jVadoim; Rfptihlifan of 
WaBhington. I). C. mentions as folloxys : 
"There is on exhibiiimi at the Government 
Printing Office a resolution of condolence 
lo Mpb. Garfield, passed by th« Columbia Tv- 
pographicttl Tnion, No. 101, of this pity. It 
occupies a handsome gilt frame, about 18x24 
iiichtfB. and is mcwt beautiful in design and ,.x- 
ecution. 11 1. ,1,^ „-.„■!: „f P,-nf .! W. Swn.ik 
of lb,. Tr.:,^,,,', |),.|,,>i,„„.„, 

Educational Notes. 

,' York. Hri.'f educational itema solicited" ] 

hundred and eighty-five 
in the San Francisco pub- 

290.030. Of thi 


_^Tho NchniskH 8tat.. \ School is a 

prodperoiis in-^iitnti-ui which luul. at hist 

acccumts, 270 pupils. 

j Beliin's Chattanooga Ciunmercial College, 
Chattanooga, Tenn., has just entered upon 
the seventh year of its existence, with in- 
creased interest. 

The average school age for 35 different 
nations is approximately from 5^ to 17f 
years. la the United States there is one 
teacher for every 55 children of school age 
(say G-21), or for every 184 persons. Prus- 
sia has one teacher for every 70 children of 
sclmol age (say 0-14), or for every 444 per- 

Omaha spends about $(J0,000 a year in 
instructing her 5,000 schoolchildren. 

President Barnard of Columbia College, 
New York, expresses himself in favor of 
admitting women to the college, and in his 
annual report says, that. " Whatever may 
liappen this year or the next, Columbia Col- 
Inge will yet open her doors widely enough 
to receive all earnest and honest seekers 
after knowledge, without any distinction of 

Education At, FANrir:.s. 

The colleges are busy loitering great 
men, so that they can bo identified if they 
go astray in the hereafter. 

A schofdboy being asked by a rival on 
tho street which was the highest study in 
his school, replied, with a stare of pity and 

talk with the teacher, or else he'll keep on 
that way forever." 

'* Why," asked a Sunday-sobool teacher 
of a little boy, '* did Jacob marry t^e (wo 
daughters of Labau?" "I dunoo, except 
perhaps he was satisfied with one mother- 

The worid didn't come to an end, but 
during the past three weeks no less than 
two hundred and eighty-three of our ex- 
chauges have called William Pena's grave 
a " Penn holder." Is this write t 

New Haven Hegi.^ter : "Had drank" is 
not good English grammar, says a high 
authority. It certainly is not. " Was 
drunk " is better grammar, and more in ac- 
cordance with the facta nine times out of 

The following definitions, although ap- 
pearing under this head, are not "education- 
al fancies," but were given by a pupil in 
this city : — A noun is a name. An adjective 
is a part of speach. A verb, is to be, to 
excist, or to be excist upon. 

An exchange says, that in the New 
York City schools, where corporal punish- 
ment is not allowed, the teachers rule by 
kindness, and tenderly, remind disubedieut 
pupils that " Pll give you 500 word^ to 
write after school if I catch you whispering 

Johnny came home from school the other 
day very much excited. "What do you 
think pa: Joe Stewart, one of the biggest 
boys, had an argument with the teacher 
about a question in grammar ! " " What 
position did he take!" " His last position 
was across a chair with his face down." 
Now that is a word which may often be 

For that that may be doubled is clear to 

the ^ 


As that that that that we use, is rij 

And that that that that that line has i 

is right- 
In accordance with grammar is plain i 



The sound umi 

r. not chance, 
rii'd to dance. 
s offence : 

I when zephyr gently blows, 

And the smooth stream in smoother numbers 

But when loud surges lash the sounding shore, 
The hoarse rough verees hould, tike the torrent, 

When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to 

The line, too, labors, and the words n-ove slow ; 
Not so when swift Camilla seom-s the plain. 
This o're the unbending corn, and skims along 

many of the Indian alphabets, and tlu-^e 
I are joined and conipoutuled in luimbcr- 
less ways. Their system of enumeration, 
also. U coinplit-atcd and requires a gn-nt 
deal of practice to «se readily 

A boy going to school In the morning 
carries under his left arm a bniulle of 
twenty clean iwlin leaves. A pen of reed 
is behind his ear, and he carries in his 
hand a rude ink-pot of day. As he 
spends most of the day In writing upon 
these leaves with ink. and rubs out his 
mistakes with his hand or his wrii^t, he 
comes home at night pretty well smeared 
and spattered. This is iTokoned honor- 
able to him; and the blacker ho is. tlie 
more his parents prjjlac him for his dili- 
gence at sdiool. 

They have one practice which is famil- 
iar to all who are in the Imbit of passing 
by our own country schoolhouses; the. 
children recite a great deal together. Af- 
ter writing luo-st of the morning, the 
whole school says in chorus the letters, 
tlie diphthongs, and the hundred nuiuer- 
als. Tlieu, in the afternoon, when they 
are all tired of writing, they recite to- 
gether, in a sing-song way, the multipli- 
cation table up to twenty times twenty. 

It is so diilleiilt to write their language 
that a boy will spend some months in 
writing the mimes of the boys in the 
school, and of the inhabitants of the vil- 
lage. Kroni names au<l words ftiey ad- 
vance to very short sentences, and at 
length begin to compose letters. 

Letter writing is a great art with them; 
and even tlie addressing of a letter is a 
matter of much difllculty. India is the 
hind where the idea ot rank has been most 

An old-fashioned native of Bengal can- 
not conceive of our notion of hunian 
equality, and he looks upon every inhab- 
itant of his teeming peninsula to he 
either above him or below him. There 
are liund^pds of ways in which men are 
to be spoken to. oi- addressed in writing, 
80 as to propei-ly recognize their rank. 

If a boy writes to his father, lie must 
use a certain prtsurlbed, invariable form 
exi>i-essive of the profoundest respeit. 
When he addresses liis uncle, he must 
use another form, and there is a different 
paternal and a maternal 


The Ml 

Astronomy Class— Pro/cssor to 
What time does Mars get full T" 

Chinese chiidn 
lie schools. 

Tho Seventeenth Anniversary and Ci 
menccmeut of Sadler's Bryant & Stratton ' s'lrprise, "Why, astnmoiny, of 
Business College, Baltimore, Md.., is an- 
nounced for September 15th. 

If the English language were divided into 
part*, «0 would be Saxon, ;J0 would be Latin 
(including, of course, the Latin that has 
come to us through the French), and 5 parts 
would be Greek. 

A Class for women has been organised at 
Vale College, the lectures and instruction to 
be delivered by Professors Sumner, Wil- 
liams, Brewer and others. It wiU resemble 

Junior ; 

Junior: " Don't ki 

with such company. 

(Decided applause.] 
Edison says the electric light "tanned au 
assistant's hide in less than an hour." Wc 
would, therefore, recommend it as a substi- 
tute for corporal punishment in our schcfols. 

Father: "Charley, 
ment in your marks." Charley ..„, 

papa; it is high time that you had a serious 



A School 

ny James Pahtox. 

James Parton, the well known biogra- 
piiev, in an article recently published in 
the ComjHinion, gives some interesting 
facts in regard to school work in India. 
We quote at length from his article : 

A village school in India does not cost 
much. Except in the rainy season, it is 
licld under the trees behind the school- 
master's house, and there are neither 
desk^. benches, slates nor books. The 
boys sit upon the smooth hard ground, 
and the sclioolmaster upon a mat smoking 
liis pipe. 

The school is divided into four {his-f-, 
whicu are named after the wiitin- ma- 
terial used by each. The lowe-i i- , ill. >i 
the chalkclass, and sometimes ih,- iinni- 
clasS, the pupils of which learn to write 
with chalk upon the trodden ground. 
The next is called the palm-leaf class, as 
the pupils write upon palm leaves, a ma- 
terial whtch is said to be much better for 
the purpose than our slates, as it never 
break*, is very light and costji nothing. 
The third i^ called the plaintain-leaf 
cla-ss; and the highest of all, the seniors 
of the institution, write on paper, and 
are called the paper class. 

For years the boys spend most of their 
lime writing. There are fifty letters in 

long. Morning 
eleven, and afterr 
uiitil sunset. 

The teacher rec 
about tiiree cents \ 
besides this, eve 

bring to aftcn 

of tobacco, OI -uiii 

I'ruls. there are special 
i"i- all grades of t,ie 
i'>i>ii and nobility. 
- :^eem to ui intolerably 
chool from seven to 
Don school from three 

lives from each pupil 
month in money; but 

sontng to go with it, such as oil, mustard 
and salt. 

With all his iicrqulsites. however, the 

vilhi;ir -I hiia-ir! would be very poor 

if I"' 'li' ' uni^-i.Uly cultivate a small 

qu;uitin nl I., 11. 1, u hi. Ii he manages to do 
by tukiu-a paiUi.T ^^h,^ H-r. riir wnrl.. 
The boys, also, ai'e vt i \ ^lil h> i-rirniin 
menial labors for him. am! ii i-. run -i,|,i,.,| 
a great privilege to till ;iri<l li^tii iii., pii..'. 

As so mucii of the sdiool work is dull 
routine. In which boys cannot beexpected 
to take much interest, the discipline is of 
necessity violent aii<I severe. Imlia is 
riic native country of the rattan, and the 
-. In.olmasters use it with vigor and con- 

school in th; 
plement of tn 

hancrctiDlng an 
aiKl while he i 
over hi.s body 

i %vorld 1 

world, age after 




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P E X M A X « H I p. 

The A'r«( 5^n«n'oii C»mptiuHum ^ Ptnmanthip, 
hy P. R. Spenwr & Sun*. wn» piibliihed Id 1657. It 
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Wlira gaoA inipRM^une from tbo engmvingi conid no 


Compendium of Penmanship. 

TliH aim of tills pubUrndou ii lo preaeni penraansblp 
in ilB niclesl range, muiit varied odnptaliuu, aud blgbost 

The learner, tbo adopt, tbo toucher, ibe engrosser, the 
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two plates of striking, bold script, presenting two bcoutU 
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Furl II is devoted to otf.bnnd Quurisbiug- Ooe plate, 
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of hnldiug tbo pen for UoariBbing; t.vo plates embody, 

tbe gmcelul exercises by «bicb commnnd of aria and 

BB "For Kent," ' For Sulo," "Kolico," etc.. flio., file. 
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strncled upuo snih a siinplo urroogeinnnt ut llo« and 
spnces ibnt any iutolligout pcreon can readily icom lbs 

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Part IV. is a brilliant number, oon lain ing a greul vo. 
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-■^ ■ ■ ' ■ ■■ ■'-■ ■ ■' !■ ■-"^1'. 8^ M 

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The abovo treatise in. 1 

ineiicandCalculiitionsivl.i'i. . 
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. \\";iriliii)giuii. D. C: 

From S. Bogardus, Preeideiit Springfield Business Colli-gc Springfield, 
"It is giving great satisfiiction tn sliidcnls and trat^hen. Tlie explaiintluu and 
I<ointed. I all) glad to give yuur work my hearty approval." 

From a. A. GaakeU, Principal Ji-raey City Business College, Jersey City, N. .1.: 

and pupils are dcniw much better tvurk Ihan formeily with oilier btio 

highly plofl 

From W. A. Frasier, Principal ' 
From J. M. Martin & Brus.. P- 

B ColK'ge, Galesburg, III.: 

>ver bean published. Can very truth. 

ri-inuipol Uuiiinoea College, Battle Creek, Mirh.: 
i-t what Is needod in Business Colleges and i^unting-rwi: 
iiic liir more with tlio superior ro&ulis wn are cuabled to oi 

K-Hoiisn Arithm 

B College, Albany, N. Y.; 


Ad.ires. AV. II. SADLER, Piiblinlieis 

Xos. 6 and 8 N. Charles Stret-t, Haltiuio 

■■ Entered nt fhr Pott Ojfire of Nrw YorH: N. T.. tu B€cond-clu^i mattn:' 

D. T. AMES. Editor 1 
B. F. KELLEV. A*io( 



Vol. v.— No. 10. 



Price LUI Free. Woor 

W. H. SADLER, Presidpnt uf 


BkUiDMs College. BBltimure. Md.. piiblisliera of Ortoo i 



IRA MAVUBW. LL.D.. I*rMldeDt. 




C. N. CRANDLB. VciSpaniix 

Lesson in Practical ^V^iting. 

Xo. XIV. 

With tlie present lesson we Imve Ofl.pitiil 
Iftters made from the fifth ur piiuciple, 
afl uuinberoti in the SpenceriaD analysis. 

From this prinriple \% constructed chietiy 
four letters, vi*. ; 

The O should he one-third longer than it 
is broad, and shaded on the first down- 
ward stroke, having the shade strougest at 
the centre of the stroke. The two down- 
ward strokes should run parallel and aa 
near to each other as is practicable witlxmt 
incurring the danger of intersecting e;ieh 
other, tlie second line terminating at the 
centre of the turn upon the base line, or 
if extended so as to cross the oval, it should 
Jo so at the lowest puiQt upon the base line, 
and, after crossing it, should continue to 

follow the curve of the oval until it ends or 
diverges to connect with the letter following. 
The lett<T should be so constructed that, 
if itj* body were divided by a line cutting 
the oval at the fullest points for length and 
breadth, I'iu-h corresponding part should be 
the exact counterpart of the other in size 
and form, as per dotted lines in example 


The second downward stroke is sometimes 
shaded, as in example above, to which 
there is no objection except that letters thus 
sliHilcd hu-k the strength ami boldness 
of letters having the outside shade. Many 
teachers, and we, oursdve-s, have sometimes 
designated this iis the iippropriate shade for 
a feminine hand, in whirU ease the ovalfl of 
all the Ictterts should bo shaded in a similar 
manner. The principle should be practie^d 
with great earo. 

The following movement exorcise should 
be practiced carefully and extensively in 'i- 
nection with this lesson. 

nber that time spent in careless 
prnctiee or aimless scribbling is worse than 
wasted. Every stroke shouhl he made for a 
definite jiurpoM-. 

A Peep into Uncle Sam's Mail 
Tlio-se of our renders who are residents of 
rural portions ofthe country, and whosee only 
the liniiied mails of a few pounds weight dis- 
tributed through some country post-office, 
can scarcely conceive the enormous aggregate 
of tlie Taited States Mail, or even that of a 
great metroptdis like New York. Here, in- 
stead of some small portion of a store or 
other place serving, as is usually the case, 
for the transactions of the business of a 
country post office, a spaciouH five story 
building is almost exclusively (fccupied for 
post-office purposes, presenting in its ap- 
pearance and in the magnitude of its trans- 
actions much the resemblance of a great 
mercjmtile warehouse. To and from it 
large bags filled with mail matter are con- 
stantly being delivered by two and four horse 
wagons, aggregating rfa(7y li:j,;iil pounds, 
or aii tons ; in one year 41,3.=i8,.il5 pounds, 
or 20,179i tons. There are daily received 
in the New York Post Office 1,125,268 let- 
ters and postal cards, of which 27,210 are 
from foreign countries. The letters alone 
aggregate daily almost sc-ven tons weight. 
>[any .single establishments in New York 
dispatch and receive thousmds of letters and 
tons of matter daily through the mails, such, 
for instance, as the great newspaper and 
book publishers, dry g....ds nnd banking 
houses, news agencies, etc. As an example, 

the Trihunt mails a daily aggregate of over 
4,000 pounds, and weekly over 29,000, or 
fourteen tons, an<lreceive8thousand8 of letters 
and exchanges daily, while many of the 
large banking and publishing houses receive 
and dispatch daily from two to three thousand 

During the past year there passed through 
the United States Mail, of domestic matter, 
2,215,168,124 pieces, divided as follows: 

Letters 866,593,.i72 

Postal Cards . . . 27(!,44fi,7I6 
Newspapers . . . (itt^,] 75,624 
Magazines . . . 5:i,472,27ti 
Books, Circulars, etc. 3f)0,845,480 
Articles of Mdse. . 22,63^,450 
Which was au average of 44f^ pieces to each 
person in the country. 

The aggregate expense of conducting the 
departmeut was $22,255,984; number of 
post-offices, 42,089 ; whole number of per- 
sons employed, 60,47!). The reveuue of the 
department lacked $3,500,000 of defraying 
the expense, which deficiency was paid from 
the General Treasury of the United States. 
Out of the 86(1, 503,-572 letters mailed, 3,- 
057,141, oroneinevery283, went tothe Dead 
Letter Office. This number, compared with 
former years, is, proportionately, very small, 
owing to a late rule of the Department, that 
when the writer of any unpaid or misdirected 
matter is known it is at once returned for 
correction, thus saving delay, miscarriage, 
or Its ultimately being sent to the Dead 
Letter Office. 

" The practice of using envelopes and 
wrappers for mail matter bearing the address 
of the sender," says the Postmaster-General 
in his Report, " cannot be too highly recom- 
mended, particularly to business men, who 
are thus often spared vexatious delays in 
important correspondence." 

The causes through which mail matter 
goes astray or to the Dead Letter Office are 
somewhat numerous, and are summarised 
in the Post Office Report as follows : From 
being unclaimed at office of destination, 
2,560,402; for non-payment of postage, 
284,503; imperfect a<ldress, 201,809, of 
which 9.167 bore no superscription what- 
ever; many, if not most, of the unclaimed 
mail was so from some fault of its superscrip- 

Out of 6,906,513 registered letters and 
parcels mailed during the year only 7,445 
went to the Dead Letter Office, and of these, 
7,016 were restored to the owners, thus 
leaving less than 450 out of noariy 7,000,000 
packages unaccounted for — one in about 

All mail matter containing articles of 
value or money was returned to the owner 
if lie could be found, otherwise the money 
was paid into the I'uited States Treasury 
and the valuables sold and the proceeds de- 
posited therein. The nmney not returned 
amounted to f2,751 ; the proceeds of the 
articles sold were $3,465. 

Among the matter were many valuable 
publications, such as books, pamphlets, 
magazines and illustrated newspapere, which 
by a recent law were placed at the disposal 
of the Postmaster-General, and were by his 
order distributed among the charitable insti- 

tutions of Washington for the benefit of 
their inmates. 

Persons unaccustomed to handling large 
quantities of mail matter can scarcely imag- 
ine the character and number of all sorts of 
mistakes through which it goes astray and to 
the Dead Letter Office. These mistakes occur 
mostly from thoughtlessness, from bad or 
illegible writing, and an imperfect know- 
ledge of names and places. The latter cause 
especially prevails with letters coming from 
foreign countries, where America seems to 
be a perfect geographical enigma. States, 
cities and counties are badly mixed, and a 
considerable amount of the mixture is often 
contained in one superscription. 

For instance, one address reads as follows : 
" Ole Anderson, Rockawy citi Pa North 
America, New York." Who will undertake 
to forward that letter f And yet tlie dwell- 
ers across the sea probably make no more 
mistakes of this kind than Americans, for 
how many of us fully understand all the 
geographical localities of the minor cities 
and provinces of Germany or Sweden, or, 
in fact, any country on the Continent ? 

In order that we might lay before our 
readers the most reliable information prac- 
ticable, and present characteristic examples, 
illustrative of some of the most conspicuous 
cAuses of the miscamage of mail matter, we 
lately called upon Mr. James Gaylor, As- 
sistant-Postmaster of New York City, and 
solicited such information as be could give 
bearing upon the subject. Ho placed in our 
hands the last Annual Report of the Post 
Otfice Departmeut, and then conducted us 
to the Blind Letter Department of the Office, 
where he introduced us to Mr. Wm. W. 
Stone, tlie famed reader of "blind letters," 
who has kindly permitted us, at different 
times, to inspect the thousands of imperfect 
addresses which are daily sent to him to be 
deciphered and forwarded to their intended 
destination, if possible, otherwise to the 
Dead Letter Office at Wiishington. Not 
only are the blind letters deposited in the 
New York Post Office sent to Mr. Stone, 
but such letters are sent by postmasters 
from all parts of the country for his inspec- 

Mr. Stone has been exclusively employed 
in this department for twenty-seven years, 
and passes daily upon about one thousand 
blind superscriptions ; during that period the 
number has aggregated many millions. 

From so great an experience Mr. Stone 
has become a sort of cyclopiedia of postal 
knowledge, especially that pertaining to his 
department. His knowledge of places and 
of the manners, customs and language of 
the various classes and nationalities is some- 
thing <|uite remarkable, and such as to en- 
able him, in a vast majority of cases, to in- 
stantly perceive the fault in an imperfect 
superscription and to discern the intent of 
the writer. As further aids, ho has at hand 
directories of all the large cities of the 
United States and Canada, and of London, 
a directory giving a classified list of all the 
streets in the 150 cities in the United Slates: 
also, post-office directories of all foreign 
countries, and c<ipious memoranda which he 
has himself made from time to time. .Su 
famiUarhas he become with the handwriting 

of tlie different natioualitic*, that lie can as '_ 
ccrta'iDly aod readily determine the cooDtry j 
from whence a letter «mie», by the style of | 
writing, afi by the Jaogoage and postmark. 

To enaWe the reader to und.rstiind the ; 
extent and nature of Mr. Stone's work, let I 
him imagine a pile of one thousand letters 
with faulty superecription, spread before 
him upon a table, while to his right is a set 
of pigeon-holes, lettered alphabetically. A 
letter is taken from the pile, and the su- 
perscription reads: P. Jones, 

<«) Dixville Ave., 

Connecticut, N. H. 
It is known thai there is a Dixville Ave. 
Id New Haven, Conn. Ho therefore draws 
a red line through "N. H." and writes in 
full, "New Haven," and placrs it in its* 
appropriate box. Another rends : 
Mr. J. F. Hurley, 

New York City, Boston. 
The directories of both cities are con- 
sulted, and, if the name is found, the super- 
scription is corrected accordingly ; otherwise, 
it is sent to the Dead Letter Office. One 

Mess. Hunter &. Co., 

JacUaonvUle, U. S. A. 
Tliero being many Jacksonvilles in the 
United Stales, it would be uncertain as to 
which was intended, but Mr. Stone knows 
the firm, and simply adds Florida. The 
next is : 

Nifts A. Neeley, 

County Bruce Tr)wnBhip. 

of krnce Walkerton Post Office. 
Sent to Walberton, Bruce Co., Canada. 
The post-oilice was determined by the 
county. Another was economically ad- 
dressed : 

W. H. Johnson &. Co.. 

P. R. I. 
Sent to Providence, R. I. 
The next was for 

Miss Ida Adler, 
53 East Ge 

ficeSt., N.Y. 
. Stone that there 
; St., in New York 
ic; hence, fair Ida's 
to the City of Salt. 

Ik was known to Mr 
was but one East Gcnesei 
State, and ihat in Syracui 
letter was sent on its way 
And now comes one for 

Mr. Daniel T. O'Day, 

Vernon St., Mass. 
By reference to the street directory, Ver- 
non street is discovered to be in Cbarlestown, 
Mass.; hither goes Mr. O'Day's letter. 
Now one addressed : 

Miss HenrietUv Kirchuor, 

Alabama Ave., bet. Liberty and 
Atlantic, in care of C. F. Colyer. 

Sent to East New York, as that was the 
only place where the peculiar compound of 
streets and avenues mentioned could be dis- 
covered. Next comes one for 
Robert Corson, 

213 7tb St., 

New Jersey, N. J. 
Sent to Jersey City. We were told by 
Mr. Stone that tlie mistjike of writing New 
Jersey for Jersey City was a very common 
one, as was also the using of N. J. when 
N. Y. was intended, and vice versa. In 104 
niisdireoted letters and postal cards, we ob- 
served 21 having N. J. where N- Y- vvas 
intended, and 14 having N. Y. iu place of 
N. J., and 7 having Now Jersey for Jersey 
City. One of the postal cards was addressed 
in New Ynrk to 512 W. 3dth St., Jersey City, 
when New York City was intended, there 
being no such street and number in Jersey 
City. An instance of original orthography 
was observed when New York was thus 
spelled "Neay Yorg." Now comes a letter 
for gentle Annie, addre.'tscd : 
Mrs. Aunie Kidd, 

Atlautif Ave., 

Ot-eau View Cottage, 
New Jei-sey. 
Alas for Annie ! her letter went to the 
Dead Letter Office, and so also one for 
Mr. James Johnson, 

Coleman House, 

New Jersey. 
The next one was for 

A. M. AVilsey, Jr., 

Kendall Co., 

New York. 

There being no Kendall County io New 
York, but one in Illinois, in which w;is Mil- 
brook P. O., the letter was forwarded ac- 
cordingly. This is a specimen of numerous 
instances where adding the county secured 
a correct delivery of letters which would 
othonrise have gone to ibe Dead Letter 
Office, and shows the importance of adding 
the county. Such instances were of frequent 
observation while we were in Mr. Stone's 
department. The next was a letter for 

G. Hepburn, Esq.. 

Rhode Island, Conn. 

He can probably get it by calling at the 
Dead Letter Office. Tlie next bore a very 
definite superscription, as follows: 

Mr. Eastman. 
Dear Sir : 

The lime for pick- 
ing hops having — 

This was from a foreigner who bad evi- 
dently not a very good understanding of the , 
English language, and had ocmfounded other \ 
composition with the address, which was of 1 
very common occurrence. Many times , 
where a business card had been sent, giving 
the address, the entire card had been copied | 
for a superscription. Another was some- 
what mixed, as follows : 

Mr. Alexander Burges, 
Row Chellogel, 


Ogle Co., Ills. 
5 addressed, as follows : 

eSy d 


iyf^r/S Ai**t^ jQ^l^^ 
-/J - 

the manner in wliich Ictu-rs, et*., «ii& 

let us suppose that a writer tlesitvs t 

1 dress an important eonimuuication ti> 

J. H. Howell, 

Mr. Stone had a pereuual knowledge of 
>lr. Evans, and accordingly was euahled to 
translate the hieroglyphics at the end of the 
address to stand for N. Y., which made all 

Sent to New Brighton P. O . StaT.i. 
Island, N. Y. 

/h!c /y^tioa-iti f^^^'c^^M 

Sent to Cincinnati, Ohio. Smith's Croj 
% suburb of that city. 

Translated Sandnsky, Ohio. 

Translated Bayon; 

, Hudson Co., N. J. 

Translated Wolcotsville, Niagara Co., N.Y. 

Jas. Koan Draa, 


Translated Upper Lehigh, Pa. 

And finally a fair damsel is very drtinitely 
addressed thusly ; 
Miss Morse, 

Northern New Jersey, 

The foregoing are simply a few specimen 
blunders among the thousands that daily 
pass before Mr. Stone. Nor do these even, 
as presented here in plain type, indicate the 
full difficulty encountered in deciphering the 
actual superscriptions, for in these, added to 
the other imperfections, is ofteu that of 
doubtful or illegible writing. To enable 
the reader more fully to appreciate tlie 
difficulty of translating as well as perceive 
the picturesqueness of some of these super- 
scriptions, we have reproduced a few in fac 
simile, which are given with their transla- 

The writing is a fac-simiie of the orig- 
inals, except that it has been diminished in 
size, for the purpose of economixiug space. 

Sent to Goshen, N. Y., chieBy from the 
fact that the connty was correctly given. 

islaled, Mr. Nelson Ames, 

Story Co., Iowa, 

North .\iiierici 

Sent to MiiineHl»olis, Minn. 

fi^a. ua fa. AU. 



Superscription written by a Canadian In 
dian, and was sent to 

Mr. Ka-van-ni-Tn.. kan, &c., 

Qnebec, Ciuada. 


Sent to Lawn 

, Ma; 



Interpreted, be designed for Bound 

Brook, N. J. 

] It is safe to say that most of the readers 
of the Journal will peruse the loregoing 
exhibition of bulls and carelessness with 
surprise, and even wonder that writers 
could make such mistakes; yet we venture 
that most of them have at some time ad- 
dressed letters or other luaiter which went 
to the Dead Letter Office from some bull or 
oversight equally as remarkable as any of 
those here presented. Some of them have, 
as we can unfortunately bear witness. 
There are, at this lime, on file iu our offic* 
letters, in which was inclosed money, that 
we, from some cause, are unable to answer. 
Occasionally, the writer omits to add his 
name to a letter, or, giving his name, for- 
gets to give the State, post-office, or 
county. Again, the name or address is so 
carelessly or imperfectly written as to be 
unintelligible. Writers should remen.ber 
that short names, and Initial letters, when 
carelessly written, are very liable to be mis- 
read, from the fact that no aid can be de- 
rived from the context. As an cjcample of 

The abbreviation for the i 
(Cal.) is so indefinite that the letter goes 
first to Colorado, but there being no Her- 
man or Sherman iu that State, it is tinally 
re-cUrected to Herman, Cal., the initial "S" 
and following letter "h" being of so in 
definite and doubtful a character, they to 
gether were naturally mistaken for an H, 
but there being no Herman P. 0. in Cal., 
the mistake is finally discovered by a dis- 
tributing agent, and the letter is again re- 
directed to Sherman, Cal.; hero the H in 
Howell is read St, which changes the name 
to Stowell, and, accordingly, the letter is 
placed in S box for L'l'nrnil <l<livrry; not 
being called for. ii i- ;ii Irit-tli ,i.lMitisi.'d in 
the list of uml.'li\.'ir,l Irlln-. tl,ny: 1. A. 
Stowell. The J li:i\in^ b'-'-n mad..' above 
the line, is mistaken f«tr an I, while the ini- 
tial H is so nearly closed at the top that it 
is mistaken for an A. After being duly ad- 
vertised, the letter is sent to the Dead Letter 
Office at Wiuslungton, and fi'om there re- 
turned, iifier several weeks, to the writer. 
J. H. Howell, in the meantime, has inquii-ed 

daily for letters 
Wnn-u til.' deli\ 

H box .iimI : 

Howell 1m~ .il.. 

of advrin-<,i I 

■a 111 

the Sherman post-office, 
y clerk has looked in the 
^^'■^^■^, "Nothing." Mr. 
. I r I i 1 1 1 1 y f-ranned every list 
M ~ I II It never could he 
I Uif letter advertised for 

the one he h>ul so long 

I. A. Stowell was the 
and anxiously looked f 

It is just such erroi-s as those abov»» de- 
scribed that cause a large porceutagc of the 
miscarriages of mail matter. We present 
this article in the hope that by thus calling 
the attention of oin- many readere to these 
faults, they may be lead to avoid them, and 
to that extent be benefitted by our labor 



Quill Pens. 

An advertisement in a morning paper for 
an experienced quill-pen cutter called out 
an interview with the only quill-pen im- 
porter and manufacturer iu this city. He 
said that twenty years ago there were sev- 
eral t|uill-pen makers here and in other 
cities. Now oue in Philadelphia and him- 
self are all that he knows. Quill pens are 
used mainly by old lawyers and judges, 
partly from custom, but chiefly because they 
are easy to write with. Most of the quills 
come from Russia. The Russian goose has 
a harder quill than our geese. An uuclari- 
fiod pen from the wing of a Russian goose 
is the most durable. The German quills 
have the best plumage. The instrument 
used in pen-making is the ordinary plate of 
the penknife, inserted firmly into a wooden 
liaudle of peculiar shape, tapering to a point. 
A pen is made with two cuts or three. The 
blunt end of the quill is fii'sl cut ofi', because 
it is not tough. Then the point of the 
handle is inserted, and the quill is carefully 
split for a certain distance. Two slashing 
cuts then form the nib. and the pen is done. 
The plumage is neatly trimmed. Swan 
quills are 8t)metimi'S used for pens, but are 
very much more expensive than the com- 
mon goose-quill. Quill pens are sold at 
retail for about three shillings a d<izon. The 
demand is steady, such as it is, but it is 
growing less year by year. — Sdetitijic 

Among the manuscripts lately acquired 
by the library of Athenian Chambers is a 
roll of thick paper about a finger in width 
and a thousand feet long, on which the vari- 
ous anagrams of the name Constantinople 
are written. These different anagrams are 
arranged iu alphabetical order, and amount to 
ui) less than 40,135. This roll was, appar- 
ently, in England in the last century. 

■U-Lq; -i^ jjT^L^g^ Lju^ } ijSliS jJJJU^i£i^ 3 

Business Colleges in Europe. 
Mr. Smakt'n LoNnoN Wkitinh-sciiooi., 

There arc no buHiucss outlcgea in Curope 
iu tlie Bonse in which we iinderBtaad them 
JD this country. It is true that iu some 
German rities, in Bplgiiim aod in Fraoce, 
there are schools under Govoratncnt control 
and patronage, the purpose of which is di»- 
timrt from thatof tliecl«hsical8chool»andw>I- 
Irgef" which, in Eiir'ipcan countries, stand for 
education ; hut a fjlaui-e at the currit-uhim nf 
any of thtw inHtitutioDw will sliow h..w dif- 
ferent is their purpose and sphere frnni that 
ot ihe Antfrifun business college. In fact, 
I am free to say that the Ameriitan luisine-ss 
college might be sensibly improved by 
substituting, not the names alone, but serious 
and competent instruction in some of the 
studies which constitute the essential fca~ 
tares of the German business school. But 
the fault does not lie so much with 
the proprietors of buwinesa colleges 
in this country as with the people 
upon whom they must rely for sup- 
port. I do not believe tliat there 

Wilh'mt knnrking I ('ppne<l the office- 
door, which proved to be also the door to 
the main school apartment, and was met by 
the proprietor in pleasant Kuglish fashion, 
at once making known to him myself and 
the friendly purpose of my visit. The 

schoolroom had a seating capacity for | greater reward than seems to be yours." 
fifteen or twenty students — only one being i "Yea, you may well «ky that; and if I 
present. Mr. Smart is a kindly-faced, well i were to begio my life over, with my present 
preserved Englishman of sixty-five or seven- experience, I thiuk I would try something 
ty, easy in his mannera, gentlemanly and ' else ; but it is too late now — ipiite too late. 

" That is just what I mean to say. What 
do you suppose would become of my busi- 
ness if I were to go away and leave itt" 

*' Well," said I, " you doo't seem to have 
a very large business as it is. Surely such 
pled fidelity should meet with a 

itelligent. He informed me that he had 
followed his present business for the past 
forty-two years, during which time he hod 
had but one hididay, and that was the un- 
happiest day he had ever spent. It became 
necessary to send one of his sons to a 
country schotd, and he felt it his duty as a 
father and a citizen to personally inspect 

And, besides, I have so grown iuto my 
daily duties, that I should be very much at a 
loss if I could uot onnie here every day. I 
even think if sttme eccentric person should 
die — as no eccentric person will, you may be 
suro — and leave me a fortune, I would not 
accept it without the privilege of keeping 
grown into it, 

This duty necessitated | I should be very unhappy to be thrown out 


id I ; 


this country- 
the business schotds are as h<inest 
and as faithful V\ their promises as 
are other schools — that would not 
lie willing to embrace in the couimc' 
of study, and have efiectually 
taught, all the uecc-wary branches 
of practical learning, if its patn>ns 
would consent. In fact, I believe — 
I A-jiow— that the common thought 
and desire of the best teachers of 
our specialty is to enlarge the area 
of our work, and tuake their 
schools, iu the best sense, forces 
in education. 

But the great drawback to these 
noble aspirations is, that the 
have failed in othei schooh 
the special education necest 
business, and apply finally 

i to get \l 


L,'reat haste to have the work com- 
(di-led, and are impatient at any 
attempt ou part of the teacher to 
^ive the student more than he paid 
or. Notwithstanding this, however. 
American bu8ine8."< colleges have 
progressed during the past tweuty- 
tive yeare in the way of practical 
instruction to such a degree that 
they are now holding an assured 
[lositiou with thinttiug men as an 
essential feature in our national 
system of education. In order to 
iippreciato the growth of this 
filature, one has only to contrast 
tlic least important among the 
husiness ccdleges of America with 
ilie most important of the private 
I'ommereial schools of Europe. 

When in Londcm recently 1 
made it my business to " look up " 
the commercial schools of that city. 
To excellent men I had excellent 
letters, which were good in a social 
and general way, but no distinguished edu 
tionist in London could give me the na 
or the location of a commercial school 
that English speaking city of 4,000,000 
habitants. So I reverted to that 

city for one night. | of it. I can well understand the poor debtor 
"And do you think," said he, " that I slept ! of Dickens's ' Little Dorrit,' whose forty- 

nuns of the papers, 
'ducatioual ad' 
A'm. A. Smart, which I her 
t may do him good. 

ink that night? 

my word, I didn't. Kivst, I faneir-d that the 

sheets were wet, and I pulled them oB" and 

the advertising col- tried to sleep without tliem; next, I was per- 

id found among the fectly conscious of the p^eseul^e of small un- 

card iif Mr. invited bed-fellows, and I lighted a candle 

ert, trusting aud searched for them iu vain ; then I felt 

sure that I heard burglai 



nd, finally, I had 

. Regent Street (* 

in-el). Op,-ii In.iii 10 till !> .inilv. 

t-uU ayes i-^ccived (privately), un'd 


aruvemeiii gimninlfed 
tons. Sejmraie riMinis f 

- ladie 

Smart, entering the ; y*"' 


I'liis fantasy 
that if there 
London ward 

I "applied" 
little court ( Swallow Street ), and passing 
up the passage to the second floor. Here 1 
fuuud a lattice-gate vi'hich, when pushed 
iipeu, nuig very audibly, a bell in The upper 
>ti.i y. As this bell announced my approach, 
I was relieved at once from any sense of 
I ntrusion, and walked up. 

awful presentiment that my 
was burning down aud hU 
property being destmyed 
took so strong a hold on 
had been a midnight tra 
I would have taken it withi 
m hardly conceive, i 
upon getting back in the morning t 
find that my fear% had been without cause 
But it was a lesson to me. aud I have neve 
dared to leave the eiiy tor a single night since. 
" But you don't mean to say that in forty 
two years you have absolutely bad no vaca 

years' confinement in the Marshalsea prison 
only prepared him to hang about Ihe prison 
door so that he might steal in at night and 
-sleep in a home that had become dear to 
him from long habit. Why, even a horse — 
and a horse is supposed to have hard sense — 
when turned out of a burning stable, will, 
from force of habit, and a sense of protection 
no doubt, rush back into his stall and perish 
in the flames." 

I made but little reply tn this bit of phil- 
osophical truth— as truth I felt it to be — for 
although I was not sure that I could put my 
finger on Mr. Smart's parallel among the 
doubt; and professional teachers of this country, I was 
not altogether certain that he might not be 
found to exist, even in this very city; and at 
best I felt that a teacher's life was that of a 
horse in a treadmill, unless he felt strong 
enough to make it otherwise. I asked Mr. 
Smart if he ever expected to visit America. 
"Ah, now," said he, "you touch me in a 
tender spot. How I would like to do that 

one thing before I die! You have such a 
magnificent country ! You do everything 
on such a large scale I Your people are so 
rich and so generous, and so full of inven- 
tion and knowledge ! I have often dreamed 
of visiting America, and 1 feel the warmest 
interest in everj'thing which pertains to that 
great country, but I shall never see it." 
And he ?»id this in a sad tone. 

"But, tell me," said I, "why is it that 
in all this gniud and great city there are no 
sueh practical schools as we have iu even 
our smallest American cities? Why, for 
instance, are you— an intelligent, faithful, 
progressive man — plodding along at this 
rate after forty-two years of faithful service 
in an important educational field? Haa ' 
there been actually no progress in practical 
education in this country during the past 
forty years \ " 

"I will say, rather, that there 
has been a decline. The business 
is not nearly so good as it was forty 
years ago." 

" But, don't you think," said I, 
"that if a keen, progressive, ego- 
tistical American should come into 
London and open a real American 
Business College, advertising it 
thoroughly, and instead of going 
to members of Parliament and 
scions of nobility for the privilege 
of reference, should interest hxm- 
ness men and get their sympathy 
and co-operation — in short, use the 
same energy, tact and shrewdness 
that are so successfully used in our 
country, he might not make a sen- 
.sation and change the whole 

" I doubt if you understand the 
British public, or how much of a 
change would have to come over it 
as to education before tlie one oniild 
root out the old idea that noth- 
ing can go by the name of educ^i- 
tion that is not founded upon the 
classics. In this respect, France 
and Germany are far enough ahead 
of us, for commercial schools do 
prosper in those countries?" 

"Nevertheless," said I "Yankee 

live London. I visited Havorly's 
minstrel performance last night at 
Her Majesty's Theatre, and that 
immense house was crowded with 
spectators, and I have even seen 
restaurants that seem to thrive on 
'American oystoi-s,' and 'American 
cooking,' whatevpi the latter may 

" Yes, we are not opposed to 
Yankee notions oreven to Yankees ; 
and if a thorough-going American 
with money aud brain's should 
open a business college in the 
British Museum, or in one of the 
Houses of Parliament, I should 
. hH)k for nothing but a grand suc- 

" Well, you may he sure that. if a thor- 
ough-going American should attempt such 
an enterjirise in London ho wouldn't locate 
in Petticoat Lane or at Seven Dials, but 
would find the most commodious, the most 
conspicuous and The most genteel apartments 
to he found in the city, and then he would 
Take sure measures to let the people know 
where he was to be found and what he could 
do. I am not a typical American, but if I 
were twenty years younger than I am I 
would tike nothing bettor than to open a 
business college in London." 

" Well, you might succeed, but not in the 
sense in which you view aueceas. I think 
that with a business college on your bauds 
in this city you would hardly find the time, 
if you did the money, to travel about over 
the Continent and luxuriate in Summer va- 

" Perhaps not, but I am sure of one 
thing, that rather than teach six days aiirl 
six nights in the week, and fifty-two weeks 
in the year, as you have done for forty years, 
I would take up a^business more in demand 

ainoDg people w-hn had money lo spend. 
Tcavliing is a noble calling, bat no teacher 
is called upon to be a vlave." 

" You miatakc the matter altogether. Do 
I look like an ovenvorked, poorly fed man ? 
|)u you flee auy sadness in the farrows of 
my checks? Do I appear unhappy or dig 
contenUid t I could have taken up any one 
of various lines of business, had I not pre- 
ferred the business I am iu. I have not got 
rich in my business, but I have made an 
honest and good living, have educated my 
children, and am respected by those who 

The«' were excellent arguments, well put, 
and in a kindly manner, and I left the rep- 
resentative business college man of London 
to the care of liis one pupil, with a genuine 
respect for his mauly ideas of his profession, 
but with the feeling that liis forty-two jears 
of service should have produced better vis- 



Good handwriting is admii-ed by every- 
body, and is a strong recommendation in 
a literary aspirant. It was the neatness 
of the hnndwritiiig, ratlievthan the merits 
of the essay, which led the adjudicators 
ill a prize essay scheme toaward the first 
prize to K.l^ar Allan I'oe. It is said by 
{iriswnlii. our of tlic biographera of Poe, 
that one of thi- jiiilge* took up a little 
book ruuiarkahlj beautiful and distinct in 
caligraphy. ami that it was unanimously 
decided that the jiri/es sliould be paid to 
" the first of the geniuses who liad written 
legibly!" A neat style of penmanship 
will assiu'edly tempt an editor to read the 
manuHcrlpt of a new writer when nothing 
else will. Our own opinion Is, that in 
the niiijorily of rns.s the irtuni of MSS. of 
unknown eonrrihiitor^ nmy be attiibul»Ml 
in part to the badness of the pennianship, 
not to tiie quality of the articles. Nobody 
outside a printing, or an editorial ofllce, 
can foim an adofpiate Idea of the sloveii- 

to rbink tin 
r the genius 


a^MiJA Uiu.-u wliu liuld such an opinion 
that it is erruncuuK. The so-culled men 
of genius are men wlio take tlie greatest 
pains, and who write in most cases the 
neatest hand. In any case, a beginner's 
eliiuuTs of success are gi'eater when his 
MS. can be read without an effort. But 
we cannot do better than quote an editor's 
observation upon tliis subject^Mr. John 

" There is one single tribulation dear 
enough to poisnii life— even if there were 
no other— and this Is disorderly MS. 
Empson, Mr. Napier's well-known con- 
Iributor. was one of the worst offenders; 
he would never even take the trouble to 
make bis paragraphs. 1 have the nnsfor- 

11,1 M,. M : ,: would fill tliiitv t>f 

tlH-. ,,_.- / w/-/,v Rrriar). and' yet 

1.1 tht 

tlon that it is nut to bo read at a single 
breath. The paragraph ought to be. and 
in all good writers it is, as real and us 

sensible a. liM-iun :.- iiM M-i.tence. It is 

Ml'', ;.nd an end! 

Ill uioauic and deiluite 

IMi a be; 




' 1 fear my manuscript is rathei 
derly,' says another, * but I will correct 
i-arefuUy iu print." Just so. Hecuuse 
he is too liendless to do his work In a 
workmanlike way. he fii"st inflicts fatigue 

and ) 


he I 

pccts to n-!nl bis iinpri ; -ei-ondly. be in- 
llicts c..n>idnabl<- and qniti- needless ex- 
pense on the publisher: and thirdly, he 
liifilcts a great deal of tedious and thank- 
less labor on the printers, who are for the 
most part far more meritorious persons 
than fifth-rate authors. It is true that 
Hnrke returned sneh disordered proofs 
that the printer usually found It least 
troublesome to .set the whole afresh, and 
Miss MnrtlncHU tells a story of u Scotch 
coniposltoi who Hew from Edinburgh to 
avoid a great living author's manuscript, 
and to Ills horror was presently runfront- 

ed with a piece of copy wbicli made him ! 
cry, Lord have mercy I Have y«« got ( 
tliat man to print for ?' But most editors 
will ehcerfully forgive such transgression 
to all contributors who will guarantee 
that tliey write as well as Burke or Car- 
lyle. Alas! it is usually the case that 
those who have tlie least excuse are the 
worst offenders. The slovenliest manu- 
scripts come from persons to whom the 
difference between an liotir and a mlmite 
is of the very smallest iniportanee." — 
Litrr<iry IjuUer. 

Reform and Spelling. 

In the May number of the iV<rfr« Uamt 
Sefu/loAtir. we find the following highly 
interesting article upon spelling, whicli 
we deem of sutHeient interest to warrant 
giving it a place In the JoURXAL. 

"Kcfnrniin spelling is a subject that 

hii- In i iiii.-iited upon in col- 

le;."' I II ■ - ii: I" iiig in favor of It. 
bni V-- III' , iiii-t it. A writer in 
IVit A<i,;/i^,M'f l.ii-l.\ entered a strong 
protest against it; Mr. Norfieet favoretl ir 
in the tirliolnntic. As for ourselves, we 
know that a great need of reform in this 
respect exists — no partial refoi-m, but a 
thorongh reform. We have avoided re- 
ferring to It from tlie fact that we knew 
It was useless. We need a reform, but 
the public mind has not been prepared to 
accept It, and reformers only nnike them- 
selves ridiculous to a greater or less ex- 
tent in attempting to carry it out. Cus- 
tom is strong, and tlie prejudice In favor 
of a metho'd of spelling used by Shake.s- 
pcare, Macauhiy, Milton. Drydeti, Pujic, 
and Longfellow are very strongly rootcil 
In the very hearts of the people. Still, 
the Kiijrli-^h l;ui-riM-.- i- -n f.-arfully en- 

lliinii- l.ii.r- r,i:ii ii i- iIh- u.-ik of a life- 
time [•■ Ih' :i]iIi' to nLa-r<'t' ilt<' iMdinietitary 
formulas of understamliiig. spelling and 
pronouncing ail the words properly. 
The jiartial reform — if reform It may be 



rin II lit , . iitiiiy aiiinunts to little or notti- 
iiiu iiiil ili< a^hlUioiial ones lately pro- 
l>n-i li h:,\<: \yi'[i taken up only by half a 
dozen newspapers out of several thou- 
sands. The fact that we have succeeded 
in dropping only one superflous letter — 
II iu "favor," "honor," and similar 
words— as the result of the efforts of more 
tiian half a century, argues poor success 
for the work of reform in the near future. 
And still England liungs on to the sui)er- 
Iluous » as tenaciously and as jealously 
as it did to tiie Old-Style Calendar in 
opposition to that of Pope Gregory. A 
poor outlook, we say again. Something 
is wanting to push the work forward, 
which we will mention presently. 

To show some of the extravagances of 
which our present orthography furnishes 



"Uhoughphtlielghtcau." amiiding to the 
following rule: WA stand for p. as in the 
last syllable of hiccough ; »>iyfi for o. as In 
dougii; ;*AlA asl. as In phthisic; eiiffi for 
a, as in neighbor; eau for «/, as In beau. 
The following lines present a similarly 
lidiculous feature; 

t heiieveroncethouglit. 
\Bat;hrI".tian man ought. 
' imporiUcd b)s life e 

—S/nibrnritli- HtmUl. 

~Il»rk/oiil fo'ir 

our language came from originally— , 
whether from the Greek, Latin. Teutonic, i 
or Celtic tongues — tliey should be made 
to conform to such simple phonetic rules 
as will make them easily spelt and under- 
stood; otherwise it will be the work of a 
lifetime to master the language. In fact, 
it Is such now. Chaucer took the rude 
elements of the English tougue and fash- 
ioned them to suit himself, forming from 
them what was considered In his day a 
great improvement; but our Englisli of 
to-day is as far sui)erior to Chaucer's as 
Chaucer's was to that of his forefathers, 
and yet it is not wliat it should be. Why 
not make further improvements*:' Scien- 
tific knowledge and the mechanic arts are 
constantly improving; photography ,and 
chromo-lithograpliy have taken the place 
of the tedious brush; we have gone from 
the dim llghc of the rusli and tlie tallow 
caudle on through various grades to the 
beauMfnlly clear Ilame from the kerosene 
lamp and gas-burner, on to the electric 
light; the mower and reaper liave dis- 
l,l:H<'.i rli.' -i-kleand the scythe; the old 
hihl.-^Kifi iiiiU and hand printing press. 
till mIdl: Mil Willi great manual labor 250 
jiiiiititl >liri'i-^ an hour, have been re- 
placed by improved machines that turn out 
witii ease from 13,000 to 25,000 sheets an 
hour; In everything else we see signs of 
progress except in our cumbrous >]i.!Iiinj:. 
Efforts have been made by a few- i.n-i- 
deiits of universities, eniiucnt -..liniai- 
aiul pliilologisLs among the number— but 
for want of co-operation they liave pioved 
ineffectual. The great majority keep 
aloof, and will not touch the spelling re- 
form. If you ask any of them why he 
does so, he will jjrobably tell you that the 
present method of spelling, imperfect as 
it is, has become endeared by lt.s associa- 
tion with the great writers tiiat iiave 
made our language illustrious. It seems 
to be of no moment that children for gen- 
erations to come must endure the head- 
splitting process of memorizing rules with 
any number of i-xi-e|.th)iis, and spend ten 
years learning tlieir mother tongue when 
they could inive acquiied It in two; no 
nnitter if seholars. after a lifetime of 
study, make blunders in trying to put 
ough. pUh ijltt. hard tj and soft y, eh, sh, 
and /;, flr« and ua iu ttielr jjropcr places, 
scholars can't think of ehangingthe spell- 
ing to which tliey li 


As Mr. Bro 

, dusy 

excellent Phwxjm, 
ly, " It meighkes — I mean ma 
—I meflu my braign — I mean h 
— I mean dizzy, to plitbyucii — I mean 
think, ougliph— 1 "iieau oav— no, no !— I 
mean o/eiphth I mesne— I mean— O dear, 
dear !— I ceagn't speagll en scoutch elgli 
cymple wey aze foonatiques tliietcbals." 
This may seem a hit of extravagance, but 
it is nothing worsethan what polite people 
are guilty of every day, as, for example, 
in til- spelling of the words ••neighbor," 
"deign," " height," " busy," etc. The 
Phoimjraphiv Mmithly very properly com- 
ments upon tills outlandish spelling as 

"These written u<.ni- -lind lie. as neai- 
ly as possible, the si>,'ii nf the correctly 
spoken word. There shud not lie two, 
three, four, five and more separate, dis- 
tinct signs for one sound, and two, three, 
and four signs all crowded into one word 
to represent but one sound. If wc verb- 
ally express auy idea respecting quantity 
or amounts, like 820 bushels of grain 
sohl for ¥535, we want tiie ifrittm expres- 
sion to be eapable of representing, with- 
out the least iiossibility of uncertaiuty, 
the sp-li-ii expression. The one must be 
the unvarying sign of the other. This 



Tlie foregoing examples are not exag- 
geratcil In the least; they are fair samples 
of English orthography, as it stands, in 
this enlightened nineteenth century, in 
the masterpieces of English literature. 
Who, after giving the subjeet any 
thought, will be so unreasonable as to say 
that our present method of spelling docs 
not need a radical change in many re- 
spects? No matter where the words in 

gibberish _/iMfWj«A, gimbals, /i»ifta/j(, gher- 
kin. j«tW«, etc. And tlien, reversing, hav 
herd the same people pronounce with the 
hard ij as in ings, the words georgic, gib- 
bet, gibblels. ginsing, giraffe, gyrate and 
gj'nitions, all of which words should be 
spelt with a j. There are finely-educated 
people who never were, and never will 
be. able to remember whether to say 
gibber or jibber, gibbet or jibbet, georgic 
or jeorjic. gorget or jorjet. gyrate or jyrate, 
apagogleal or apagojical. paragoge or par- 
agoje. fAiropodists or XiVopodists or j</dr- 
opodist^, machinations or makinations or 
maslilnations. because rhey do not hapjjen 
to po--es« the pe.-iiliiu,.n/in- faenlty 
for this Kin<l id ill..ii..ii .nhiii-ai> , pell- 
say nothing of thini:-;uid- fl otIlm- made 
by the same class) were all herd from 
people in the literary and 'gown' profes- 
sions, and gi-aduates from our best col- 
leges .... Teachers in our schools hav 
to keep Webster right at their elbows by 
day, iu their laps at lionie and under 
their heads at night, to help them out of 
both orthoeplc and orthbgrapliic embar- 
rassments. ... No such truble cud hav 
come with a full fonetic alfabet. Witli 
only 23 letters for 40 elements, how cud 
spelling be perfect':' Unreasonably spelt 
words art naturally mispronounced, not 
onl,\ by the ignorant but by the educated. 
\\r rliitik that such spelling as phlegm, 
l>llllli-i^ couch, apophthegm, tongue, 
bunib. plague, ague, fatigue, Montague, 
sew, (so), sewer (so-er). and spinach, is 
unmistakable evidence of, not only pho- 
netic decay, 'but of fonetic death, or 
else fonetlcs wasn't born wlien the spell- 
ing of these words was Invented.' " 
Mr. Browne asks; "If the fouetlk 

, of dollars and 
niderstanding cor- 
' printed or written 
\ /Hiitiftcfiy i-cliahlf 

just a- ■M-llv p, --,...- ;i irll.llili- IIHIImmI 1,1 

expi-e^.Uij; liu piunuuiaCiun uf uuhU. 
after we hav h-ained the scale of values 
or sounds Wo hav herd intelli- 
gent, peojdc in this great city [New York] 
pronounce the words gew-gaw Jew-jaw, 




tionaiie- \\cn' raKiii ;i\\:iy, where W<mld 
our iHoiiim.iatinri !..■ r' Well, in a little 
while wi- Moiihl li;i\e a queer jargon of 
words; iu fact, it is b;al enough as it is, 
with " Hfctlier and »j/ther, ccther and 
ithcr. lff/.\niv and liiy/Anu; va-u^s and 
vazes, qiiynlne and quiiinine, quineen 
and kinneen. (/(/>theriu and <i^ft\\er\&, 
ration am 

May, ropi 

^irttent and jutfAmit," 

, Sh.'vt-h,t<,.l Writrr for 

rlr fl-ilM 11'/-/, AlCalf, 

vhicht.I.e foil. 

the ditllculties wliicli cldldren meet i>i 
learning to sjieak their mother fomjue: 

Teaclier.— '• Spell One." 

Little Boy.— "O-ii-e." 

T.— -Wonder." 

L. B.— " 0-n-e-d-e-r, wonder." 

T.— Wrong. Try "Two." 

L. B.-"T.w-n. two - 

T.— •■ Do." 

L. B.— "D-w-o, do." 

T.— Another iinss. " Laugh." 

L. B.— (;//■»«/%) "L-a-u-g-h, laugh. 

T.— "Calf." 

L. B.— •• C-a-u-g-h, calf." 

T.— Wrong again. " Enough." 

L. H.--E-n-o-u-g-h, enough." 

T.— "Stuff." 

L. B.—"S-t-o-u-g-h, stuff." 

T.— You may go to ytun- scut and lose 
your recess. 
Authors who have grown gray in the 
service, and printers wlio have spent the 
greater part of their lives at the case, 
must have a dictionary at their elbow for 
reference in oider to spell words that are 
in daily use. This is truly a poor state 
of affairs, auu one. too, which ndglit 
easily be remedied. K. A. Murch, LL.D., 
President of Lafayette* College, Pa., 
contributes an article on the sj)eIHng re- 
form to (J'li'd IMeratiire, but the reform 
he proiKises Is not nearly advanced 
enough, as instanced in his own spelling 
of the word "could " with only the I 
elided, thus "cou'd," which is not "cud" 
but '"cowed," or at least as much this as 
the other. We need a thorough reform; 
nut so thorough at first, perhaps, as Isaac 
I'll man'- piiuiietic alphabet of 36 types 
anil 41 leitei-. but a senil-phonotypic al- 
phabit. witli words spelt exactly as they 
are t-pokcii. The Presidents of Oxford, 
Cambridge (England) Harvard, Yale and 
Lafayette, and such eminent men as Max 
Muller, Mui-niy, Gladstone, Sir Charles 

3 every 

liff(\. Dr. Angus. WeiAS4?. and others, 
have long been in faVor t.f reform, but 
TvOhing lias yet been done. Tlie press 
Bbould take up the subject and push the 
reform with a unanimous accord; a con- 
vention of Bchool-hook publifdiers. teach- 
erti. college presidents, or their represent- 
ativeit, etc., should meet for deceisive 
action. By all means let us have English 
»I»eU as it U pronounced. Tliis i-ongloin- 
eration of Latin, Greek. Auglo-Saxon, 
Fr'iuch, Icelandic, Irish, etc.. etc.. has 
been carried too long; it is a burden to 
everybody, and to school children in par- 
ticular. Let us liave reform and a thor- 
ough one; half measures are too slow and 

Explanation of Programmes. 

Hv C. H. pRiRCK. Keokuk, Ia. 
The work of the Programmes is system- 
atically arraoged with rofereace to sim- 
plicity, and the eeveral steps in each that 
are made progressive, until the highest ideal 
is reached, are such as the poorest writers 
are enabled to take with a fair amount of 
honest work coupled with teaching power. 

It is not my intention to cast any reflec- 
tion upon the methods of others, but simply 
to state what I do know. If 
this does not conform 
one, I am surely not to 
siired, because " when doctors 
disagree who shall decide." 

I do not remember when I 
taught by using a certain num- 
ber of principles, and I take the 
gniiind that, to teach inlelli- 
gently, principles are not essen- 
tial to success. That they exist 
1 dt> not dare deny, and I deem 
it a very jceak point for any 
author to lay claim to superior- 
ity on account of possessing the 
least nmnber. 

The finger-movement bears 
the same relation to writing 
that counting-blocks does in a 
child's first lessons to aritbmelie. 
Certain steps must be taken at 
first, even if they are cramped 
and awkward. In lime they can 
be exchanged for something 
more practical— the same as 
the first reader is eventually 
exchanged for the daily news- 
paper. The conclusionis, then, 
that the finger movement is a 
part of the curriculum, and to 
attempt to teach and ignore it 
means failure. I have always 
taught it to children— and, in 
fact, to every one who did not 
understand the true form of letters— untU a 
fair auiouut of skUI was attained. At the 
age of ten or twelve, or as soon as the mus- 
cles have sufficiently developed, the whole- 
arm and fore-arm, as per Programmes can 
be introduced, so that by degrees the trinsi- 
liou can be easily made to the combination 

5. Pupils stand by divisions (at signal) 
JO to desk of teacher. 

6. After the_^rs( preparation of any tcork 
the parts incorrectly executed are taken up 
iinglt/ in their order and criticised. If found 
unsatisfactory the second time, the work 
must be done again according to rule 4. 

7. When one class of work is properly 
done, either by one or more efforts, the pupil 
receives a mark* designating his or her 
ability, and is advanced. 

8. If at any time pupils perform the re- 
quired work before time for criticism, they 
must continue the same until the division is 

9. If by any reason a pupil is unable to 
advance from any given point, a review is 
of the first consideration. 

10. Pupils returning to old habits are 
governed by Rule 6, 

After passing the figures singly, have 
them written from one to one hundred to 
see if the proper forms have been retained. 
If any failures, correct and pass to 3rd copy. 
As per Dailj/ Programme, it will be seen 
that one hour is given to figures. This can 
be lessened as the conditions require. In the 
moat extreme case a little time should be 

2. The work prescribed alwayi 
the ability of pupil. 

3. No work unnecessarily done. 

4. A thorough understanding of all work i jt jg a libel 

5. Carelessness entirely cured. 

6. In case of absence or transfer, each 
pupil's work remains the same. 

7. Grading unnecessary to promote ad- 

8. At all times each pupil knows exactly 
what to do. 

9. Criticisms made easif, pleasant and 

10. Work secured out of school hours. 

Programme "B." 


Whatever may be said with reference to 

this programme may consistently be said of 

■• C." 

All work executed with the whole-arm 
can be executed with the fore-arm and vice 

1. Tracing Exercises {lead pencil). The 
first point to be gained in this programme 
is freedom of the arm from the shoulder. 
This can be accomplished by following trac- 
given by teacher, and continued 

The beginning of the work in Programme 
"A" is figures. (See argument and articles 
in June and July Journals.) As given, 
they appear in the order of simplicity. 
Praclie« each in its order, singly, and each 
step wQl give positive asanrauco for another 
until the whole work of tigurcs will have 
been cleared away. This will lay a most 
exrolleut foundation for the work on letters, 
both as regards the execution and power to 
judge form. In fact, I have found that 
wheu a perfect conception of the figures is 
once gained, with the ability to execute, all 
"ther small work is rendered easy. 

Rules Govbrnino Class Work. 

1. Prepare specimens (to bo preserved by 

2. At close of term, stated interval or 
year.s work, write eecond specimen and 

3. The work of classes of all grades is 
first done by preparing a line of each part 
of class work. (See Programme " A.") 

4. Each pupil's wurk is examined every 
five nr ten Hues, according to siw of class. 

given each day to a review with reterence 
to gaining some particular point -for in- 
stance, speed in a single figure, say 4, at 
the same time retaining a good fonn. It is 
not a difficult feat to make 120 fours per 
minute, and yet those who have given it no 
attention will fall far short of it. Speed in 
figures will give speed in letters. Regu- 
larity of form in figures will give the same 
in letters. Arrangement of figures will give 
like r<'sults in letters, aud so on. Whatever 
good results are obtained in the former will 
lend encouragement in the latter. 

The plan of procedure is the same with 
the 3rd copy as with all others. Have one 
line of each of the short letters written, 
after whicli proceed as per Rule until the 
work of the prognimTue is completed. This, 
of course, will depend entirely upou the 

But -SEVE 

I practice 
1 any one 


It is evident that in any class some stu- 
dents will accomplish far more than olhere in 
the same time. Some need more attention 
than <.thers. Some can be led to improve 
what would cause ot!i 
gramme method will 


The Pro- 
: all possible de- 

until an easy, graceful motion is acquired, 
which will necessitate a good position' (see 
June Journal). 

2. Extended Movements. The greatest 
power that can be acquired in capitals is 
shown in a correct conception and mastery 
of extended movements. Let the student 
not underrate the point in question if he 
hopes to gain ability to execute even the 
plainest capitals. Perfect freedom must be 
established if the best results follow. 

It is not necessary to be able to produce 
ALL the different movements in order to be a 
fair penman, but the fact cannot be denied 
that a power exists in extended movements 
that is not found elsewhere. 

(To be contiiivrd.) 

How a \Voman Does It. 

Some crusty old curmudgeon thus tella 
■* work to mail a lett«r. 
r. Some of the girli 
will make it red hot for him if he is discov- 
ered. Any day when you have time you can 
see how she does it by dropping into the 
post-office. She arrives there nith a Iett«r 
in her hand. It is a shfet of note in a white 
envelope. .She halts in front of the stamp- 
window, opens her umuth to ask for a stamp, 
but suddenly darts away to see if she has 
made any errors in tlie names or dates. It 
takes her five minutes to make sure of this, 
and then she balances the letter on her fin- 
ger, and the awful <]uery arises in her mind: 
" Perhaps it is an overweight." She stepi 
to the window and asks the clerk if he hu 
a three-cent stamp, fearing he has'nt. She 
looks over every compartment in her port- 
monnaie before she finds the change to pay 
for it. The fun commences as she gets the 
stamp. She fiddles around to one side re- 
moves her gloves, closely inspects the stamp 
and hesitates whether to "lick it" or wet 
her finger. She finally concludes it would 
not be nice to show her tongue, and wets her 
finger and passes it over envelope. She is 
so long picking up the stamp 
that the moisture is absorbed 
and tlie stamp slides off" the 
envelope. She tries it twice 
more with like success, and 
getting desperate she gives the 
stamp a "lick" and it sticks. 
Then comes the sealing of the 
letter. She wets her finger 
again, but the envelope flies 
open, and, after three minutes' 
delay, she has passed her tongue 
along the streak of dried •mu- 
cilage. She holds the letter a 
long time to make sure that 
the envelope is all right, and 
finally appears at the window 
and asks : " Three cents is 
enough, is it f " " Yes, ma'am." 
"This will go out to-day T" 
"Certainly." "Will it go to 
Chicago without the name of 
the county on?" "Just the 
same." "What time will it 
reach there t " " To-morrow 
morning." She sighs, turns the 
letter over and over, and finally 
asks: " Shall I drop it into one 
of those places, there f" "Yes, 
ma'am." She walks up in front 
of the six orifices, closely aCAns 
each one of them, finally nukea 
a choice and drops — no she 
doesn't. She stojis to see 
where it will fall, pressing her face against 
the window until she flattens her nose 
out of shape, and she doesn't drop 
it where she intended to. She, however 
releases it at last, looks down to make sure 
that it did not go ou the floor, and turns 
away with a sigh of regret that she didn't 
take one more look at the ! 
Evening Telegram. 

To make any Copy-book reversible for 
use on narrow desks, fold it back firmly and 
carefully a few times ; or, in the process of 
manufacturing, by using the folding press 
out and in, the book will be practically re- 
versible. Spencer. 

I superscription. — 

Bayard Taylor's Writing. 

. , Unlike many literary men. Mavard 'I'av- 

A Knight of the Quill. ,„, „,„,e a d 'ar, beautif,,! ill ul dc- 

Oii this i>.igc ,s an oiigiual sketch fion, the tested blind and sluvenly writing, and used 
mgoniuus pen of Prof. J. H. Harluw, rep- ,o say that any man cuuld write plainly 
rraennng a Sir Knight of the .|nill, nionnted | who would make an elfort. His mannsmpt 
"pon « powerful dnigon. Mr. Barlow pro- I was the delight of printers. He wrote 
duces all manner of ingenious and attractive quietly and steadily, and produMd a groat 
designs with a wonderful facihty. His orig- deal more " copy " In a gi/en than any 
inal designs for albums, cards, and other one would suppose him capable of who „b- 
purposes, are widely sought and highly | serced his apparent ease and absence of 


usTs OF Superiority in the Peir- 
CEltiAN Method op Ikktruction. 
1. Personal attention to pupils' work at 
"Pei- lime. ) 

I ersons in need of artistic pen work, en- 
grossing aud designing, should bear iu mind 
be promptly supplied 
le tiiliee of the Joiilt- 

that thei 

upon application 


not, like Horace Greeley, enough so to 
conspicuous. He liked a stout, plain 
of clothes that could bo worn a long 
time, a loose-fitting gray overcoat, and a 

broad-brimmed slouch hat H. Y. School 


AH I -lOllSN VK. 

Published MontlUy ^t tt 1 per Year. 

SOB BriMdwur. N«w York. 
8fa>«l* copiM or lb., JOUKSAL •«)l on ««ii>l o( lOc 


l«o)aii>D «M»' »».«) llW^ob «l60.00 


.ari«hed EBgle.''S4i32i 

" Bounding StHg,"«x32. For»1.7 

* nil! forwiinl the largo Cen- 
laili for K. 


m&ll tb« Jnuu: 

1 as nearly ns pouib 

r publlwtiODS, vrlll be received am 

""''WkNATI0/aL*'nEW8 COMPANV. 

II Bouverie Street. IFIe^tSt-I. 

tirely dp-ttroyetl, and do reliatite dcductinn 
to thp identity of writiug executed under 
be drawn 

As an example, let us suppose that a inaD 
of steady nerve and in a perfectly normal 
cooditioQ. DOW writes sitting, with a fioe flex- 
ible pea and fluid ink ; ten days heocc, at the 
close of a druolten debauch, he again writes 
standing, with a stiff stub pen and thick mud- 
dy ink ; what possible identity could there be 

between the 
these diflerei 
need to go to these 
to utterly aunihilat 
ence between thn 
the difl'erent writiuj 
correspondence of 


nade under 
f Nor do \ 

mr opinion, 
all possible correspoud- 
ervous manifestations of 
I. Again, there can be no 
reinor between writings 
itcd with a fine flexible pen and a 
stylogrophic pen or blunt lead-pencil. 

Indeed, we have failed to find, under 
what we would term tlie most favorable 
circumstances, sufficient to warrant a belief 
that there is in this theory sufficient to con- 
struct any scientific basis for proving or dis- 
proving the identity of writing, while, 
the vast majority of 
identity of hand-writing 

, the 

s called 


no reliable grounds for a conclusion to be 
rendered by a cmnparison of nerve tremor. 
The columns of the Journal are open, and 
we shall be pleased to publish opinions 
upon this subject j))'o and con. 

The Journal and Business College 

We 1 

all 1 

Nerve Tremor as a Means of 
Identifying Hand-writing. 
Within a fuw years there has been ad- 
vaneed a peculiar theory respecting norve 
tremor in hand -writing. It is affirmed that 
there is in every hand-writing a peculiar, 
chnnicleristio and unconscious nei've tremor, 
which is BO revealed under a microscopical 
examination as to absolutely prove or dis- 
prove the identity of any writings thus ox- 
amindd and compared, and that in all cases 
of forced, disguised, simulated or questioned 
idriilily of hand-writing, this furnishes an ; 
infallihlc test. Imbued with the importance 
of tliLs vlaiiDi we have, during some months 
past, devoted considerable time to the mi- 
oroBC4>pit-Rl examinations of various hand- 
writing, with the view, if possible, to satisfy 
onrsetf respecting the value and reliability 
of this peculiar theory. Tliat there is a 
certain nervous manifestation in all hand- 
writing, and that it is different with differ- 
ent persons, is a fact too obvious to be 
questioned ; but that it is of such a nature, 
and is so manifested at all times and under 
all cireumstances as to furnish any consider- 
able aid, to say nothing of an infallible 
means i>f identity in hand- writing, we fail to 
discover or lielieve ; as between two ^vritings 
fxrciitrd at the same sitting, with the same 
|M-n, same ink, the writer in the same men- 
tal and phyAiral cx)ndition, there ^^nll be 
fttiiiid n eorrespondenc* between the tremu- 
Imi-rcRs nmnifested, but let there be a radi- 
cal -■liHuge in either mental or physical 
,i.ip'ii'n» <if the writer — a change of imple- 
}'. ' i mt ink — and the correspondence of 
IK iv.iis ii'iiiiifestation is also changed if not 

prietor I 
except a 

copies of college papers, and have noticed 
with satisfaction the generally liberal si)irit 
manifested therein toward the Journal in 
kindly notices, and in commending it to their 
readers and patrons; also, that in most in- 
stances, where the publishers have seen fit 
to copy matter from its editorial-columns, 
the full and proper credit has been 
given. But there have been some notable ex- 
ceptions, to which we feel it our duly to call 
attention. Before us is a copy of a College 
Journal published by Cob's Business Col- 
lege, Painsville, Oliio, in which appears as 
original matter parts of two editorials, 
entitled respectively, " The value of good 
Writing," and " Writing as a Gift," which 
are copied without change from editorials of 
the Journal, while the name of the 
Penman's Art Journal nowhere appears 
in the paper, nor, as we believe, has the pro- 
I- seen a copy of the Journal, 
specimen copy, sent to him grat- 
uitously. We would suggest that a College 
President, who has neither the brains to 
write his own editorials, nor the honesty to 
give credit for those appropriated from 
othets, ought to be somewhat more modest 
than tliis one seems to be, in the presenta- 
tion of his claims before the public for its 
confidcnco and patronage. 

In other instances we have noticed edi- 
torials of the Journal, appropriated with 
very slight modification, while in others, the 
credit is given to ' ' The Journal " or the' 'A rt 
Journal," which are quite too indefinite to 
be of value or satisfaction to the publishers 
of the Penman's Art Journal. In nearly 
every instance where this plagarisin has been 
observed, it has been by parties who have 
never manifested any desire that their jmpils 
or patrons should see or know of the Jour- 
nal, possibly lest there should he light 
where darkness is preferred, but those gen- 
tlemen should know that the Journal is 
getting abroad. 

adapted to schools of nery kind. Prof. ] are full of gross errors ia orlhosraphy, 
Peirc<? is liighly commended by the Bi>ard [ punctuation and grainmalical expressi* 


r last i: 

1 stat- 

ing that Prof. Peirce was at present en- 
gaged in the Keokuk (la.) public schools. 
For more than a year he has been giving 
his entire attention to his Institute of Pen- 
manship, which has grown far beyond his 
most sanguine e.i:pcetations. He reports 
.^4 graduates last year, the most of whom 
are teaching and meeting with success by 
following the rotirae of instruction laid 

The Programme incllioii 13 not only ex- 
cellent for graded schools, but is alike 

of Education of Keokuk for the good results 
he accomplished in the public schools of 
that city. In antither column may be found 
an extended explanation of *' programmes." 

New Copy-books. 

System of 

These book.« have been prepared by 
Lyman D. Smith, the well-known pen- 
man and tea/^her. They are of standard 
merit and worthy the reputation of the 
author. Mr. Smith has been engaged a long 
time upon the work, and it is really the 
product of his sixteen years' practical expe-- 
rience in the school-room as teacher of Pen- 
manship. There are three courses, giving 
ample grading from the lowest classes of the 
primary- school up to the high-school and 
commercial college. The "Lead Pencil 
Course " for beginners is a beautiful language 
series, containing easy and progressive writ- 
ing lessons. The child is taught to write in 
these books by having his writing made a 
language to him from the very first. He 
begins with word-building, and proceeds 
in an easy and natural way to phrase and 
sentence- building. While he is learning to 
write letters and words, he is unconsciously 
using tliem as a language medium. The 
child uses a child's vocabulary to express a 
child's thoughts, and his writing means 
something to him. This same element 
of interest in the language is carried all 
through the diflerent books. The higher 
numbers of the Short and Grammar Courses 
contain many fine literary selections. 

The graded columns are a very striking 
feature, and characterize nearly every book 
of the series. The columns gradually in- 
crease in width across the page, and thus 
afford gradually increasing scope of move- 
ment. The author advocates the idea of the 
pupils writing across the page, as they do 
outside of their copy-hooks. The language 
method and the penmanship drill are greatly 
facilitated by this original arrangement of 
the column lines. The pupil starts at the 
left of the page and writes the drill letter in 
a narrow column ; next, he writes a short 
word, beginning with the same drill letter 
in a mdor column ; in the next column he 
writes a longer word or a short phrase con- 
taining the previous combination ; and in 
the widest column, a still longer phrase or 
sentence. Thus, step by step, in thesagraded 
columns, the scope of thought and the scope 
of movement are gradually developed, while 
an admirable drill on difficult combinations 
is given. The author's ideas of movement 
will be readily endorsed by the great ma- 
jority of penmen. He gives a "model 
drill" on the letters for class practice pre- 
vious to writing the copies, and a variety of 
carefuUy selected movement exercises for 
concert drill. 

The treatment of the letters is synthetical, 
aiming to impress the entire letter or units 
of form upon the mind of the pupil, and 
the simple forms o£ the letters are explained 
in a simple and natural way. The writing 
combines grac* and strength, and looks like 
pen-work. The hooks are gotton up in an 
unusually attractive style, and the work is 
in every way well worthy the careful con- 
sideration of educators. 

What Young Men and Boys 

The Jersey City Evening Journal of 
Sept. 15th, says: "The letter of Prof. 
Gaskell, of the Jersey City Business Col- 
lege, in another column states the truth in 
relation to the defect in the education of 
boys and youths who desire situations in 
business houses. It is not creditable to our 
schools that so many of the students who 
have been pupils in them should be so ig- 
norant of the proper use of the English 
language and of other things which every 
business man should know. We have daily 
occasion to notice the defects referred to by 
Prof. Gaskell. Wo receive communications 
from parties supposed to be educated, which 

indicating that the education of the writen 
was exceedingly defective in the very points 
where it should have been most thorough 
and correct. 

The King Club, 

and a right royal king it is, comes again 
from C. W. Boucher, principal of the com- 
mercial department of the Northern Indiana 
Normal School at Valparaiso, Ind. It 
numbers one hundred and ten. Mr. Bou- 
cher says "everybody tliis w,ay wants the 
Jouknal ; " we should say so. Tliis club 
makes an aggregatu of six hundred and 
eighty-Jive names seut by Mr. Boucher 
within u little more than a year. Had all 
our friends been equally successfCil, we 
should now have several millions of sub- 
scribers, but we may have them yet. The 
thing seems to be catching. Mr. B. is hav- 
ing many rivals, and who knows what the 
result may be. 

Mr. L. E. Kimball, of Lowell, Mass., 
sends the next largest club, which numbera 
twenty-four. Lessor ones have been too 
numerous to mention, but all the senders 
have our thanks. 

Special Inducement. 
To any person receiviug a specimen copy 
of this issue, we ofler to mail the remaining 
two numbers for 1881 and all the numbers 
for 1882, (in all, fourteen numbers of the 
paper), and a choice of the four premiums 
for $1.00. Give it a trial. 


t clubs of aub- 
Ico liberal offer 

20,000 Copies of the Journal 
for September were mailed, aud three-fold 
more subscriptions were received than dur- 
ing any other September since its publica- 
tion. This is, indeed, encouraging to ita 
publishers, while it gives renewed a 
to its friends and patrons of continued i 
provement in its beauty aud excellence. 

Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal arc not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns ; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished ; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and tell 

Combination Blanks 

for 8|ielling, definitions, composition, and 
penmanship, have lately been prepared by 
the well-known blank book manufacturers, 
Daniel Slote & Co., 119 & 121 William 
Street, which for utility, convenience and 
economy in teacliing any of the above- 
named branches are unequaled by any- 
thing of the kind in the market. Send for 
their discriptive circular and tcims. 

Extra copies of the Journal will be sent 
free to teachers and others who desire to 
make an effortto secure a club of subscribers. 

Subscriptions to the Journal may date 
from any time since, and incluHive of, Janu- 
ary, 1878. All the back numbers from that 
date, with the four premiums, will be sent 
for $3.00. All the numbers of 1880 and 
1881, with either two of the premiums, will 
be sent for $1.75; with all of our premiums, 
for $2.00. ^«^___ 

For 15 cents we will mail a copy of an 
elegant pen-portrait of President Garfield, 
surrounded by an highly artistic display of 
lettering with rustic and floral work. It is 
a beautiful and attractive picture for framing. 
Size 13 X 15 or 8 X 10. A copy of each size 
will be sent for 25 cents. Postage stamps 

Ah 1 Wcx KNVL 

Teach Pupils to Write, and Not 
to Draw, their Lessons. 
Bv Lyman D. Smith. 
The practical value of writing is so great 
as to make it a very importaot rgiieation, how 
peomatiBhip should be tatight in our schools. 
The youDgest pupils ehould be given this 
mediuiii a» early as possible, that writteii 
language may become as uatural to them as 
spoken language. AH the pu]>ils in our pub- 
lic schools should be taught t^i n-rite legibly, 
fliiently and with a fair degree of rapidity, 
just as they are taught to read distinctly 
and Hiienlly, and not to drawl out words. 

The shiw and painful draicing of lines in 
writing should be discouraged. The pupils 
ehould from the very Bret write their letters 
as wholes, juat as they speak their words as 
wholes. This does not by any means imply 
that analysis should be discarded. It should 
be used as a means of criticising the letters. 
After the pupil has become familiar with 
the general form of the letter, then take up 
the letter in detail. Point out the main 
parts and the lines composing these parts; 
all this is done for criticism, to educate the 
eye to the special features of the letter. 
This is the natural method, synthesis pre- 
ceding analysis. First 
make the letter; then 
analyze it. Aim for 
the general form every 
time, and not spell out 
the lines. 

For instjince, a pupil 
has a small m to ^rrite. 
He has three succes- 
sive waves of motion, 

ding with 
a final curve to connect 
with the next letter. 
This is m ; these three 
movements, with the 
final curve, give this 
broad idea of the letter. 
Do not sot the pupil 
to sprlling out or draw- 
ing the seven simple 
lines of the letter, but 
sot him to writing the 
letter as a whole. After 
ho has written it a few 
times, call his attention 
to the three main parts, 
or waves of the letter. 
These should all be 
unifornj. Perhaps some 
of the pupils have these 
I running in 

as a few words or elements of thought have 
bpf-n learned, he should be allowed to write 
little phrases made up from bis own vocab- 

The child should not be allowed to forget 
that writing is the expression of thought. It 
is not advisable to give him a drill in every 
letter ot the alphabet before letting hiin 
write words. The child needs to learn to 
combine letters as much as to make them. 
One process is as difficult as the other, and 
uceds an constant practi'e. 

It has been found that too much slate- 
writing for beginners paves the way for bad 
penholding and cramped movement, the 
injurious effects of which are often seen 
through their entire school course. Many 
children are thus hindered from becoming 
ftuent, easy writers. /( is impossible to ac- 
quire ease of movement from slate-practice. 
Accustom pupils from the first to the use of 
right materials, and give tlieu) little writing- 
lessons as olten as you give them reading- 
lessons. Do not keep the children drawing 
letters on their slates during tlieir first years 
at school, if you would make easy, fluent 
writers of them. Why make a wrong start 
in the lowest grades, aud allow bad habits 

characters is the desired end, aud no diver- 
siiin of effort should he allowed. Practical 
movement exercises are an educational force 
iu penmanship, aud ought to be used in 
every writing-class. 

How to Teach Writing to 

Beginners. I 

AS^WEK TO I-N<vlii:V. 

C. E. W. of Portland, Oregon asks our , 
opinion of the advisability of teaching very 
young pupils to write with the finger move- 
ment, only ; and also asks, " Is it not best 
to begin right at first? The last question 
is the more easily answered, requiring but 
Ihe monosyllable " Yes " ; but to decide with 
certainty what is that right way, demands 
a long series of experiments and ;i c.reful 
study of the mental iiiid physical character- 
istics of each individuiil pupil. Aud even 
then it has been s.-m that the results ob- 
tained, and conclusii'us reached, by different 
teachers of apparently equal attaiumenta, 
and qualifications have been as varied and 
as numerous as the teachers ihemaelves. 

For our own part, we believe the finger 
movement the only practical one for the 
average pupil, making the first, necessarily 

notice : - " If any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and tell 
why." Discussion sidicited. 

Recognized Standard. 

The author of the Spencerian based his 
style of ipriting as a medium between the 
coarse round-hand and the acute-angular 
writing of more than a half century ago, 
and for many years Osed tlie name semi- 
angular to distinguish his conservative style 
from those from which it was mainly derived. 
He was wont to speak of the coarse round- 
hand as being very legible, yet requiring 
almost as much skill and time for execution 
as sign.-lettering, hence not adequate to the 
demands of active business. He character- 
ised the acute-angular style as the opposite 
extreme ; capable of being written with 
great rapidity, yet fatally wanting in legi- 

made by 
rolling m<j 




tions. Wli 
of it! The 

8 the 

It all L 


slant as they should 
bo. Ttie letter lacks symmetry. What is 
the cause of this? The left curves are 
curved too much ; the turns are too broad. 
In tliis way criticism can be brought to bear 
upon every part of the letter, and it means 
soiiu'thiiig to the pupil. He is taught cor- 
rect enunciation iu reading by having his 
attention called to special errors; aud when 
ho convcts his errors, he still aims to speak 
the whole word as a unit. When he cor- 
rects his errors in writing, he should aim to 
write the whole letter as a unit. 

It would not be advisable to give the 
child for his very first lesson iu penmanship : 
a word to write, iu the same way that you j 
give him a word to read, because it multi- 
jdies his dilliculties. It is just as easy for a 
child to read or speak a word as to read or 
speak a letter. But in toriting a word, he I 
must write it hitter by letter. Hence, when 
he begins his regular writing-lesson, apart | 
from ilu' n-jidiiig^ he should be given first , 
the siiitpIeM letU'r in the alphabet; next the 
letter nutst similar in form. As soon as he \ 
bas written these letters a few times singly, , 
be sbouM bo taught to combine them ; and ! 
as M»wn as be has learned two letters that I 
make a word, ho should write the word : 
Cftmhiving letters is the essence of writing. , 
Woni-biiUdiug should thus be carried riglit ' 
along \»ith single-letter practice. As soon ' 

ts Phoiu-entjraved from, cojiy prepared by the 
a fine variety for practice by proj 
to be formed, which will require time and 
effort in the higher grades to overcome and 
eradicate ? 

Free-hand exercises should be used as a 
preparatory drill before writing the regular 
copies. Five or ten minutes' concert 
practice on a movement exercise by the 
class, as an introduction to each writing- 
lesson, will help to educate the muscles, and 
to give free and easy luotiou to the hand 
and arm. The tendency of condensed wri- 
ting is to confirm the pupils in the finger 
movement exclusively, and thus cramp and 
restrain the muscles of the hand aud ann. 
Let tlie pupils strike out boldly on these 
free-hand exercises, aud they will gain 
greater ease and freedom in using the pen. 

The time taken from the regular copies 
will be more than compensated for by the 
more rapid improvement that will follow 
from a systematic and daily use of such 
exercises. From my own practical expe- 
rience in the public schools for more than 
fifteen years, I know the importance of giv- 
ing a good movement drill. It is the only 
way for pu(iils to gain that command of 
hand which is so essential to rapid and easy 
writing. There, exorcists should not bo 
mere fiourishes, calculated to draw the 
pupils' attention from the practical wttrk, 
but should be made up from the letters. 
The rapid and easy formation of the written 

late J. T. Knauss, of Easton^a., and 
ssionals upon whole-arm Capitals. 
crude, attempts at imitating any form with 
pen or pencil, either aided by the eye alone 
or by tracing foiins previously impressed or 
delineated upon the writiug surface. And 
it seems extremely doubtful if the time 
allotted to writing, in any school where 
writing is not a marked specialty, be suf- 
ficient to enable the pupil of any age to 
avail himself of any advantage from either 
the whole arm, the muscular, or the com- 
bined movements. Of course there are a 
few so clever as to acquire an easy, grace- 
ful, free hand^vriting with little effort, but 
this signifies little. 

It is true that it is next to, if not quite, 
give to writing, done with the 
: grace that appears 
when it is executed with greater freedom ; 
the process is laborious and tiresome, but 
creeping precedes wslking. 

To see a babe vigorously engaged in off- 
hand flourishing would be a beautiful and 
inspiring spectacle, in theory, but in practice 
— they don't do it. 

We believe it best to teach one thing at 
a time, and each thing, as far as possible, 
in the order of its simplicity — teaching ele- 
ments of letters or words, and form 
before movement, and the simpler movement 
before the complex, remembering that the 
tortoise reached the goal before the hare. 

We add a quotaUon from our standing 


Even at the jige of sixteen years, young 
Spencer could write both of these styles 
with as much perfection as they were 
capable of being rendered. His success in 
projecting a style of writing, embracing not 
only the legibility of the round-hand, but 
the freedom in execution of the acute-angu- 
lar, gave the character 
of writing thoroughly 
practical and American, 
upon which so many 
have founded their 
methods of teaching 
and designated their 
works as systeme of 
writing or penman- 

In practical writing, 
as in all else of world- 
wide utility, a standard 
is and must be recog- 
nized, to the extent, at 
least, of nationality. 
The printing of books 
and periodicals in for- 
eign languages by the 
use of the Roman or 
Englisli style of letters 
is becoming quite com- 
mon. Many German, 
French aud Spanish 
scholars use the Ameri- 
can stylo of writiug in 
their correspondence. 
The needs of commerce, 
as well as literature, 
will lead to the further 
unity of civilised nations 
in the use of the same 
form of types iu print- 
ing, and thesame stand- 
ard of writing with the 
pen for the embodiment 
of the various languages used in international 

I believe that among the many systems 
of teaching American chiogiupliy, those 
which are philosophically and practically 
good, emanating from the brain and hand of 
penmen who can really use the pen, with- 
out borrowing their merits and beauty of 
production almost wholly from the skill of 
the engraver, will have many friends and re- 
main deservedly popular. 

The mastery of the standard stylo of 
writing, as recognized throughout the coim- 
try, places it with in the power of writers 
to understand, and within a short time pro- 
duce modifications in capitals and other 
letters, by which, I may say, a practical and 
pleasing variety is wrought to meet the dif- 
ferent tastes of the many as to simplicity 
and beauty in the use of letters. 

As to systems of teaching writiug, it is 
due to truth to admit that many excellent 
writers have become so from simply seeing 
and imitating standard writing, using free 
moTomonts and proper positions, while 
others have loaded their minds with the 
theory, enunciated by systems, and still failed 
to master the art of writing. In some fu- 
ture issue I would like to speak of compar- 
ative merits of methods of teaching practical 

given as presenting 



An I »Joi:k.\.vi. 

Wild buHiet un and call" tif names T 

Make* life K burden wiih hi* giment 

Oup brotli^rl 

Who Wkt« iiB home from ningiiiK-Bchoo!. 
And f w«eiljr KpoonB niid play« ihe fool f 
Oor coudin ! 

Who holds our hands in his and kneels 
Until wt> hfvd bis mnd appeals f 
Our Iov«r! 

Who gives us spinsterB good advice 
And lake us out and are so nice! 
Our bachelors ! 

W]to. all in all, are none too eood 
For human nature's dailv food T 

The men. God 'bless them! 

—Kale Firld. 

A Story of Steel^Pens. 

Few persons who use stt'el pens on 
which is stamped " Gillott." have any 
Idea of the story of suffering, of indom- 
itable pluck and persistence, wliicli be- 
longs to the placing of that name on this 

A long depression in trade in England, 
threw thousands of Sheffield mechanics 
out of employment, among them Joseph 
Gillott, then twenty-one years of age. 

He left the city with but a shilling in 
his pocket. Hcaching Ilirmingliam, he 
went into an inn and sat down upon a 
wooden settle in the taproom. His last 
penny was spent for a roll. He was weak, 
hungry and ill. He had not a friend in 
Birmingham; and there was little chance 
that he would find work. 

In his des|)ondency he was tempted to 
give up and turn beggar or tratup. Then 
a sudden fiery energy snized him. He 
brought his fist doivn on tlie table, de- 
claring to himself that he wouUl try and 
trust in God, come what would. He found 
work that day in making belt buckles, 
whicli were then fnshionablc. 

As soo;i as he had saved a pound or two 
he hired a garret in Uread street, and 
there carried on work for himself, bring- 
ing his tiiste and knowledge of tools into 
constant use, even when worklngitt hand- 
made goods. Tins was the secret of Gil- 
lotfs success. Other workmen drudged 
on passively in the old ruts. He was 
wide awake, eager to improve his work or 
to shorten the way of working. 

He fell in love with a pretty and sensi- 
ble girl named Mitchell, who, with her 
brothers, was making steel pens. Each 
pen was then clipped, punched and pol- 
ished by hand, and pens were sold con- 
sequently at enormously high prices. 

Gillott at once brought his skill in tools 
to bear on the matter, and soon invented 
a machine which turned the points out by 
th.iusands. in the time that a man would 
require to mnke one. He married Miss 
Mitchell, and they carried on the manu- 
facture together for years. 

On the morning of his marriage the in- 
dustrious young workman made a gross 
of jicns and sold them for $3(i to pay the 
weddiuf: fees. In his ohl age. having; 
then ri;i|n'd an enormous fortune by his 
Blircwdiicss. honesty and industry, Mr. wi-nt again to the old inn. bought 
thr >;tcil.-. ;iiid had the square on which 
he s;ir sawfii out and made into a chair, 
whith he left as an heirloom to his family, 
to remind Mieni of the secret of his bu'l-- 
cesg. — Pfini-er's Oatette. 

When President Gaifleld w 
professor, lie wrote these lines 
girl's album : 
If the treasiiree of ocean were luii 

And ir« depths were all i-obbud of its' coral 
mid pearl 
And the (limtui 

a young 
1 a young 

1 iny feet. 

And will, UK- 

were brouglu from t 

e piaccil nil the wi-alih 

uT (he i^poits of the bi 
r fume that ihe world v 

Hiram, Jan. m, ISS7. 

Writing Executed -with the Toes. 
In Buonel's Museum, orner of B<iadway 
and Uth etreet. this city, is a young inaD by 
name of Charles B. Tripp, who was bom 
without hands or arms: he is twenty-six 
yearn old, and otherwise than the absence of 
anns and hauds, is of fine perfect physical 
appearance. Mr. Tripp seems to have 
brought his feet and legs in very successful 
use as substitute for the missing hands and 
arms; with them he dresses and feeds him- 
self, makes his owd toilet even to shaving; 
he sews, writes, uses the scissors and knife 
with the usual ease and dexterity of persous 
having hands and arms. On this page we 
publish a photo-engraved facsimile of Mr. 
Tripp's card and a specimen of scrolling 
executed with his toes in our presence. Mr. 
Tripp writes a hand — we should say, a foot 
— which, for ease and accuracy, will c(«npare 
favorably with the average hand- writing. 
His accoinp1ishment« show what practice 
under the greatest of difficulties can do. 

blv all, of I 


aller at the 

A Proud Distinction. 

There is a prominent member of the St. 
Louis bar, not only learned in the law, but 
noted for his peculiar chirography. Especi- 
ally is his signature remarkable. Yesterday 
ho had occasion to sign a document in the 
Circuit Court, and one of the deputy clerks, 
who is no slouch himself with a pen, look- 
ing at the signature with admiration and 
envy, said to the signer, under an ebullition 
of enthusiasm, " I would give $5 if I could 
write that signature. It looks for all the 
world like a cobweb. lu fact, it is an im- 
provement on a cobweb. It would just 
make a spider drunk to attempt to imitate 
it." The lawyer smiled a proud smile of 
eatisfaelion at the compliment to his pen- 
manship and said it was the result of years 
of practice. — St. Louis Repxthlican. 

Complimentary to the Journal. 

Miami 4?OMMERCiAL College, ( 
Dayton, C, Sept. 25th, 1881. \ 
Prof. D. T. Ames. 

Dear Sir: For the inclosed 50 cents 
please send me a few extra copies of the Sep- 
tember number of the Jodknal contain- 
ing Gen. Garfield's address to the students 
of the Spencer College. It is a most valu- 
able argument for our profession, and I 
thank you for publishing it. Also, allow 
me to congratulate you on the higlily in- 
teresting journal you are furnishing us. 
Count ine a lile-loug subscriber. 

Respectfully yours, A. D. Wilt. 

Cady & Walwouth's 

College &. Phonograpihc In-^ 

STiTUTE, 2^ew York, Oct. 0th, 18S1. > 

Editor of the Penman's Art Journal. 

Sir: I am glad that you published the 
late President Gai-field's address on the 
"Elements of Success," which appeared in 
the September number; and this for other 
reasons than that, it commends a class of 
schools in which I am interested. 

First. In connnon with all educators I 
am pleased to see any expression from an 
earnest man, who has won a hard-earned 
success, directed to the young who are try- 
ing t<» work out for themselves an honor- 
Second. Mr. Garfield was in position Ut 
know wliereof he spoke when commemliDg 
business education. He was well acquaioted 
with the elder Spencer, and several, possi- 

house of Mr. H. C. Spencer, in Washiug- 
toD, before whose college he spoke, and 
knew both Mr. and Mrs. Spencer iutimate- 
ly. He had the opportunity to know that 
Mr. Spencer's college is a represeotative of 
the better class of commercial schools. 
Therefore, he addressed h msetf to commer- 
cial students at large — to those who are 
trying to adapt themselves to the necessities 
of a commercial age, and especially to 
those whose lot is cast in this land of trade 

Your paper, circulating, as it does, large- 
ly among the young, will be made doubly 
valuable if you can occasiooally find space 
for the best thoughts of thos'- who have 
reached any degree of eminence outside of 
your specialty, penmanship. 

Truly yours, C E. Cady. 

" The Penman's Journal is an elaborate 
and handsome publication, which all who 
are interested in the improvement of the 
now indispensable science of penmanship 
would do well to procure. It is issued 
monthly, at oue dollar per annum, by the 
well-known artist, penman and expert, Mr. 
D. T. Ames, of 203 Broadway, N. Y. By 
his kind permission, we are able to present 
an extract from an article recently prepared 
for his paper upon the subject of ' Bad 
Writing: its Cause, Effect, and Correction.' 
In the hope that it may prove useful to 
many telegraphers, and aid in protecting 
the telegraph service against thai fruitful 
source ()f errors which are charged to the 
telegraph — careless and illegible handwrit- 
ing.'' — Journal of the Telegraph. 

From L. P. Hubbard, Financial Agent, 
American Seamen^s Friend Society, New 
York, Sept. 26th, 1881. 
D. T. Ames, Esq. 

Dear Sir: Thanks for the leading article 
in your Journal for this month. I have 
been secretary of the New England Society 
in the city of New York, and other institu- 
tions, for more than half a century; yet I 
find I have much to learn, and have re- 
ceived many valuable hints from the perusal 
of the Penman's Art Journal. I sliall 
look forthe October number with admiring 
interest. Very truly yours, 

L. P. Hubbard. 

Medina, N. Y., Sept. 22, 1881. 
Friend Ames: 

The last number of the Journal spark- 
les with gems. 

The article "Bad Writing" should be 
studied by all our public school teachers. 
It is a practical illustration of a unique aud 
remarkable character Irom a valuable source 
of the defects of teaching this branch, and 
is the best possible answer to those who 
would teach writing without analysis. 

The address "Elements of Success" 
ought to he read from the rostrum of every 
educational institution in the country, and 
listened to by every pupil from the primary 
school to the college graduate; and, al- 
though written a dozen years ago, before its 
distinguished and lamented author had 
reached the zenith of his fame, it will ever 
live an enduring legacy to the youth of his 

There are other articles which, iu a less 
brilliant number, would shine, of whicli I 
may say something hereafter. 

I congratulate you most heartily on your 
success in the direction, which, I believe, is 
your highest ambition, viz. : to publish a 
penman's paper on a higher plan than the 
more interest or anmsemenl of the writing 
master, and to treat penmanship in such a 
way that the columns of the Jciurnal will 
be as eagerly read by professional, educa- 
tional, ai.d men, as they are and 
always have been, by professional penmen. 

The success already attained takes from 
the Journal its ephemeral character, and 
places it among works of permuuent value, 
to be read, studied, and referred to here- 
after. Long live the Journal! 

Yours truly, Geo. H. Siiattuck. 

The Penman's Art Journal has. with the 
September number, nearly reaclK-d the close 
of its fifth volume, and it can, we believe, 
justly claim to have "attained a degree of 
patronage and favor reached by few class 
papers, and never approximated by any 
other of its class." Although a penman's 
Art journal in the full seuse of the term, 
the editorii wisely devote a large share of 
their attention to ordinary [len-work, and 
the learner will find, even on its fii^t page, 
elaborate instructions in the rudiments, with 
engraved lessons, to aid him in forming cor- 
rect habits and attaining the best methods 
of penmanship. Ou the other hand, bad 
writing, its cause, efl'ect, and correction, is 
explained. Altogether, a better paper for 
teachers and writing-classes c<iuld hardly be 
arranged. The teacher has here the advice 
of masters in the art, from all parts of the 
country, and the learner la brought from the 
formation of simple lines to the highest 
grades of artistic pen-work. The Penmans 
Art Journal is published intmthly at 205 
Broadway, New York. $1 a year. — Notre 
Dame, (Xnd.), Scholastic. 

Crittenden Commkrcial Collkoe, 
lUl Cheetnul St., Phila., Sept. 30, 18S1. 
Daniel T. Ames Esq., 

Dear Sir: — Your illustrations of indis- 
tinct writing are very good and will be a 
great stimulus to improvement. Thinking 
that you might not object to others, I send 
the following : 

A case was brought to me for ray opinion 
as to whether something like two was ten 
or two. An order had been sent by tele- 
graph for a number of barrels of oil, and the 
operator had written the number so indis- 
tinctly that it had been taken differently 
from what was intended, and one party had 
lost the profit on eight hundred barrels, for 
which he claimed damages from the tele- 
graph company. 

At another time we received notice from 
a hank that our account was overdrawn. 
Upon examination it was found that the 
ledger clerk had written our name in the 
Deposit-book as Crittenden & Co., running 
the latter part of the name down very india- 
tinctly, and had posted the deposit we had 
last made to tlie credit of Cha's Henderson 
& Co., instead ol to us. 

You perhaps have read of the young man 
in India who wrote to liis friend, thanking 
him for favors received, and saying that he 
intended soon to send an equivalent, but the 
writing was so bad that the friend read 
elephant instead, and went to a great deal o! 
trouble to prepare a large house for the 
unwieldy pet. 

An amateur in Zoohigy wrote to Africa 
for two monkeys, but the word two as be 
wrote it resembled tlie figures one hundred 
so much, that the literal and single-minded 
agent astonished the amateur by informing 
him that eight monkeys had been shipped 
as per bill of lading inclosed, and that his 
correspondent hoped to be able to execute 
the rest of the order in time for the next 

Some time since, a loving fish-wife was 
thrown into a distressful predicament, on 
receipt of a letter from her absent husband, 
who, after stating the cause <if his detention 
from home, wrote at the conclusion of his 
bulletin what his wife spelled out to be, " / 
am no more." As her neighbors, seventeen 
in all, had husbands and brothers who were 
with her husband, when they heard the 
widow's lamentations and paroxysms of 
sorrow as she h.oked <.n her eleven now 
fatheriess infants, they naturally concluded 
that all on board had suffered by the treach- 
erous sea in the same way, and they, too, 
lifted up their voices, aud the corners of 
their ajirons, and made the air resound with 
their wailing, until one of their better edu- 
cated townsmen, who had been alarmed by 
iheir cries, hastened to the spot, and oitenccd 
llieir weeping by reading the conclusion of 
the letter correctly, which was, '* I add no 

It matters little whether the mistake oc- 
curs through iuability to write plainly or 

through sheer carelessness, the result is of 
tfn injurious, and if all the consequences o 
iiirlistinct writing could bo collected int< 
nue statement it would bo nppAlling. 

With many kind nislies for the prospori 
ty of your very excellent pf^prr, and that i 
may greally lessen the number of po"i 

Editors Journal : 

Will you kindly answer the following 
i|iii-8tioi]8 and any others thitt you may be 
plr-Hsod to make in regard to the subject: 

First, is it proper t« hold the eards in 
position or proper place, with the fingers of 
the left haod. as in common writing ; and 
also, whether cjird-writers, as a general 
rule, use a pencil to line ihem, and after- 
ward erase the marks! 

1 have found it very difficult to write cm 
narrow cards by keeping them in place with 
my left hand, it being always in the way. 
I linve no doubt but there are many inure 
of your numerous rcadei-s, like myself, that 
would bo glad if you would oiler some ad- 
vice in regard to the matter, and by so 
doing you will greatly oblige your suh- 
scriher and woll-wisher. 

•lAMICS Dl.Ml.F.Y. 

Ansicf-r.—V^'tf believe that all really 
mToiiiplii^licd card-writers hold the Oiird in 
IKisitioii with the left hand, and that no 
practical writer would or should line a card 
with a jiencil. Practice will enable one to 
"rile sufficiently straight across the card, 
and with much greater freedom ami grace 
lliiin if following a ruled line, and, besides, 
it is impossible to remove a ])Oiicil line so 
tliat no traces of it will remain or show no 
abrasion of the surface of the eaid. 

We have known card-writers t(i make 
use of a fine hair attached at each end to a 
piece of card-board with sealing wax or by a 
piece of gummed paper, and by slipping the 
card under the hair they have a perfect 
guide line that interferes only with the lower 
extended letters; these may be made by 
lifting the pen or l)e added after the line has 
hoen written. This arrangement docs pas- 
sably well for writers using a finger move- 
ment, but, of course, would not do for the 

A l)i>milifully writtun Itfit^i- comvo fi-oni J. 
W. Tilccniib. Hartford, Conn. 

C. M. Clark, of Washington. D. C, writts 
H« t<U'guut Iwlter. 

J. U. Briant, Hounia. La., »\fi\ii» a very CTi<d- 
itnblv fipt-cinien displayed letlvriiig. 

M. B. Moon, Moi-gnn. Ky.. wi-itvi* a hand- 
sditii- IttttM' in which he iiidoBeti gevernl tine 
PIiecimttUB of fancy and plain cai'ds. 

J. M. Hook, of the Orchai-d City (Burling- 
t4iii. lywii) Business CoUugf. incloses eeveral 
crcditabltt Bpeoimens of tlourislied birds and 


.1. \V. Kear, Scranton, Pa., wriiw a verv 
h»udBcmie letn^r, in which he inclospK iwo 
tatslvfully arranged and skillfully exwuled 
tijipoinifne uf tlmirishing. 

Several elegant epeciniens of cai-d writing 
roaie from E. M, Hunisiagcr. teacher of writ- 
ing at the Providence (R. 1.) Bryant A Stral- 
lull BusiiiuM ColWgt^. 

A, E. Reyler, penaiau. at the Norlh-westeni 
Normal School at Ada. O.. sends a gracefully 
wrilleu letter, in wbieli he inclnaev u etippviur 
specimen uf otf-band tloiiriiibing. 

O J. Compton. who Uaf. just contpletwl » 
toirnse of writiug under the tuiliuii of J, W, 
Micliael, at Delaware. lud.. sends a eredidiblr 
i^pet^iuieu of Nourishing and card writing. 

F. H. Madden, teacher of wHting at The Bryant. Strnlton & Sadler's Business 

sun's Commercial College. St. Louie. Mo.. College, Baltimore. Md.. held its seveateviitli 
sends gracefully executed specimens of Hour- anniversary exercises at the Academy of 
ihed birde, and several superior epecimeus of Music on September 17tb, which was a bril* 
HhuI and interesting occasion. Addresses were 
made by the mayor, and otiier celebrated 
speaker*. The occasion was enlivened by ex- 
cellent mu»ic from the Indepenileul Blue's 

Educational Notes. 

thii^ Depart 

" A complete education titf a luan to perform 
jUKlly, skillfully and mngnsuimously, all the 
ofticeii of peace and war," — Millon. 

St. Louis used for school purpuses, during 
the past year. $839,ttti-2.a3. • 

The Slate rniversiiy ofWiBConsiii expended, 
for instruction imd other current expenses, 

Four ihouMimd three hundred and seventy- 
three women are employed teaching needle- 
work in tbe schools of Switzerland. 

The University of Berlin has 215 professors, 
uiid during the past academic year 5,0^7 
persons attended their lectures. 

The iiean distance of the sun from the earib, 
nccoiding to the English estimate, is U2,tiOO,OllO. 
M. Puiseanx of France places it at 91,ti40.-270. 

The Bureau of Education at Washington has 
published a pamphlet on "The relation of edu- 
cation to industry and technical Iraiiiiiig in 
American schools," and anotliei- on the spelling- 

Women are admitted to nine of the Italian 
universities, and at N'aples University one lady 
studies mpdicine, another pursues the sciences, 
and still auotber devotes her lime to philosophy. 

The following is a very good example for 
lovei-s of mathematics, as well as lovers of 
truth ; perhaps, also, for lovers of prohibition : 

A tells the truth three times in five, 6 four 
limes in seven, and C five times in nine. If A 
says that B sitys ibiit C f-iiys that C will vote 
forprobiliin.'^. wl.ii ,n. iIm |.iol>abiliiie3 about 

H. J. Williamson is instructing classes in 
writiug at Richmond, Va. He is an aucom- 
plishcd writer. 

J. W. Pilcher. formerly of Valparaiso, Iiid., 
is conducting the commercial department al 
the University of Des Mi-ines. Iowa. 

E. C. A. Becker, formerly of Rockford. Ill- 
is conducting Heinmaii'e Business College ul 
Potsville. Pa. 

T. H. McCool. IWO Anil eir.-e(, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., is an ixnUt pi'ionan of rising uu- 

J. K. Goodier lias opened a Business College 
at Pontiac, Mich. Jlr. Goodier is a highly ac- 
complished peuinan. 

E. K. Bryan, for many years principal of 
the Columbus (Ohio) Ihisiness College, is 
about to issue a Wiu-k upon hook-keeping. 

The New England Card Co., at Wunnsuckel, 
R. I., announces a largely increased card 
stock. Card writers will do well to corre- 
spond with them. 

1. S. Preston 's teaching large classes at 
Middletown. N. Y. He is highly commended 
liy tlie school superintendent of that city foi- 
the work he has done in the public school.-*. 

('. H. Keynohls is teaching penuumship at 
Soiile'h Coimuercial College & Literary Insti- 
tute. New Orieans. La. He has our'thanks 
for a Hne club of subscribers from that iustilu- 

Prof. \V. P. Cooper, of Kingsville. Ohio, 
one of the veiornn •"knights of the i|uill," 
promises e'relong to favor the readers of the 
JounSAI, with a contribution from his pen. 

T. M. Harrold and E. K. Isaacs have re 
ceiitly opened a Busiiie'is College at New 
Castle, lud. Mr. Isaacs is a su]>erior writer, 
judging from the style of his communications 
with the JilUllNAr,. ' 

Rev. Addis Albrn, who has, during some 
time past, bad charge of the Maumee Business 
Collt-ge. at Fort AVtvyne. has recently taken 
charge of the commercial department at the 
(ireenwich (R. I.) Academy. 

A. A. Clark is special teacher of book-keep- 
ing, and not penmanship (as was announced 
in our last issue), in (he city scbuula of Cleve- 
land, Ohio. It is no fault of bin skill as a pen- 
man that he is not teaching writiug. 

We were lately honored with a call from 
Archibald McLees, the well-known engraver 
of Speuceriau writing, and author of "Mc- 
Lees' Alphabets." Mr. McLees is probably 
the most skilled engraver of tine script-writing 
in tliis country, if not in the worid. 

TheKuoxville (Tenu.) Daih, IVibune pays 
a high compliment lo the KnoxviUe Business 
College, conducted by Frauk Goodman. Frank 
is a live young man, and is credited by the 
Tfiliune with conducting several of the best 
and most Hourishing Business Colleges in the 

J. C. Miller, teacher of penmanship at Al- 
len's Business College. Mansfield, Pa., is a 
very skillful penman, and is paid a deservedly 
high compliment in a recent issue of the El- 
inira (N. Y.) Gazette. In its report of (he 
Tioga Co. (Pa.) Fair it mentions Mr. Millei-'s 
exhibition as follows: 

"Thei-e is no part of the display made at 
the Mansfield Fair that attPm'ts more attention 
and which has called forth so many favorable 
comments as the pen ami crnvoii'work dis- 
phiyt-d by tlif Allen Uuhioe«s College, of this 

The f 


acres of l:iii'i liH- ill. t.. hihuu of asemiuary 

for the eilucatioii of young girls. Miss Maggie 
Scott has gone thither to commence the work. 
She carries with her $5,000 for a commence- 
ment, and a charter from the State of Maryland ; 
also, an annual endownment of ^.'i.OdO. 

There are 111,387 illiterate persons in Mary- 
land. Ofthid number 90,172 are colored. The 
State has 2,020 elementary schools, and IJUO 
schools for colored children; these schools are 
conducted by 2,592 white teachers and :W9 ones. The average salary paid is 
$;il.89, and theaveroge number of months dur- 
ing which the teachers are employed is 8.12. 
In the past year 122,602 white pupils and 
2(i.5:):] colored ones were in attendance. The 
total receipts from all sources weregl,379,5y0.- 
7(i. and the expenditures were 81,284,416.99.— 
X. r. T>-!bune. 

Alimiabets.— The Sandwich Island alphabet 
lias twelve letters; the Burmese, nineteen ; the 
Italian, twenty; the Bengalese, twenty-one; 
the Hebrew, Syriac, Cbaldee, and Samaritan, 
twenty-two each; the French, twenty-three; 
the Greek, twenty-four; the Latin, twenty-five; 
the Uerman, Dutch, and Engllxh, twenty-six 
each ; the Spanish, twenty-seven ; the Arabic, 
twenty-eight; the Persian, thirty-two; the 
Russian, forty-one ; the Sanscrit, fifty ; the 
Etliiopic, two-hundred-and-two. 

The changes for recitation test the order of a 
sclmolroom. If they are made quickly and 
r|uietly, each one acting as though he knew 
what he was to do, and doing it with self- 
reliance ; if books and slates are handled with- 
out noise ; if there are no collisions in aisles 
and passages and doorways ; and, above all. if 
the teacher in her place controls all movemeiKs 
by a look, or a gesture, or a quiet word — ^you 
may he assured that that is a well -organised 
and orderly school. — Amrriran EdunUnr. 

President Garfield at four years of age re- 
ceived lit the common district school rhe prize 
of u New Testament, as the best reader in the 
primary class. At eight he had read all the 
bonks in the humble log farmhouse, and began 
to horrow from the neighbors such works as 
itotnnson Crusoe, Jotrphut's Hitlonj and Wars 
tifthf .Iran. Pollok'a Courgf nf Time, and others. 
Tbftiu Were read and re-read by liini, until he 
could recite whole cliaptere from memory. He 
was equally master of arithmetic and the earlier 
steps of a coui-m- in English Grammar. — 
Frimaru Teacher. 

it was a Bchoolma^ter who wrote -The Vacant 
Chair," soon after a boy left a bent pin in it, — 
Cm. Sat. yiyfit. 

Little fishes get into trouble when they play 
hooky. They should never run away fhjm 
their school. 

" Which of (hose two professors do you like 
best, John!" *■ Well, when I'm with either of 
them, 1 like the other best." 

I'wf. of EnfjlUh Grammar: "Now, then, 
what is the gender of e^ T " Student : '' Please, 
sir, you can't tell until it is hatched." 

Butler's Analogy— /'iv*/. ,- "Mr. T , you 

mav pass on to the ' Future Life.' " Mr. T : 

' Not prepared." — lix. 

I'arty (who had been lo a lecture on astron- 
omy and a little supper afterwards) : " Gali- 
leobs perf'ly right— tir earsh dosb move!"— 
London I'unrk. 

A college student, in rendering to his father 
an account of his tenn-expeiises, inserted : "'l"o 
charity, ihirry dollars." His father wrote hack : 
•' I fear charity covers a multitude of sins," 

It was an Albany schoolboy who, believing 
in translations as free as the genius of our 
country, Iranslated dux ftmtvn /net', ,- (he fact 

" What is conscience !f '' asked a schoolmaster 
of his class. " An inward monitor," replied a 
bright little fellow. ■■ And wbafs a monitor * " 
"One of the iron-dads." 

Prof, (in Intellectual Philosophy); "Mr. 

H , if I were to say that snow is not black, 

what would you infer?'' Mr. H : "I 

should infer that snow is black." — Kr. 

A teacher, who in a fit of vexation called her 
pupilsa set of young adders, on being reproved 
for her language, explained by saying slie was 
speaking to those just commencing arithmetic. 

A small child being asked by a Sunday- 
school teacher: "What did the Israelites do 
after they crossed the Red Sea?" answered: 
*' I d(Hi't know, ma'am, but I guess they dried 

A very Solomon! Teacher with reading- 
class. Hoy (reading) : "And as she sailed down 

tlie river " Teiicber : "Why are ships called 

'she't Buy (precociously alive t<. the respon- 
sibilities of his sex) : " Because they need men 
to manage them.*' 

A professor lecturing ou English Industries 
to a class of juveniles, informed them that it 
took seven men and a hoy to make a pin. " I 
expec'." said a little fellow, " that it's the seven 
men that made that pin, and ihey used the boy 
lo slick it into to see if it's sharp enough." 

Professor Huxley alludes to a corolloHoral 
dicotyledonous oxegon, with a monopelalous 
corcilla and a central plucentaliou ; hut he 
doesn't say wether its hite is fatal or not. It 
will probably travel with Barmim's show next 
season, and have its name on a six-sheet poster. 
— Norrittoum Herald. 

Some students in a Maine uiiivei'sitv were 
scolding the janitor for remissness, and assured 
him that if he did not mend his ways be would 
go to the bad place. " And what will you do 
there?" said they. With a chuckle, the janitor 
replied, " fVait upon aladcntu, same as I do 
here, I s'pose." — Ex. 

Teaefier : " Now, Mary, my dear, suppose I 
were to shoot at a tree with five birds on it, 
and kill three, how many would bf left?" 
Mary: "Three ma'am." Tntefirr: "No; two 
would be left." "No, there wouhlu'l, though. 
The three nhot would be left iiiul the otlier two 
would be filed away." 

-The boy at the bead of the class will slate 
what were the Dark Ages of the world." Boy 
hesitates." Next. Master Biggs, can you tell 
me, what the Dark Ages were ! " "I guess they 
were the ages before spectacles were invented." 

The St. Louis Olohf-Dcmocrat reports that 
six out of eight Kansas schoolma'ams couldn't 
spell •' lucrative " right. Very likely. In 'the 
vocabulary of the schoolma'ams of the United 
Stales there is no hucIi word as lucrative. — 
Alban;/ Journal. 

Small boy : " Why does a duck put his bead 
under water t" Student, with great intellect: 
" For divers reasons." Ho;/ : " Why does he 
go on land f " Student : " For sun dry reasons." 
Hoy, perplexed: "Why did you say a duck 
puts his head under water f" Sludatl. smil- 
ing : " To liquidate its bill." Boy : " And why 
does il go ou laudf" Student: "To make a 
run on the hAuk."— Ant rienn Etlaeator. 

Burdette*s Advice to 

Never write with |»en or iok. It is 
slt«gc-t(ier to" plain, ami d(*sn't hold the 
miud nf the ediUtrB and prioters chweJy 
enough to their work. 

If you are compelled to use ink, never 
nne that article volgarly known M the blot- 
ting-pad. If you drop a blot of ink on the 
page, lirk it off. The intelligent compnsi- 
U>T lovoH nothing bo dearly as to read through 
the smear this will make through twenty or 
thirty words. We have seen him hang over 
such a piece of copy half an hour, all the 
lime swearing like a pirat«, he felt so good. 

Don't punctuate. We prefer to punctu- 
ate all the manuscript sent to us. And don't 

The Book-keei'ER for the fortnight 
1 ending Sept. 27th, contains a very lulerest- 
I ing description of the Aritbmologautotype, 
' an ingenious piece of merlianism combining 
antomaiir machinery, with eh-ctrical forces 
to be UM'd in Urge bauki' and counting- 
ntoms for rec<inliug businej« tnincactious. 
1 and making all the arithmetical calculat 
, that are required in presenting a continu 
balnnc*' sheet of the business, ready for in- 
spection at any moment, and avoiding the 
possibility of errors. The number also 
gives many very interesting papers for book- 
ki-epers and business men. A paper on 
[ " [mprovcd Fonns for the Numerals," by 
) Charles E. Sprague, will be found t\m\f< a 
I novelty, and offers some timely suggestions 
to accountants and teachers. The oflice of 
1 publication is 7G Chambers street. New 
I York, to which application should be made 
for specimen copies. 

Ihl »OtU IS 

UHitralK tohr th. 

iiianship i\tr ])ub1 

premium for n tM 

The above cul- 

.mImI Ii\ Ihl pHs> pK.ttv louil V 
I i\ ]>M<tual and nili^tic guidi to oiniuKUtil ]m' 
I u.t 1. au) iddus.s on Kciipl of *4 50, ■ 
I 1 t< the Join 
iiU page of tlie woi-k, which is 11 x 14 i 

ise capitals. 
«pitalisc to 


I and 

t ourselves, and your article, 
, in print, will astonish, if it 
does not please, you. 

Don't try to write too plainly. It ia a 
sign of plebeian origin and public school 
breeding. Poor writing is an indiiiatiou of 
genius. It's about the only indication of 
genius that a great many men possess 
Scrawl your artirle with your eyes shut, and 
muke every word as illegible as you can. 
Wo get the same price for it from the rag- 
men 08 though it were covered with copper- 
plate sentences. 

Avoid all painstaking with proper names. 
We know the full name of every man, wo- 
man and child in the United States, and the 
merest hint at the name is sufficient. For 
instance, if you write a character something 
like a drunken figure "H" and then draw a 
wavy line, and the letter " M " aud another 
wavy line, we will then know at once that 
you mean Samuel Morrison, ^veu though 
you may think that it means Lemuel Mes- 
senger. It is a great mistake that proper 
names should be written properly. 

Always write on both sides of the paper, | 
and, when you have filled both siri('« nf 
every page, trail a line up and down i\f 
margin and back to the top of every jm- 
olosing the article by writing your iKimr 
jusl above the date. And how we would 
like to get hold of the man who sends them, [ 
Just for ten minutes, alone in the woods, I 
with a cannon in our pocket. Heveuge is 
sweet, yinn, yum. 

Lay your paper on the ground when you 
write ; the rougher the ground the belter. 

Coarse brown wrapping-paper is the best 
f<ir V-riting your articles on. If you can tear 
down an old circus poster and write on the 
pasty side of it with a penatiok, it will do 
still better. 

When your article is completed, crunch 
your paper in your pocket and carry it two 
.iv three days before sending it. This rubs 
■ iff thy superfluous paper marks, and makes 
it lighter to handle. 

It" yiiu can think of it, lose one page out 
uf the middle of the article. We can sup- 
ply what is missing, aud we love to do it. 
We have nothing nise to do. 

Our friend S. »^. Packard, wlio, 
readers know, has improved hi.-* 
taking a European tour, returned lu 
September 15tb, much improved ami 
vigorated by his journey. In an article 
anothor page, he relates some of his obsor- 

respecting writing aud bus 
schools in London, which will be found 

Bryant's New Series. 


Eighth Edition. Copyuighteu, IHHl 

By .T. C. Bin" ant. M,D., 

l_9t O.W. BOHM. SI«mB 

Id. iDd. 

\A/ ANTED— By * >-oung mu of Ave ywit' • 
keeping. CiMi l«wh lilgher lutiiects if nnoen 


\\jO fnah from th« p«a. cuveriiig a dutt? 
paiwr (le'ttOT wm). iti book forxn. aent on w-»i 
' 10-11 C. H. PBIKCK. Keoku 


INK! 50 different rMipe* lor black, blue. 
1 Tiolel, piirplft. yeilow. brown, cold. •ilT*r 
Timbl# aud indelible inks. inan«l Ut 25 oU. 
WELLS SWIFT. MarionviHe, UnoBdigacou 


A SET of oapithU made wilhom lifling th 



3ENUAN: We lire pleated to infom 
stock of CanlB. Mpeoially adupted 1< 

mples only lOo. ; Elegant Gilt-edge Cords, $1.-23 

Shading T Square. 




Writing, Copying, Marking, Ind.libie, Sttrnping, Japan, 

Styiogr^ipliic, Sympathetic, Goid, Silver. Whitp 

and Trxmrer 


ALLING'S JAPAN INK affords a flno- lla«. « blacks 
hue. a richer lustw. nnd ffimt« continuity thuo India., 

Tho iniMt mpid and dabomto flourishes can b« ex<- 

It ts iiiirivntled for Ornainviiinl IVuniauship. Cnrds. Mn 
sir, Contnisl and Dlspluv Wntin^, 

ftwiy. rcm|iTiii(jr ido lijitu-*! »tr\.l.e« jH-rfwIly l.^bl- 

ALUNG'S DEEP. BLACK INK.- T.:.. i.-r, „, |-,.„ 

ink tiie iM-.! n.ii.pte.1 ro tlit-ir use. m it writes black, flows 
freely, possesses great penetration and permanence, never 
moulds nor thickens, is non-corrosive, and fully resists the 
action of frost. 


Jftpiin Ink. per pint bottlo, by Mpress il.tx^ 

While Ink. i-OE. bottle, by i-xpress ai 

Gold or Sliver Ink. i-oz, Iwltln. by cxprw* S<1 

5-gall. k««Si each net Ifi.a'i 

50" bbls. " ''\'.\\\\'^\\\\\\\\'^\'.\\"'.'.'.y3.Wi 
3-OK. cone bottles, per giuss (packed in i-gto. wood 

I'oxes 5,00 

Penman's Ink Cabinet. No. 1, 


e, Viiilm, <treen, CoDlrasICannioe, 
, Deep-Blaok. 

. Irilc Cabinet, No. ^. 

Inclose Btauip for spei 



f EuV 



for cicculinff In i 

leivbere. College Cunvnoy, Testimonials, CertiUcatci 
Iplomas etc., in stoolE. Specimen of each sent Tot 3 
nts. Address. D. T. AUES. 


NEW yoitK. Sept. 9. 1880. 


n^slunt 'vwa "y" me i^r^some^tUiw 

ind it extremely useful In the various 

ery truly 

onre. EDWAnii E. Josrb. 

Designer and Draftsman, 

will) D. Appleton ii. Co. 

ATLA.VIA, Ga., Sept. U, 1881. 

Q. — Dtar Sir: The squares came lo 


d" C'J^Sion' of VhrwoA* llTal' 


Monro's Biumess University. 

Fred. D. Allins, Rorhcsler, N. V. 

your Inks, und I uovr take plcusuro in saving that Ihey 
are excrlUnt. Your '* Deep-Bluck " is dttp-hlack, and 
flows freely, ^ving it qiialillee superior to any y«t of- 
fcr«d to the pivfrasion and the public. 

I l^l'lBo^Cspltats^'Cnd'V wiit 

Til OQMILlfl ICOO'U'Ifllf, 



Arranged for use in Business Colleges, High Schools, 
and Academies. 





EMATTEB. TllC>l., !- 

Hk to be (lone liy the sinili'iit 

i-a, on line hcnvy papei-, and 

The '(tiidenth 

capacilj of beginnei-^ n 
eni of accountantstaip 
(i no hielcvant diacus 
vulne and only sncli 

in t«o editions piinted 


$5 a Day, $25 a Week, $100 a Month, 

Made by Agents and Canvassers for 


Compendium of Ornamental Art. 

A CowprnrI!,,,,, n/ r„l„nl,lc In/ormaUm m 

The Cohnting House Edition 

, pereopy. 2.34 

The High School Edition 

•pnaiv devoted to the ludimenlt, of thf t^cience, jinil Reljtil iiiiU Wliolcsalc Meichandlaiiigr. 
Im precisely what ia voiiuiied in llit^h Schools, Academies and Univei-aities, where an ei 
sols not attomptod, but where a clear iinderatandin^ of the ordinary methods of Ac- 

^ndod i-oi 

Helall inie« : $l.c 

Introduction prico J 

Snniplu Book, for 
Blank Books, complete for this edition, 51 
*a* Orders will receive pi-ompl attention. 

Picture, lor 35o. 






adapted to 1 

schoola and academies. By S 

■AST. PrifO bv nmi 

lU-st introdHC 

years lias^njoyed a grcji 

of practical cducutora tliauuiiy umei ui a 

chamcter, now appcare in a new and attractive 

adapted to iiidlviduii 

--• — la and acadomii:&. uj ^ o. » ..iv i^j 

BUYAHT. PrifO by nmil, $l.o«. Libuii 

This popular work, which for the last fifteen 
'ara has enjoyed a grcjitor measure of the favor 
practical cducutora tlian any other of similar 
amcter, now appcare in a new and attractl 
typographical dresa and greatly improved 


Just Pui 



By a. H. EATON. 

AHt.n.^yut.LB\v and AM«iat*«-F 
UuraPlf* Bmdueas Coll.gc, 

he work is composed of questions and an- 
re. The piirpoee of this 1ms been to indi- 
• disiiiictly the epecial points to be noted. 
' conlfnis cover (he most important topics 
udents and business men, and 
Cunt y (Wis, NeffotiabU Paper, Agency, 
lip, Corporaiiotu, Bailments, atui Safes 
at Property, and a large number of 

Retwl Price, $1. 

Colleges or others requiring 





COUNTINO-Horsr itooK-Krrrivr;. 

Embnu-ifr. ■ . i . , ,.■ \- . .. ,■ 

^enman, Qiiiaoy, 



no A.XD 141 WnxiAji Sti:eet, New York, 

Aiiotliei' Series of 

Applefon's Advanced Educational Books 






tisaoconstnu'ti^ us to ^nvf bolh n? a file n Inr^r (luaorilj- ■ 

" -ess. 1*1 NM AS - \i;'l HhRSAL. ; M^d SO cnnM fur recipe S«inplw of Uii* ink, threw (wnU. 

h-;sI(;nei> to prodick 

Free Practical Writing in the School Room. 


I.KAIil'KNCII- ('lUKSi:, 
SHOUT COriiSE, TliAflXli, 



WritlnfT Rioil* llic ejtpreMiun of lltoii)(lit, Word-liullding ond lenlencebuilding .imslit 
iMwma. Tlif 8cnl«'De«a am g^nia ot Kiigllib Iitcraliire. 
WrillHK tftiiglil •j'niliotically. So leillniii drill* on purls uf iellen m isolated iPtlere, yet n 

The iiKivpmunt drill; (Vliortb)' impUtnoqnire Willi ocrtulnty llie renl writing moveniMit. 
No ciiiiiri^'niti>)l aiKO of writing, M'bicli leads pupils to DItAW, rather than to n'uiTK. 
Kni! Ill H'riling mliicBil m gruUiiall}' tnm nno liottk In anothor. us (0 be imperoeptible to II 
Graded oulamnsi wbcreb}- the aoope of ini>v«iuenl ennblw the pupil (o gradunlly and i 


irraud-wurk, I5e*n<«. Agwnt's out 
r recipe. SHmple* 




AFiillnncI C ■ ■ '1 i T 

and Act'OmU^, 1" " III' ii - ■: ■ ■ ■ 'I'i' 



poat-pnid, . . 

0, by Expreu. 

S«nd for Cin 

T>. T. AMES, 

a05 Broadway, New York. 

July, i88,. JUST PUBLISHED. July, i88i 




< OMPItlSlNC OVER r.on ix'lAVO PA< 1 i:s. 

Designed for Bankon, 
iiid sperially orraDged 

({mniinar Course. 

r:). APPI.T^TON & CO., 


New York, Boston, Chicago and San Francisco. 



On receipt of the pikis !iiiik.-\<iI, w »■ will for- 

ony artlclu mimed in tlie follow iiit; li»t 

fly ordL-riiifc' fiwii iia, iiiiliorw win rely not only 


Class Book of Commercial Law, 

By C. E. Cakiiart. 

a"''"""'!!,,,;,,,,.! 1 •»:, 1 !■ ,M,-lni,, U fiO 

Principal of the Albany Diwinew College. 

l"" ■'"! .' !.:"■■.....:■ n. -. 1 .1 2M 

This work i> a plain, prtietioal exnlauation of tlie Laws 
of RnilTie.M. DERIRNF.D nnd ARRANGED eapMlally 

l^^iv^;-.- ' " ■■■..■ 10 ^ ^^ 

• \|'| ' ' ' ' I-: 1 :i|H'r, suchOBiialeg.drafla, chcoki, 

lS''"'-''''ii'|'': ".l"'.''-' '■■'.'"', '."^ " .-.' 'm' 

1- . ■ r 'r.,ru. I'artnerthip. Agency. In- 

JlrlStol^l'.(r,i.l :-',, :^;i . ^ j: .^J^- in ,^|.t^-J.t .mi 

1 .■■■■' rertonal Prnptrty, Bailmtnt. 

French B__^ ■j'l^''''' „ ' "J ' ' ' -■ j^ 

■ '■: ' "•>■'. '■' 1 ."i/hl and Pauingtrt. Iimkifp- 

cr... h,u! A,;.;,, i..,-.,: ./ flwiMW Paper, tte. 

Uluuk Cui'd lluaitl. iixiti, for wliiti; Ink....'. TiD 

Mliick Cuids ])or 100 26 

Jllack Cards pur thousand, by express 2 00 

pvmhucl, quire. 

From H. E. Hibbard, Principal of Hibbard'e 

Whufsdr'ing-i)ap<',J L-i $120 

CoinmerciHl School, Boston, Mass.: 

•' " " iitxai; -JO 2 W 

From S. S. Packard, Packard's College, New 

" " " ^\40' S " U'l 

York City.: 

Blank llt-Istol Board Cards, por lOO 2,^ 

Fi..ii. ii.i.i^ <■ w- .1 ■ i'l ii.i|,!it ofWriffbt's 

■' " " 1000, by t>x. 1 50 

l; .- ■ . " 1 ■ . _■ |-.'. . i M., N. Y.; 

■WlnsorANewton'Bsiipi-snp.Ind. ink,,-itjck 2 00 

Ornamcnlnl Ciirrl", 12 •lf'*i!'M'i, jut ]nn-U of 

uK.. . . ■!■ ..I'Mud^nts in i)laM 

_S5aml-, In iiiaM 2>' 

'omm','./.".! 'u,:,\\< ','.'.-„ '''.''.■;, ,'.'", .'.'.m'. ';'...-",7„'i,!'!!!,r™™ 

^Ks'";. ''''''""'':.. .":,";,:,v;:-:;,.v.v : -^'^ 

'"''■|"!;;'-::^i.:;':M;uM,:::^'b,"i;idk,;x.. „„ngof 

n'!V.':VL ;':':v,^" ,,,-i:„-v,i. .,■,,;,,-. 'S 

rfM«rf"ilfin'vil*'''V'''''^i """/'''■■' ^ 

;""■■'■'■■■■;■■"'■ ■ ■■'■■■' ..:';u j| 

FromRoliriii - 1 iixtl of Milwau- 

kee Bu-i ' . . M .^aukee,Wis.: 

( '. ' ,-7 thai 1 have tttn, and ought 

Wlllliii.i- .\ 1-.. .' 1- (.'. ■•'.- '• "■' 

McLi'e^- Alpi. .(.. r^ '"" ' . ■ J -.11 

I'loiii 11 IJm-mII. i'lliicipal of Joliet BiiainedB 

Cunej,'e. .loliel. III.: 

"YowT mo«t excellent wurk on Comroerelal Law bai 

BoniFlouii-l,in-;u,.! l-.-ti-..,.,,:,- 70 

lieen duly received uid thoroughly examiued. I am more 
lhnnp1oa5«dvithIhe*i'mj)r«, plain and Kni'tlc manner— 

Kl?r>''si'!\,^'::'!,ri'vl;nm;'.h;;;'''''''"^' ... i » 

so easily to be e<,mpr,-hP.,.l..,l 1.,- ,,11-wilh whi<^h it deals 

long-felt wmii n, , ( , V, i„K,!s, I Intend to 

-1 i: - ■.: Ill,, verysupenop 60 

''■■' 1 i>y express, 

FroniA. DA\ 1 i Miami Commer- 

J;^; :| ,. ; - '.'. .!" 


ym-d.siiii. 1 . 1 1 . ;. 1 y. 

.■f 'i:it.,„,„i mid KB aduptubilily generally to the roquire- 
'■ :' ■-'"'>;;''».'" thU highly important part of the 

^''Vj^'-'i'':'",. i'" '■ '■ "" ■ "' '■" '' '"^"' ,' ,'-. 

. Lm. u. 11111 (.1 u BudtneM Lollege I inolose Money-order 
!■■! ID (..,>,c4 uiiJ expect to need many more," 

fl^^No'-u."!-^ -. r',' i . -1, l,j,.ln-l-ll 

I^t^|jt^u:>li'ii*!\i'i',. 1 'I'lfroVll! 

Sent postpaid to any addreee on receipt of 
One Dollar. AddreBB 

WOrk.Vpoupt>-i.Lw!,i..-',. ',, , ., ,/, .,i'i;.',','iion.**' 



6-tf Albany BuainesB College, Albany, N. Y. 


( K the Blwtve work. iKjginning with llio siiliic't of Pc-iTo,itogc, wns piiblislie.t in Sci>leiiibcr. 1880. It nt oripo roceived 
11,1, strongrttt iiiauivenient among imvny of llie Ic.uliiiif e,l,i,iito™ u( lliiti oi.nniry. nnil w«» luloptwl in ovor ONE 


l,r ,l,o„ngh- 
(rom among 


rmiill. E 11 'I i I ■■ -.i !:■- • .V — H'..., ^.L .. l;.,>(n„, M,„»,: 

From S. S. Pnckavcl. Piesid.'i 
El■l.mO.F,^^ !m .. IV' I 

Etou. J. (;. SI... I 

.'B, Kuchi-ster BustiieBa Un'bity.'KoL-heBtei', N. Y.: 

Ii„„l. Wii 

.lie-' of riimi, but DO puzzle,. All 1, nn 


PKBi.lmil Sppiicermii BuBiiiPBB Ci>11bz.o, WuBliingtuii. D. C: 

-H (.'.illege, Jersey C 

"Ani using .-i.uii.r .s r..Lii,i,,,f,' li.Li.-.jAtLiiiLi.i.n. m ,i,.v s.iuiols, ami am highly plmeod with It. 

Ermi, \V. A V, 
Fii.m J. M M . 

rii DiisineBS College, Galeeburg, III,: 

na to enable the ziudunt to make tuplil pivgreft. with 1 
Fi^iu C. W. Slone, Priticipiil Bii»iiie»s CIl 

From C. P. Corlinil. Principal Folaoin's Bufiii.»< ( ..llrg,-. Albntty. N. Y.: 

"'Sadler's Couiitlug-Housn Aritiimelle' eontatnt more r^jal prectienl matter llian 

market. It is alike valuable n, a ela«»-ba(ik. lu H Iwok of ivfrtenoe. for either mIiouI or 

mil} uiiilertUwd 
highly nledjed i 


Addreu W. H. SADLER, Publislier, 

Nos. 6 and 8 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, Md. J 



■d at ,h. Port OjSe, „/ y„ j-„,.i, A- J.., « .«-o«<i.rV« mal„r - 


I 111'! .BOOKS. linniUJSI Wlllmm SI.. N. y. 


1. 0. KIMSFEL. VnipSi!"!!!'""'' '"'' '""'""'"'■ 


frl™!''r,f, Sli't-tanTlL",!,™"""''!' *"?""°"' 
W. O.ClIAlTRK. Oswop), N. Y. *" ' "" " ''■"'O''*'' 


/V»™aiu' Tad,tr,' ami PrInUr,- S^ppHa. 
PriM Llir Frre. Wim.i.oekel. H. I. 

w. H., r™i(ioM or 

Diiaiuri l)usiiii.w Cali'iilnldr. MiiIIchI fi.r 11. 



SO.'i Bruadffuy, 


I>. T. AMES, 


Examiner of Questioned Hnndm-ltiiie, 

305 nn>ud\Tn>'. New York. 


40 Court .Slivet, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


TUTB, Keokuk, lown. 
EilBblWtod in 1871. Life Memberahip 135 

Lesson in Practical Writing. 


A member >,r „„r class inquires if we 
would, iu business nod epistukry MTiline, 
limit oureolves posilirely to a eiugle form 
for each and every capital letter f Wo 
would, only so far as forms may be varied 
to suit speeial combinations and ivlierc sub- 
stantially tlic same forms may be used for 
mon' tlian one purpose, as, for instance, the 
small letters a, c, in, n, etc., may be en- 
larged to a proper scale and used for capi- 
tals ; our reas.m for aJvoealiuK single and 
simple typre of letiere i, to avoid the greater 
labor of iwnuiring and exercising with fa- 
eilily the skill necessary for making so 
great a number and variety of fonns; but 
tlie same practice and skill that makes a 
good and graceful a small, will mako it en- 
larged, and so with other letters above- 
mentioned, no nddilimial knowledge of form, 
or skill in eiecnli.m, i,, required, hence such 
forms may be used in a manner to suit the 
taste and convenience of the writer. 

It is, of mi.irse, understood that when we 
advocate single and simple fonns, we refer 
only to business, or what we term practical 
writing, as distinguished from professional 

or artistic writing: in the latter a writer 
may, with proprietary, emyloy forms for 
letters and combinations as varied and mm- 
plicated as his knowledge of form and com- 
mand of hand will admit, not losing sight 
of their legibility and fitness for the occasion. 
The capitals for the present lesson are 
the E and 1). The E begins with a small 
invertal oval at the top ; in business prac- 
tice it is often initiated with a dot, which is 
not objectional. Tlie two parts should be 
joined by a small loop one-third the distance 
from the top, thus dividing the letter so that 
one part shall be above and two below the 
connecting loop. The body, or direct oval, 
should be a perfect 0, except in the upper 
part where the line is elevated to form a 
portion of the loop. . Of the D we give two 
types, the one which has been adopted as a 
standard by the .Spencerian authors, also 
substantially the same in the Payson & 
Duuton systems. This lias the body of the 
letter to the right of the stein ; while we are 
not disposed to seri.iusly call in ([ucstion the 
wisdom of introducing this as a standard 
form of the D, yet we much prefer and al- 
ways practice iu business writing the other 
form, as it seems to us, to be made upon a 
much easier and more simple movement, 
and is not so wide a departure from 
the former standard type of that letter. Ar- 
guments may he advanced in favor of both 
of these types. Both of these are unusually 
modified in business practice by finishing 
the body of tlie D with a loop at the top 
instead of returning to the base line so as to 
complete an oval. The choice of these 
forms must be determined by the taste and 
former training of the writers 

luHucnce for the refiiieiiieiit and elevation 
of mankind, probably there is no other 
accoraplishnient so diarged with far-reach- 
ing and ever-e.itending power as the ac- 
complishment of finished writing. We 
iiieaii by this, not penmanship solely, but 
the science of writing through all its 
hranohcs. Wo begin with peninaiisliip and 
diverge. Or we take poninaiiship for the 
foundation and build upward. 

Wo take the little child and train his eye 
to the sense of fine form.s, and his hand to 
the creation of them. Wo show him that 
such and such characters reiuesenl such and 
such sounds. We combine the characters 
to represent combined .-iounds, and from the 
symbols of sounds both separate and com- 
bined we advance to the symbols of complete 

Loiters, words, sentences— this is the 
method of advancoment^and from the 
oomplete sentence with its full idea, we go 
onward to a succession of sentences with 
their growth of thoughts and their pro- 
of over-widening and never-dying 

'''* '' « "'' "ic immortal. But painting 

and sculpture both are hounded by condi- 
tions. As an aecomplishment, neither is 
invested witli the power to reach all hearts, 
and speak to all lives, as the science which 
gives expression to thought. Bv the term 
thought in this place, we mean the up- 
springmg of idms bearing upon the past, 
present, or fiituro of each of us as individuals, 
and all of us in our relations to one another, 
to earth, to time, to eternity and to God. 

! the ideas that connect us heart 
il as we can best express them 
vritten word do we measure the 
■ intiiience over others, and will 
the radius of our inHuence by 
come within the circle of our 

> till 

■■ adv 


We again urge upon our readers the 
great importance of practicing for move- 
ment, both of the fore and whole-arm, and 
repeat for that purpose the following exer- 
:ises which may be practiced upon both of 
these movements ; 

After which, the foUowiug may be prac- 
tical as the regular copy for the lesson : 

attend your practicp. 

Writing as an Accomplishment. 


If we take the term "accomplishment" 

e sense of an art, or an achievement, 

which IS designed in its exercise to reflee; 

credit upon ourselves, and work through its 

step by step in 
the siciennc of "form" alone, his mind 
widens and expands under the experience of 
defeat and triumph, and is the better fitted 
for the deeper tillage of thought— when 
thought with the undying soul shall assort 
her sway and bid all sciences how benoiith 
hor scepter, and work her Wilding as faith- 
ful servitors bcfiue a kiugly master. 

Then to the fi-ont of all sciences steps the 
sciouce of writing. As an evidence of grace, 
learning and wisdom, it can speak in distant 
lands without our presence, and lead all 
sister sciences in the expression of the in- 
tangible essence of spirit, which painting 
or sculpture cannot comjiass, and jvhich, o'er 
countless leagues of space, the soul of music 
is powerless to articulate. 

As we mount through the gradations of 
growth in writing, the soul climbs higher 
step by step. We do not stop at form- 
even the perfection of form. We take the 
science of fonn and master it, and make it 
do our bidding. We step out from our- 
selves to speak ourselves, and make form 
sen'e our purpose. It becomes to us a gift 
of articulation that can be heard around the 
world. And in being heard around the 
world, we are judged around the world, 
when even the tongue is mute; and the 
world forms its eatimatiim of us hv our 
mastery of this accomplishment. Thought 
and breathes and speaks through this 

Music may woo and win with never-dying 
Ihmll the present soul that has hung upon 
its melody. In memory of the appreciative 
hearer it may live ivliile life shall last. 

Painting, within the limits of the scene 
protrayed, may bind tli,. memory without 
the author's presence, and stamp the im- 
press of its jmwer upon the refined soul to 
live and never die. But the se^ne, although 
pregnant with many suggestions, can have 
no power to grasp the Ulimitable which 
extends beyond itself. 

Sculpture, like painting, within certain 
bmits may speak without the author's 
presence, and stand in saored reverence as 


might of 
he measu 


The very beatings of the heart may throb 
... words, be they spoken or written. By 
means of the written word, the heart-throbs 
may be felt around the world. 

Feeling, through all its shades, may speak 
around the world through the perfect mast- 
ery of this art. According to the grade of 
skill in it, is the measure of its power 

It is not bound, not chained, not slaved 
down to mechanism .and its laws, but it 
grasps all laws of moohanism in its perfec- 
tion, and leaps outward and onward into 
God's freedom, and breathes but his free 
air, and speaks but his free thoughts. 

It is a part of his eternal voice, and will 
reverberate forever. To make it speak iu 
homage of the Eternal, in service of the 
Eternal, and to the glory of the Eternal, is 
to ailvauce in the direction of its mastery. 
To make progress toward its mastery is to 
advance in grace, growth and the evidences 
of intellectual and spiritual attainments. 

Its swells and cailences in the expression 
of fooling, are but another name for music. 
Its tints, and glows, and shadings of fine 
thought are but another fonn for painting. 

Its boldness of conception, its delicacy of 
manipulation, its carvings, its chiseling, its 
fineness of fine soul-touch, are but another 
name for scnliiture. 

Its broad planiihig, firm up-buUding, 
patient finishing and final adorning, are but 
another name f.a- architecture. 

The spirit that leaps and bounds through 
aU and Hashes at its bidding— leaps, bounds 
and flashes forth by laws which are but 
another name for electricity. 

The universe of countless worlds beams 
and sheds its immeasurable radiance through 
it. The science which governs each in its 
relations to all others, and aU in their varied 
and conneclcd relations is but another name 
for the grand rolations and connections and 
railiations of the imivcise of thought, 
capable of being expressed in writing. 

The science of writing includes all other 
sciences. It grasps from each the grace, 
might, model or material necessary to the 
perfection of the expression required, and 
binds it fast. It takes the graces, the forces, 
the modcU and materials and combines thein 
into the expression which is to live. There 
soul beneath it— a ruling spirit. There 

1 life i 

well 1 

MeohanUm U the material part of il— 

thought in the lif' "I""'' s<roggl<» "P '' 

Thn in(«t jicriKt master of this »rt, 
throoeh «n itf Hops of progrewion, i.t«n<l« 
„,,„,. tho hiehoat round ..f tho laader of 
Khiovomonl vet na<-h<Kl. The rt«p» load 
up and 00 forevprmorc. 

President Garfield. 

General James A. Garfield, late President 
of the United States, one month ago chief 
magistrate of the nation, now his ashes re- 
pose in n mound that overlooks the hlue 
waters of Eric; there they will remain for- 
ever. The " home " city will surely never 
give thoin up. In her heart, mourning for 
him, America hecomes a nnite; factions are 
forgoucn ; geographical lines are lost ; Re- 
ligion hecomes real, and the Empire a fait. 
His was truly a character of the grandest 
proporti.u.s; his life was pure; his lahors 
herculean, and his attainments fabulous. 
Such a man towers in the world ; for such 
there are two immorlalit'cs— the immortality 
of labor and history, and the immortality of 
that subtler essence which we call mmd. 
Grand characters there have been, that like 
mighty forest trees, in solitudes untrodden 
and unknown, give yearly fruitage that feeds 
no life hut goes hack into the earth, those 
finally wither, fall and are forever lost. 

For such characters, there is no immortal- 
ity, save that of the spirit. They constitute 
cor;i« de rmene of the gods— wise and 
wonderful— but not convertible in what is, 
and is to he, the eternal unfolding of events. 
Of General Garfield, more has been- said 
and writlcn in tho last two hundred days, 
than ever was said of another in the same 
time. Science reported, ready scribes re- 
corded, and the lighlnings of heaven horo 
the record to every hearth of the nation the 
minute history of seventy-nine days of dying. 
What remains to he said i perhaps nothing. 
But may there not bo an application, a les- 
son, if not for all the world, perliapa for us, 
— tlie students and the teachers of this na- 
tion—a lesson, which it were yet well to 

President Garfield was from the cradle a 
student. His essential daily sustenance Wiis 
acquisition ; il grew to be the mode, and 
the habit of iiis life. 

The seventy-nine days, tho last section 
of the last act, was a period with him of 
perpetual thought, and inquiry and pupilage 
to tlie mysteries of this fearful school of a 
bloody taking off. The copious history of 
these seventy-niuv days is a book, elcment- 
aiy, for the schools of a thousand years. 
We and ho had yet something more to 
learn. Iluricd to the earth bleeding and 
dying by minutes, and by weelis; his mind 
sleepless and restless as ever could not for- 
bear to continually study the very tortures 
of the victim of murder, which was himself 
Having taken the fated cup like Socrates, 
he reasoned like Seneca, pondered lilte 
Plato, and bore torture like the child of 

lie prayed for one grace— the return 
home; asked for one presence— that of hi» 
darling e.hildnui ; and tbiit tho empire might 
not by a cowardly assiussin, he made head- 
less, ho gave assent to he deprived of both 
and all. He was not, in truth, made by 
this grctter, broader, grander, than ever 
before. We at last felt the presence of both 
brother and master— more than peer— and 
tliere came a covered face, and miuiruing 
weeds, and that work was finished, its les- 
son complete : and so we return as students 
to that which is the immortality of earth, 
wliat is history, and what was and is of him 
left hero. 

Pn'sident Garfield wrote no hooks. His 
conversations are mostly lost. Some and 
hut a part of that which was his daily lite 
will be brought to light slowly and pre- 
served. Utit that in which we find the most 
of what wo ever had of him hero, is his 
speeches. No odds when or where made, 
or on what occasion, or subjects. 

These always illustmted himself — no- 
thing concealed, all honest. They ever, 
also, illustrated learolog and some centnil 

idea. So thoroughly was he built up of the 
finer fibre of finished scholarship, that il \ 
cropped out in all that he said, or did. In | 
these speeches he was always a teacher, 
and nothing less, and whether senators or 
children, -'all men" recognized the validity 
and value of his instruction. 

It was the eternal preparation, essential 
to the houriy business of a great teacher of 
men, tliat ciiiwded him continually for time, 
and made him in nt.thing so poor as leisure, 
rest or amusement. 

Gigantic as his capacity was, it wiis over- 
taxed. There was one ipiestion which ho 
was bound to answer in every hour of his 
life : What docs this especial thing or labor 

Like the tired galley slave, he could feel 
tho cruel torture of exhaustion and still sing 
over the oar — almost always merry over 
killing work. Hence, was it true, that he- 
fore Guiteau's Irallel there was some giving 
out or awny of physical forces. 

The truth is, he should have remained in 
the Senate, the lesser labor of which, to 
him, would have been rest. 

Over-labor is not a common student fault, 

such as might profit by tliis 

rork and its result.s. 

lot alone overtaxed in this 

nds, under pressure it may he, 

■work tho brain. When we 

„,,.. rork the body, we generally know it. 

But with ihc mind, often the first warning 

is the snapping of tho strings. 

President Garfield's speeches, 1 said illus- 
trated himself. They arc umsterly and 
complete illustratiims of every especial shade 
of quality or peculiarity that was bis. Hence 
we as students, should give them tho em- 
phasis of the classics. Wo need tho whole 
of them. We sliould have them by us 
through life; these will yet be in our reach. 
These speeches, wauling nothing of the 
polish of Athenian elegance, or Ibe per- 
suasive hiveution of Cicero or Julian ; are 
uiodcls of a high order in all that ccmcerns 
oratory, and what is better than all, are 
always richer in matter than in maimer, 
artistic aud complete. 

Finally we shall find by inspection that 
in the life and death of this great master, 
there was nothing without a meaning or use 

but there a: 
lesson of ovi 
Poverty i 
worid ; thor 
especially < 

It may be that we sludent.s, like others, 
may read and then throw away the hooka; 
knowledge, like m.mey, is only valuable as 
convertible, and used. We think Garfield 
illustrated in himself and bis life the real 
and true Americanism that we need. An 
Americanism honest, pure, above all un- 
selfish, huinanitarian and national. Tills is 
more desirable than wealth, or position, or 

He, who in this hour, will look every way 
through American matters, stupendous 
and complex, and conflicting as they are, 
must, we think, see that there are dangers 
ahead, that only a return to square honesty 
and pure principles can avoid. 

To truly interpret the ineanings of all 
(iroblems of this and every hour as it comes, 
and to wisely provide for and meet all 
emergencies, this will for you and for me, 
of course, furnish business enough, and 
what we further need will simply be success. 

Pen Points. 

Chirography and character havo long 
been considered relatives under the laws of 
mind aud matter, but there are so many 
consiMcuotia exceptions to the rule that 
students are in doubt. Here, for instance, 
are some interesting points in tlie contro- 

Secretary Eohert T. Lincoln writes a 
hand suikingly like that of ex- President 
Hayes. Secretary MacVeagh's signature 
resembles some of those alfixed to the Dec- 
laration — that is, it is large, bold, antique 
aud distinguished-looking. Kirk and Win- 
doin are neat and legible penmen. Post- 
master-General James writca prettily, with 

several graceful little flourishes. Secretary 
Bhiine's hand is large, bold, and distinct, 
»H letters and wottis. being connected 

If ever a signature could he received ai 
indicative of the character of its owner it 
is that of Roscoc Conkling— "Grand, 
gloomy, and peculiar." It stands out in the 
rehel of the blackest ink from the paper, 
Scarcely two letters at the same angle, 
with intricate and grotesque flourishci 
everywhere, it certainly gives expression t( 
the mental ramificathins of the great un 
known, so far as they can be guessed at 
It seems to say, "My master writes like i 
one else; Island alone among signatures." 
Directly below, as is fitting, appears the re- 
spectahlo and business-like chirography of 
}Ir. Thomas C. Piatt, which is above in- 
vidious criticism. Cidonel George Bliss 
signs his name in a hold, dashing, running 
hand, every stroke of which is cleariy out, 
without a particle of affectation. 

General John A. Logan inscribes his 
name in a series of coarse black, upright 
characters. Senator Pendleton's style is 
somewhat similar, though the letters are 
better joined and better formed. Hon. 
Thomas F. Bayard's hand is a study. 
Plain, neat aud angular, it resembles the 
bold English manner of writing so much 
afl'eoted by ladies. General Joseph K. 
Hawlcy's elegant and graceful autograph is 
familiar from its appearance on innumerable 
diplomas and other docuuienls, issued by 
the Centennial Cominissi.m in 187(1. Alex- 
ander H. Stephens writes hesitatingly in a 
small, tremulous hand. 

General William Mahono, the great Vir- 
ginian Readjuster, is the possessor of what 
may he termed a lateral handwriting, if 
handwriting is a proper terinlo apply to a 
■a of broad horiz.mtal dashes, extending one si.ln of the paper to the other, 
with here and there a slight tipple of short, 
upward steins. Hannibal Hamlin appar- 
eully wastes as little time, ink and paper as 
possible in signing his name ; yei there is 
no need of a second glance at the writing in 
order to interpret it. Senator George F. 
Hoar, of Massachusetts, writes quite as 
plainly, but in a pinched sort of hand, like 
that of a New England ".school marm" 
who sets copies to her pupils prettily, in 
the style of former days. Wiide Hampiou 
vails his ferochius personality behind a 
rather pretty lady's hand, which some of 
his fair constituents might envy. Don 
Cameron appears to have entirely forgotten 
that one of the ohjeets of writing at all is 
to convey ideas to the human mind, as not 
even the profound handwriting expert, who 
figures in so many courts, could confront 
the scrawl described as his signature with- 
out a feeling of awe. 

Ex-Senator B. K. Bruce places on rec- 
ord one of the most dainty and microscopic 
round hands imaginnhle. William Pitt 
Kellogg simply writes his name like other 
people, and not unlike them in any marked 
figure. Boh Toombs' signature is an old 
style round hand, a-s much behind the age 
as the views of that venerable fire-eater. 
Jefl'. Davis has a charactcriess way of al- 
lowing little sharp letters to straggle up 
and down hill, rather in accordance with the 
imaginary curved line of beauty than with 
the straight line commonly regarded as the 
line of beauty most appropriate to chirog- 
raphy. General Beaniegard's signature is 
as distinguished and Frenchy as his three 
magnificent names, which he gives at full 

Ex-Treasurer Spinner, whose autograph 
has been as eagerly sought for as that of 
any other man living, appearing as it has 
in all its strange luxuriance upon millions 
of greenbacks, writes from his quiet home 
in Florida a courteous little n.itc, the chief 
i interest of which is that il exhibits in a 
curious manner the great difterence between 
hU ordinary handwriting and his remark- 
able signature. Tho latter, however, has 
lost none of its unique perfection. 
I "W. T. Sherman, General," appears 

upon a visiting card in strong, upright let- 
letters, with two bold flourishes, just large 
igh to give emphasis to the whole ef- 
fect. Sheridan's signature is as bold and 
dashing as one of his own fierce cavalry 
charges. General Hancock writes a beaiiti- 
fullv clear and regular hand, which is un- 
fortunately disfigured and given a slight 
appearance of affectation by an unnecessary 
profusi.m of heavy downward dashes. Ben. 
Bntler has a groat, ronnd, awkward school- 
hoy hand. McCloUan shows a lack of suf- 
ficient executive ability to transfer ink to 
paper in even a decorous manner. General 
Terry, the renowned Indian fighter, is 
punctilious in bis penmanship, writing 
cleariy and gracefully, without the least at- 
tempt at ornamentation. General Burnside 
contrived to make a half dozen words cover 
a whole page of commercial paper, and 
this not by any ordinary means, as his huge, 
scrawling characters, plain as those on a 
circus poster, seemed to literally chase each 
other down tho page, or rather to bo fes- 
tooned over it like the clusters of a wild 
grape vine. 

Among journalists and " literary fellers 
generally, one is prepared to look for re- 
markably illegible scrawls. That this is 
not always the case, numerous autographs 
in this collection prove. The late Bayard 
Taylor was a fine penman. George Wil- 
liam Curtis' signature, although showing 
some signs of unusual care, is written in an 
easy, running hand, as legible as print. 
Whitelaw Reid, although not a fancy 
writer, evidently gives his compositors no 
trouble. Admirers of Charies A. Dana 
would hardly iuuiglnc tliat his fine editorials 
are written in a small, neat hand, and with 
a pen dipped in vhilet ink, instead of in 
gall. William Cullen Bryant wrote legibly 
in an old-fashioned style, though rather 
nervously toward the last. That A. Oahey 
Hull could write well, even under trying 
circumstances, appears from a polite note of 
his, dated about a week before ho thought 
fit to disajipear from New York, some years 
ago. Eli Perkins is a better penman tlmn 
any one woulil bellcvo upon his own un- 
backed assertion. Boh Burdette of the 
Buriington llaichtyc could, with the nece.'i- 
sary knowledge of mathematics, ohtnin a 
position in any mercantile house as book- 
keeper. Longfellow writes in "a really 
beautiful Italian hand, and Whittier and 
.Holmes rival him in their own pcciili:" 
styles. George Washington Childs ha,^ ■' 
style of penuiauship which would appear ^.^ 
well at the bottom of a check as in tli. 
verses of one of his far-famed elegii - 
Miirat llalstead is certainly one of tl,. 
worst writcia in the whole world, and tiic 
sight of wliat purports to be his signaliirc 
w.mhl lead one to doubt the truth of tliis 
whole paragrapli.— ll'M/i/nsfoi! Sutuhui 


A Literary Curiosity. 

(From the F.tannrUnl iliumjer.) 
Every student of nouns, pronouns aiul 
verbs knows the necessity of transposuii: 
language for the sake of ascertaining ii- 
grammatical construction. The follow m^ 
shows twenty-six different readings of chh 
of Gray's well-known poetical lines, yet ihe 
sense is not afl"ectcd ; — 

Till' w«irj. jilowutan i>l«ls hi* liomoniinl «„)■- 
Thi- iiloivnmn, wcrtiy. plods his I'""" ^' '"' ' '>" 
IIU liomcwftitl wuy Uic vtcmj pi-",,, ., 1 1 ,i 
His hoDivwatd wuy ll'c plowtnmi. «,,' i - i. 

wry plowman liomcvaM plo.l^ 
lowmnii, weary. limuewHnl pi- 


The plowman, wearj-, liU wuy lionicwiml pl"l' 
The plowman plnds lite homowiu^ weary wiiy 
The plowniaD plods his weary liomowunl wuy. 

W««>y liU lionewinl way Oa plowman plods. 

""'^'^^^^^-^/^ ^^^'^i/^^it^^ 

Essay of S's. 

8«ch litranpe bofib of i^ouU are on the epiicre ! 
Some eociol, eome Bileot, some slern aud »e- 

Sume nniling e 
Some BtoopinfT, 

the I 

might, some eleuder, 
Some sfarving in eilrnce, some supping uilh 
Some (tiiffering and nick, some sturdy and 
8ome »orry and «ighing, aud some singing 
Some wiiioy and scolding, some uliifiless, some 


iht" slow, thf eedale, 
h-intllers and 

Hie sculptor and ealet 

The saint aud the sinner, the spealfei 

. lliB 8Avag«, the 

The eprfuder of scandal, smooth slanderer 

Some HL-umstrcBses, some at the spindle aud 

nd stewards, and scholars at 


Sectarians and surgeons, and shepherds of 

Superior instruction can now be sccurcMl 
l>y a DUinlier of teachers iu uur principal 
cities, and so thorough and comprehensive 
is this iuslructioQ that faitbfal pupils can, 
in a lew terms, actiomplish more iu the way 
of improving their penmanship, than a 
hundred years ago they could in ten times 
the number of terms. 

"While good penmanship is a thoroughly 
practical accomplishment, we nevertheless 
frequently meet with those who lay too 
much stress upon this study, and sometimes 
alight other important branches. 

We wtjuld by no means discourage the 
young enthusiast in this fine art, if he 
aspires only to the position of a private | 
writing teacher, or wishes penmanship ' 
merely as an accomplishment; but if he | 
aims at becoming a commercial teacher, it 
is very desirable that he be competent to 
teach Commercial Law, Arithmetic, Book- 
keeping, and Business Letter Writing. In 
many of our best commercial schools, with I 
penmanship alone, he is unfitted for teach- 
ing, since many college proprietors employ 
only uuch men as arc able to teach the 
above named branches. 

It is an important fact that the pupils 
should be started aright iu Book-keeping ' 

Speed in Writing. I. Let the f..nn of each";figu 

The desideratuni in this department ul' 
education needs no argument from me to 
substantiate an^r claims. The truth stares 
us boldly in the face and demands some- 
thing in keeping witb this age of stenm. 
Rapidii y is one element of controlling power, 
without which we would he at a loss to 
know the best results that are within our 
grasp. We investigate all mechanics, and 
even the movement of the busy world, and 
find that speed constitutes one grand part. 
From every quarter aud in all departments 
of business the questions "how quickly," 
"how soon," "when," etc. constitute an 
all-absorbing problem. 

No less do we find it in our own little 
world, where so many words per minute, 
or so many pages per day submits itself for 
our computation. 

As with macliinery in its producing 
power, so with man in his ability to meet 
the demands of the times. Competition is 
so great that those seeking employment 
must bear in miud that tlicy are chosen from 

aud thc.R.tiiihly fstal.!isln-d. 

•2. Speed— taken singly, lie very wue- 
ful nut to go any faster than the work can 
be done well. Practice at least half an 
hour each day, aud it will not be long until 
a perceptible gain has been made. 

3. Speed— in mi-^ed figures j i. e., chang- 
ing from one to another. This is quite diffi- 
cult to accomplish, and will bear the same 
practice that rapidity in addition demands. 

4. Spacing and general arrangement. 

5. Habit established. Practice patiently 
aud earnestly until a poor figure is an ex- 
ception not the rule. 

Thus it will be hmnd that a power has 
been gained that nothing else can give so 
I, and the transition to speed in writ- 
will become an 

What He Should Be. 
By E. M. lIuNTSiNGER, Providence, R. I. 

There never was a period when there 
were so inauy professional penmen of such 
matchless skill, and so many good business 
writers as at the pi-esent time. Why tliis 
gigantic stride forward in this beautiful and 
useful study ? For the simple reason that 
teachere, amateurs, and admirers of pen- 
manship follow out the great trutli that 
"System reigns in every department of suc- 
cessful art as well as of nature." It is the 
secret of success everywliere else, aud it 
would seem absurd that teaching should 
form any exception ; indeed, the necessity 
seems greater here, in proportion to the 
greatness of the duties and responsibities. 

The gmnd principle followed out by 
many. Is, that a person succeeds best in his 
pursuit, of whatever character it may be, 
who attaches the greatest importance thci-o- 
to; and his success, other things being 
equal, is generally measured by his devo- 
tion, and the high estimation in which he 
holds his 

ahur^ cut in photo- en graved from, pen and 
as well as penmanship, having placed be- 
fore ihom such a model of arrangement, 
style and explanation, that it will be riveted 
upon their minds so that they can never 
forget it, and, eonsoqueutly, can always he 
guided thereby. The pupil being thus 
started iu his Day-book, with a model of 
neatness, accuracy and arrangement, all the 
remaining books should be opened for him 
with the same care and perfection. 

TJie Ledger, which is the summary of 
all accounts, and the book iu which the 
teacher's skill will have full play, should 
surpass all preceding books iu detail and 
point of explanation. 

The ruling, which forms no unimportant 
feature in a neatly kept sot of books, should 
be accurate and light; not at any time to 
be heavier than the original ruling of the 

Finally, the teacher of penmanship 
should be the teacher of book-keeping and 
kindred branches, and if he possesses energy 
and is a good disciplinarian, he will com- 
man*! the best positions. 

ink copy executed at the ojjicc of the Jou 
the standpoint of speed us much as from 
any one thing. 

Young men are unmindful of their best 
interests, if they fail to acquire speed in 
their handwriting. To do this is not an 
easy vudter ; yet it can be done! Aud 
it is my belief that the easiest and best 
method is through the FiauitES. 

Let the August Journal bo a guide for 
form and general directions. If a sutficiont 
interest is generated I will not hesitate to 
ofler a suitable prize for the highest rate of 
speed. The June number of the Journal 
contains the rate of speed of each figure, 
and it is hoped that a large per cent, of its 
readers will aspire to like results. 

Kemember that all things considered 
more good mixed figures can be made per 
minute than poor ones. Doubtless the 
editors of so valuable a paper will be 
plciised to give results each month. 

To be mure explicit and t^) accommodate 
the general reader, I will give a few leatling 

the work. 

The September number of the Penman's 
Art Journal is one of special interest and 
value. In this number the editor has fur- 
nished his readers with a most practical 
paper on "Bad Writiug: Its Cause, Effect 
and Correction." In the preparation of this 
interesting aud instructive article wo can see 
that it was necessary for the author to de- 
vote a large amount of time in gathering 
the facts upon which he has based his prac- 
tical instruction and illustrations. His chief 
fields of study, and those from which ho 
has drawn, for all wHo write, much valuable 
information, were the offices of the West- 
ern Union Telegraph Conqiany and in 
general operating department, the chief 
offices of tiio several leading Express com- 
panies, some of the largest Newspaper 
offices, the Xew York Post Office, and other 

the result.- -r" ] v |m unKLHsliip. 

We have <Mr( hilly ex.iuiiued this article 
and are fully eouviuced of its practical util- 
ity and value to good as well as poor pen- 
men. It is of itself worth many times the 
price of the number, and yet it is but one 
of many excellent articles which we find 
most ably discussed iu this particular issue. 
— The Book-keeper. 

Bad Writing as a Mark of Genius. 

A fow years since a youug artist who was 
more aspiring tliau talented had occasinn to 
write in our presence his autograpli, which 
he did in a manner scAreely move legible 
than would have been PZgyptiau hiero- 
glyphics. Perceiving that our attcMilion 
«-as attracted liy its striking peculiarity, he 
iuuocenily atid with perfect cumlor said, 
" Do you not know thai all great men write 
bad hands!" That young man (who, by the 
way, has proved to bo a most distinguished 
failure both as an artist and a man) ex- 
pressed an idea quite prevalent among 
shallow-minded persons who, ajjeing great- 
ness, perceive a fat^t without understanding 
its cause. 

It is tlio painful experience of all ready 
thinkci-s that their hand and pen an- utterly 
incapable ol keeping pace with their 
thoughts, either as regards rapidity, or du- 
ration of eftbrt. In its protracted and 
weary endeavor to perform an impossible 
task, a hand, though trained and accus- 
tomed, when not unduly taxed to write a 
good haml, will, under editorial or profes- 
sional urgency, soon degenerate to a con- 
glomeration of pot-hooks, dashes and 
slurrs, whose vagueness will vary according 
to the urgouey under which they are exe- 

The pen of a Greeley or Webster could 
no more be expected to keep pace with 
their thoughts than could a pedestrian witii a 
locomotive ; and when goaded to its utmost 
endeavor, it must do its work awkwardly 
and badly. Thus the bad writing of great 
thinkers is to be viewed rather as a physical 

result arising from the inadequacy of the 
hand as a recording agent of the mind, than 
as the direct result of greatness, as some 
of our weak-rainded writers of hieroglyphics 
would have us believe. 

The Teacher. 

It is said that when Jupiter offered the 
prize of immortality to him that was most 
useful to mankind, the court of Olympus 
was crowded with competitors. The war- 
rior boasted of his patriotism, but Jupiter 
ilnimlered. The rich man boasted of his 
rii:iL'iiiticence, but Jupiter showed liira the 
ui.low's mite. The Pontiff held up the 
keys of heaven, but Jujiiter pushed the 
doors wide open. The painter boasted of 
his power to give life to the inanimate can- 
vH^-:, l.nt .T)i|.it.r breathed aloud his de- 
I ;-;..!] 'Ml-' 1.1. it.. I- liinisied of his power to 
-\\ i\ ii^iii II'. Will. Ill- cl.ifiuence, but Jupi- 
iir tiir liost^. of heaven with a 
uud. The poet spoke of his power to move 
even the gods with his praise. Jupiter 
blushed. The musician claimed to practice 
the only human science that had been 
transmitted to heaven. Jupiter hesitated, 
wlien, seeing a venerable man looking with 
intense iuterest, but himself preferring no 
claim, "Who art tb<Mi?" said the benign- 
ant monarcli. "(tnlya spectator," replied 
the gray-headed sag<;. ''All these were 
once my pupils." "Crown him! Crown 
him!" said Jnpitei-. "Crown the faithful 
teacher with immortality, and make room at 
my right hand.^^Educational Eeview. 

Filling Orders— C. O. D. 

It undoubtedly seems to those who favor 
us with small orders for books, merchan- 
dise, engraving, etc., that it is, or should 
be, entirely satisfactory to us to fill such 
orders (.'. O. 1)., but were they tn know 
how fretiuently packages so sent are re- 
turned to us with double charges, because 
parties, who had ordered, were unable or 
unwilling to receive and pay for them, they 
would see hnw very unsatisfactory it must 
be to us. We are obliged, therefore, to ask 
that the cash should iu all cases accompany 
such orders, and unless it does so, they will 
not be filled. 

We frequently receive orders for elabo- 
rate and costly engravings, to be filled ('. 
0. D. In such cases wo have usually 
deemed it proper, though quite unpleasant 
for us, to write to parties requesting a 
remittance of a porliim of the cash before 
filling the order. No order for such work 
should be sent unacc(nnpanicd with cash to 
at least one-half of its estimated cost. Such 
work, when returned to us, is entirely 
worthless, and our risk iu assuming that all 
persons sending such orders can and will 
pay for them when delivered, is, as we 
know from experience, too great to be safely 

Entertaining Angels Unawares. 
It grieves us exceedingly to refuse the 
gentlemen and ladies who, by postal card, 
solicit specimens of penmanship, as we are 
not unconscious of the honor thus conferred 
upon us; neither are we blind t^) the fact 
that they would like to get them, for other- 
wise they would not have asked for them. 
And the fact that they order by postal card 
redounds greatly to their credit for goodness 
of heart, as should they be able to procure 
such samples gratuitously, they could thus 
save the cost of samples (as obtained in the 
ordinary manner of a legitimate business 
transaction), to devote it to some unostenta- 
tious charity. As we cannot always judge 
one's motives aright, dead-head specimen 
hunters will be as merciful to us as possible. 

For 15 cents we will mail a copy of an 
elegant pen-portmit of President Garfield, 
urrounded by an highly aitistic display of 
lettering with rustic and floral work. It is 
a beautiful and attractive picture for fi-aming. 
Size 13 X 15 or 8 X 10. A copy of each size 
will be sent for 25 c^nts. Postage stamps 

The King Clubs 
for this month comes from D. L. Prichard, 
of Radnor, O., and numbers twenty-five. 
Mr. Prichard has just completed a course of 
writing under the tuition of G. W. Michael, 
at Delaware, O., and has not only acquired 
a good "band," but has become thoroughly 
imbued with the spirit of the "beautiful 
art." His style speaks well for both teacher 
and pupil. 

The second largest club comes from H. 
C. Clark, Principal of the TitusvUle (Pa.) 
Uusiness College, and numbers twenty. 

The third club in size, numbering eigh- 
teen, is sent by C. 0. Sutton, Teacher of 
Writing at the New Jersey Business Col- 
lego, Newark, N. J. 

A club of twelve subscribers comes from 
J. N. Curray, of the Pennsylvania Business 
College, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Other clubs worthy of mention come 
from L. L. Tucker, of SehofieM's Business 
College^ Providence, R. I., and W. V. 
Chambers, of Dixon (111.) Business Col- 
lege, each of which number eleven. 

An unusual number of large clubs are 
promised for next mouth. 

The December number of the Journal 
will have twelve pages, and will be the 
most interesting and best illustrated number 
ever issued. It will be worth to anyone 
interested in any department of penmanship 
as teacher or artist more than the price of 
a year's subscription. 

Vanderbilf s Wealth. 

W. II. Vandcrbilt has invested iu U. S. 
bnnds ^50,000,000, which is supposed to be 
not above one-half of his wealth. The 
bonds at 4 per cent, interest give an annual 
return of $2,000,000. It is safP to say 
that his Railroad bonds and other invest- 
ments pay him at least as nmch as 4 per 
cent., which would give him the comfort- 
able yearly income of .$4,000,000; daily, 
.§10,004, over $4,54 per liour, $7.58 per 
minute, 12i cents every second. Ho could 
daily buy a $10,000 farm and have almost 
a $1000 working capital. If he should 
convert his entire estate into ten dollar gold 
pieces and lay them out in a -Jtring they 
would reach 1750^ miles, and his income for 
one year would produce ten dollar gold pieces 
sufficient to reach over fifty miles. Poor 

Something for Nothing. 

Since the publication of the Jouknal 
there have been many persistent efl'orts to 
secure It gratuitously under the plea of 
wanting a "specimen copy," and daily a 
stack of postal cards so requesting it are 
received. To these, when genuine, we 
freely respoml, but when mouth after 
month, cards under various pretexts come 
from the same individual, the thing becomes 
an imposition and fraud, which none but a 
mean, petty swindler would perpetrate. 

Before us is a pack of twelve postal 
cards, all in the same (though in some in- 
stances disguised) hand-writing, and all 
written within a year, requesting under all 
sorts of pretexts, sample copies of the Jnuu- 

As to the real name of the writer we are 
in doubt, as the cards are variously signed, 
William Willard, Willard, WiUiam, W., 
L. N., N. L., L., N., Norman, Linwood, 
and Norman L. Hickok. The twelfth card 
reads — " I would like a copy of your Jour- 
nal very much, as I have heard it is a 
good paper." 

We are sorry to disoblige so "apprecia- 
tive" and "liberal" a patron of the Jour- 
nal, but hereafter this Multus Hickok and 
all others who wish a second copy of the 
Journal will be under the necessity of 
inclosing stamps to the 

To Advertisers. 
We regret the necessity of calling the 
attention of many parties who have sent 
copy for small advertisements in the Jour- 
nal uniuwumpanied by cash, to the fact 
that our terms for all advertising are posi- 
tively cash in advance, and that it is en- 
tirely useless to send copy upon any other 
terms. Bills have been at once sent for 
such advertisements, and where not paid. 
advertisements have been, and will be 
omitted from the Journal. 

:' good workers and good 


Tiie pen which Garfield used 
his last letter to his mother is now in the 
possession of his devoted nurse, Steward 

Good V 

Good teachers and good writei"s avail 
themselves of the best aids, and are, there- 
fore, subscribera for the Journal. 

Abbreviated Script, or Editorial Short- 
hand, which any one can learn to write on 
sight, is one of the grand features of our 
forthcoming publication of Staudai-d Prac- 
tical Penmanship, now being prepared by 
the Spencer Brothers. 

Not Responsible. 
It should be distinctly understc.od that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial colunms ; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished ; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and tell 

Special Inducement. 
To any person receiving a specimen copy 
of this issue, we offer to mail the lemaiuiag 
two numbers for 1881 and all the numbers 
for 1882, (in all, fourteen numbers of the 
paper), and a choice of the four promiums 
for $1.00. Give it atrial. 


Martin's Compendium of Ornamental 
Art is a book of 120 Hmo. pages, devoted 
to giving i)ractical and valuable information 
relative to all departments I'f art. The 
book is well written, and treats upon all 
kinds of drawing, painting, and practical 
an.l ornamc^ntal writing, together with the 
implements and materials used. It is a 
decidedly interesting and valuable work for 
all in any way interested in any of its sub- 
jeeta. Published by the author, J. M. Mar- 
tin, at tiuincy, III., for $1. 

George A. Bates, of the Naturalists' 
Bureau of Salem, Mass., has just published 
a work of 560 Hmo. pages, entitled " Prim- 
itive Industry," by C. C. Abbott, M. D. 
Tlic work describes and illustrates the im- 
plements and other remains of the Indians 
of eastern North America. It is a hand- 
.somely printed and well gotten up work, 
and is a complete hand-book of Archtrolitgy 
in the United States. Price, $3.00. 

The publishing house of Ivison, Blake- 
man, Taylor & Co., New York, is probably 
the largest school-book concern in the 
United States, if not in the worid. We 
have received samples of the Counting- 
house and School Script Rulers, an entirely 
new, interesting, useful invention, offered 
by this house to the stationery and school 
tiiide. These rnlei-s present, in a masterly 
style, the salient features of standard prac- 
tical writing. Orders to the Journal for 
these rulers will be filled by mail on re- 
ceipt of 10 cents for School Ruler — 25 
cents for Counting-house Ruler. 

Penmen's Convention. 
Shall we have a Penmen's Convention, ii 
so, when, where and who will be there ? 
Several names are already upon the roll, 
which will be published in the next 
issue of the Journal. Who next ? We 
hope that the roll will be amply long not 
only to warrant the holding, but to insure 
the success of such a convention. 

Cestual Normal Com-eof., / 
Danville, Ind., Oct.Stb, 1881. \ 

AVitoMo/ Journal:— Will yoti imswer 
tli(- folloiving ■'luestioD.'* tliroiigli tlio JnCR- 

Wlmt porliitn of the time would ymi Uq- 
v.ilft to inoveincDt qxctcxwa in ii normal 
««Iio<.I ? 

Which woiiia you ii»e first; otf-liaini or 
rorr-unn TnnvemcDt f 

Wuuiri you drill tlicin rHj-idly first of the 
tcnn f Iliistjly yn»rs, 

.1. V. Urown. 

A ru. 1. The time proiier to bo devoted lo 
movement oxercieeS during u Iwaou in writ- 
iiit; must vary according to the length of 
the lesson. In a half-hour los8on from five 
to K^u minutes: in a IcHSon uf nii hour, from 
ten to fiftecu minutes mity be devoted to 
nmvoinont exercises to good lulvjintage. 

Ans. S. Wo should tenrh the forc-anii 
iiiovcmoul hefore the wtmlp iirrn, and to 
lifraons who were imrpysilif; to become 
simply tciichftrs of practicjil writing, wo 
ulioiild not advise the teaching of the whole 
arm movement at any timr as olomentary 

Am.:t. Wf believe that deliberate and 
thniiylitful practice is boct until the ability 
111 make corrert forms and combination of 
ihc lotlors has been a{'.<|uired, and then 
|irac1ieo rapidly for speed. 

C'AHSTotJA, (*al., Oct. 7th, 1881. 

Kfliors of .ToifRNAi,:— In my card-writ- 
iiiii, superscribing envelopes, etc., withont 
a ruled base line, executing the capitals 
with tlie whole-arm movement, and the 
small leltpin with the ordinary writing 
movement, I noticed that the capitals, un- 
less prevented by special effort, invariably 
shinted more and that their b«so line ran 
down across that of the small letters at an 
allele of about ten degrees. 

ICxHmining the writing of other penmen, 
I saw tho same relative deviation of slants 
and base lines. The cause of this deviation 
I discovered to be produced iu changing 
thi- center of motion from the shoulder, iu 
wli(de-arm movement, to tho muscular rest; 
and the an; of circles thus describpd by tlie 
pen intersect at about that angle. The 
icmedy is to turn the top of the paper to 
the right until the natural lateral off-lmud 
tnolion is parallel with the buse line of 
writinc. L. |i. I„vwson. 


; IJi: 

i»M)L. Portland, Me. 
I). T. Ames, 

Dear Sir: — We acknowledge the receipt 
of your Art Journal since May, 1H81. 

You are very kind to respond so gener- 
inisly to cair request. It encourages us to 
I.U..W that those who have oarnod position 
mid intluenco ia life are so ready to extend 
to us a helping hand. He assured the 
pleasant hours we spend in reading your 
pnhticatiou are made more happy by the 
knowledge that it is your gift. 

We promise you we will now try harder 
tlmu ever to forsake bad ways and form 
go<»d habits, and make for ourselves cbar- 
actere that will be strong fi.r the right, and 
that we will endeavor to prove worthy of 
the many generous friends who show s" 
deep an interest in our welfare. 

In behalf of „ur school -fellows, 
I.EIUH A. Hl.iMES. ) 

It was with satisfaction that wo rweived 
the foregoing letter. It evidently cornea 
from lads who from some cause have strayed 
from tho "straight and narrow way," and 
is a sincere expressiou of iheir earnest de- 
MTO, "to forsake bad ways."' They niMy 
bo assured of our best wishes for their suc- 
cess. We hope that they have all read, 
thoughtfuUy aud carefully, the most excel- 
lent address to young men by Preaident 

Garfield, published 
ber of the Journ. 
thoughts and advic 
every young man ; 
life and grand acb: 
lo them an inspiring 

1 the September num- 

It id full of g<iod 

to tbem, as well as to 

the land. His noble 

should also be 

pie; by following 

which they may yet regain all worthy 
friends and make for themselves good and 
honored names. They should be, as was he, 
honest and mauly, diligent and earnest in 
study, seeking earnestly after knowledge by 
reading good books and mingling with good 
and intelligent companions. 

Many of these lads will remember that 
their first bad act was suggested by some 
evil companion. If they would become 
good and remain so, they must forsake and 
shun all evil-disposed associates. Sur- 
rounded by good companions reform wilt be 
easy and permanent, but ditficult, if not im- 
possible, among bad ones. 

We trust that the lads whose names ap- 
pear above as theJ[represoutatives of their 
felhiws may in future be more distinguished 
representatives of their fellows in high and 
honored places. 

ScrioLriELu's Commercial C'olleoe, ( 
I'uoviDENCE, U. I.. Oct. :i(ith, ISSI. 5 
Mr. D. T. Ames, 

JJear Sir:— I wish to thank you for the 
prompt and careful manner in M-hieh the 
JotRNAL and premium was sent to my last 
club. No mistakes 
thcmsc-lves as mor 
paper, while they 
Vu-Xim- as worth i 
subscription price. It is needless for irie to 
repeat my opinion of the JotrRSAL. I 
would not do without it. Shall send an- 
other club soon. Youi-8 with respect, 

L. L. Tucker. 

lecurrefd and all express 
than pleased with tla- 
regard the Centennial 
itself more than tin- 

Commodore Vanderbilt, when asked the 
secret of his great success, replied in the 
words that head this article, aud when we 
apply thorn lo success or failure iu life, there 
certniuly seems to us a world of meaning in 
them which all woukl do well to consider if 
they desire prosperity. Any one, even if he 
is not a close observer, cau doubtless call to 
mind dozens of his auipiaintances who have 
failed miserably by inattention to business ; 
in fact, many failures seem to result from diligence and attention to every- 
body's business but their own. How few, 
comparatively, of even our business men 
adhere strictly to this motto. Ninety per 
cent, of business mou fail on account of not 
attending to their own legitimate business. 

To have some business, and to understand 
it thoroughly, and stick to it constantly, 
has made our boot-bhicks millionaires, aud 
paupers princes; it is wiiat has given us 
tho best inventions of the century, and 
enabled us to outstrip every nation on earth 
in the grand race of progress. For what 
nation can present such a long list of per- 
sons who have come np from the most 
humble poverty to alHuence f It is certainly 
then, an extremely good motto for every 
young man, be his calling or business what 
it may, ''to mind his own business and go 
ahead." If it enabled Vanderbilt to amass 
the colossal fortune of one hundred millions 
of dollars, surely anyone that has the de- 
termination to succeed, can accomplish 
vastly and infinitely more than by the ir- 
resolute, uncertain methods adopted by 

How much belter, wiser and happier 
would all the world be if all people were to 
adhere to this motto. We should then ho 
spared the tales of the scandal -monger and 
numberless other busy-bodies, who display 
such wtmderful faculties of chise attention to 
everybody's business but their own. Per- 
severance, with a firm, fixed determination, 
and stunly industry, is proof against all the 
ill-hick that fools ever dreamed of. Show 
mo a young man that is steady, temperate, 
and not vacillating iu his course, and I will 
show you a man that is bound to succeed. ! 

Shiftlessness has consigned the life of many 
a brilliant scholar lo oblivion. 

" Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty;" 
so, also, is it the price of all true success. 
" Ho! all who labor, nil who toil, ye wittld a 

lofty power ; 
Do with your might, do with your sirenglh, 

fill every goI<li*ii hour: 
The gloriuus privilege to do is man's most 

noble dower. 
Oh, to your birtlinghl and yourselves, to yuuv 

own souls be Iruu. 
For a wrfiched. weary life ia his, who has no 

again, and the young man said: ''Senator, 
I received your card, but I couldn't compre- 
hend what the letters S. H. A. N. iu tlie 
comer meant. Pray interpret them ? " 
"With pleasure," said McOeery, his eyes 
twinkling with humor. " S. H. A. \. are 
the initials of Sent Jiy a Nigger!'! 'phe 
young man tried to laugh, but really 
couldn't see tho point of tho inscription. 
Others did. 

J. E. W. Morgan is teaching penmanship 
at the Morris (111.) Normal and Scientific 

F. M. Babcock is special teacher of pen- 
manship and hook-keeping in Union and 
public schools of Lockport, X. Y. Mr. 
IJahcock writes a very haudsome letter. 

Lew K. Darrow, formerly a popular com- 
mercial college teacher, aud a splendid 
business writer, is now engaged in tho 
banking business at ('oviiiug,"IoM"a. 


, L^iving 

The Muskingum \-allev (0.) Normal 
School, conducted by I'rof. .lacob Schwartz, 

idVing tV. 

And tliotisands unued. their brother's blood I 

Have lUeiied all to written words.— "IJ 

And miinons iu the chnius of slavery bound, 
Their liberty in words innuortal found.— 
Iiiinioi-tal iu thtf garb of wisdom dresBed, 

The tongue of h'ghiuing speaks from shore t 

Aim! iKit-rs iir.).l iis fiery words in store. 

Flinp o'er benighleil l^i 
Where ere ihou goenl, 
Of ligltt unseeo, rliu,,^. 


.A Bill of Particulars. 
A certain gentlemau of this city scut a 
very fine French clock to a well-known 
jeweler to be repaired, saying that he 
wishfd each item of repairing specified. 
The following is a copy of the bill sis rcn- 

To removing the .11 .I,,--' I 

oleaginous conglum. , .•■ n... 
la French 

'^'X?l3,i'M'':!:::r::. /:.:;::;■:;,:;' 

To lubrii'iiM:'." ''"i"''.'.' ' ..',-''li'„i','!„', 
the apes -■■ !■ ■. . . . : , I,,. I, . .-,, 

To adil.MU,. ; : .._ . ..: :-,„ ,d 

escape wheel percussion upon the verire 

pallets of said clock .-,ll 

To K.ijiisting the L.-lwee.. tilt- 
hs point of SHSpfll-n . . I, I 'm 

hnuinris of the \u-u.'r 

the index haml l.. : ,;.,,,,, 

niately ihe daily inin.ii .i iI,l ,-;iu .ii 

its meridian height r,(f 

„i'<"«l $:i 00 

— »■ orcester Spy. 

The Senator's Visiting Card. 

The mystic letters written on visiting 
cards are a source of bewilderment to the 
Congressmen from rural districts, who can- 
not decipher their meaning. Once that 
stalwart Kentuckian, Senator .McCreory, 
met a foppish young constituent who had 
.just returned from Paris, aud said to him: 
"I received your card the other day. I 
recognized your father's name which is the 
same as yours, and supposed that it wa.s his 
son; but what did the letters K. P., wriii. ,, 
in a corner, mean?" "Why, .Mr. S.n- 
ator," replied the travelled man, "it i,s 
customary in Paris to write the initials of 
certain words on leaving cards. For ex- 
ample, had I been going away, I should 
have written P. P. C-, the initials of Pour 
premire conje— to take leave. As it was, 
calling myself, I write E. P., the initials of 
En l*ersonm—m person." "Oh I" said 
McCreery, "I understand.'' 

A week or so afterward the two met 

■ ■ 'in. Sn,lI,l..Iil.hl. 

.-M,„ u.juiami write! 
i> ..r sdom-e blind, 
iitw poor the grov'Hug 

ll -. 

- Id liiiasi balh fvw. 

>,:, tn 

V blesl with powers to 


l.alik v» 

lo t'live him iieii nml ink 
I,« ™., .miy Jiavvl, 
ll.' r-ll r,H( ,„lly Bcrawl, 

Ami I].- wli^i 
.Sli.iul.l i,,,t„l. 


II- u'lll'lo h'll 

1' .1 I.. ui-iU-il w,.|l 

nunient of e 

Read much what wi<ll is writtvn, lliiak and 

Your thfiiighis enchain, th' inspiring muue 

The pen anrl' press t^liull keep the world 
The bmmer of your belter tliooghl« unfurled. 

Hot wlio o'er rugged sleeps would traverst 

A stranger to the way should have u guide; 
Who gropes along, uncertain in the dark. 
May fall, perchance, for want of but a spark. 
Unheard, we feel the power of Naturv's voice, 
She knows our wanle, and makes for us ti 

A choice of leaders iu the Held of thoughi, 
By Nature sent, they come to us unsought. 

A very creditably written letter comes 
from Fanny M. Pender, Tarboro, N. C 

A most elegantly written letter comes 
from W. H. Flic-kinger, of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Uriah MrKce, teacher of writing at Ober- 
lin (0.) College, writes a handsome letter. 

John A. Weber, of Walpole, N. H., in- 
closes a well-executed set of busiuew capi- 

F. H. Madden, teacher of writing at 
Johnson's Commercial College, St. Louis, 
>ro., writes an elegant letter. 

A fine specimen of letter-writing comes 
from L. L- Williams, President of the Ro- 
chester (N. Y.) Business University. 

A fine specimen of business writing comes 
from James M. Youug, with James Camp- 
boll & Son, Publishers, Toronto, Ontario. 

C. Hills, teacher of writing at the Critten- 
den Commercial College, Pliila., Pa. Sends 
a package of handsomely written copy-slips. 

One of the most graceful and correct spe- 
cimens of letter-writing we have ever seen 
was received from H- W. Shaylor, of Port- 
land, Mo. 

S. S. Laudrum, of Easonvillo, Ala., sends 
specimens of writing and flourishing. His 
spocimons are skillfnlly executed. The 
writing is too much flourished. 

Specimens of card writing and flourishing 
wore received from J. C. Brown, teacher of 
penmanship at the Ceutral Normal College, 
Danville, Ind. 

A very nicely written letter, in winch 
wore inclosed several superior specimens of 
pmctical writing, comes from Frank C. 
Fowcett, a pupil at the Crittenden Com- 
mercial College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

A handsomely written letter and an ele- 
gantly gotten up catalogue has been re- 
ceived from J. M. Benish, one of the pro- 
prietors of tho Islaud City Business Col- 
lege, Galveston, Texas. 

A fine specimen of flourishing comes 
from W. p. Macklin, of St. Louis, Mo. It 
is worthy of a place in the columns of the 
JouKNAL, but being executed with pale 
lok, it is impractical. 

J. M. Vincent, teacher of writing at the 
Los Angelos (Cal.) Busiupss College, sends 
an attractive spocimou of drawing and let- 
tering, and also writes a very handsome 

A set of Sixty-three Tracing Exercises, 
upoH Manilla paper 4x4 inches, have been 
received from C. H. Peiree, of Keokuk, 
Iowa, which exhibit a remarkable degree of 
skill and command of hand. 

A large and artistically -arranged poster, 
showing an entire interior view of Hub- 
bards, Bryant and Stratton Conunereial 
School, Boston, Mass., has been received. 
This institution is having a perfect tide of 

An imperial-sized photograph of a piece 
of penwork, 22x28, has been received from 
E. L. Buructt, of Elmira, N. Y., which, as 
far as we can judge from the photograph, is 
highly meritorious. It embraces a variety 
of skillfully executed lettering, drawiug and 

MiB*i Abbry l\ GwoJetll, llit iicw lady prio- 
ripal uf Viu>t>ar Cullvge is the Rr«t graduate of 
llial iuetitution to obtain a placu niuoiig its 

Everything in Texaa is taught to Bhool ex- 
cept ihe yoimg idfn. There are over 30,000 
white children over i-ight years old in lliat 
State who do not know (he alphabet. — Ex. 

The always welcome AtU'jhrn^ Ttarher has 
been consolidated with the EdueationtU Voice 
and the Teaehtr$' AdruraU. The new publica- 
tion is entitled The Edurationat Review, and 
bids fair to take an liouurable posttion among 
educational journals. 

The yotre Dame (Iiid.) Srholnatic, in the ex- 

,fid character of 


:ionaI Note 

headau-- ;■■ 1 Li ■ ; I . ■ ■ i:...,..Kvuy. 

NVwYork l^n.l ,,i,:,.„,...,«d.] 

TliB two pciid uai-<l ill oigiiiiiy llie treaty of 
Amiens were sold in Ib"25 for £500. 

In Norway the education of children from 
7 years iu towns, and from ti years in the 
couiUry lo 14 years is compulsory. 

Thf obnoxious rule of the Chicago Board uf 
Education, iatordiciing the employment of 
married woui<>ti ae t«achers, has been repeated. 
— nVttrrn Educational Journal. 

> personal and local 
items, in its reviews, its art, music, literary 
and sctenlilic notes, is excelleil by none of its 
class; white its more extended nrticliis and 
essays are, in the best sense of tlie term, truly 

Columbia College, Now York, Iia« estab- 
lished a professorship of iirchitecture at a 
salary of $5,000 per annum, in counecliou 
with the Schoul of Mines. W. R. Ware, of 
the Massachusetts luslilule of Technology, 
was elected lo the professorship.— iV. 0. Vhrit- 
tian Advocate. 

The Annual Ajmouncement of the Shorter 
College, of Rome, Ga., gives catalogue of 
students, willi description of llie unsurpassed 
location of college, and the appoiiilmvnts of 
the several depart uienie. This institution 
«tieui8 eminently fitted to impart a liberal edu 
cation to the yoUng ladies of the vicinity, as 
well as of the South generally. Not ihu least 
noticeable and cvedilable of its featurcB is llie 
fiiot that penmanship is taught throughout the 

The whole anaual income distributed among 
the 35tf colleges of the United Status fell, in 
1878, a trifle abort of$2,550,000. The English 
unniversiiies of Oxford and Cambridge alone 
bad, according to the returns piiblislied in 
1871, revenues amounting to $3,770,000, ex- 
clusive of benefices, which must amount to 
nearly $2,000,000 annually. We see, there- 
fore, that all the American colleges combined 
canuot vie with the two great English semi- 
naritts iu the scope of their pccuuiary means. 
— N. r. School Journal. 

Copenhagen is the intelleotunl center of 
DeuHiark. We lind there a university, an 
academy of fine arts, a polytechnic institute, a 
school of veterinary surgery and agriculture, 
a conservatory of music, a royal library with 
500,(H1U volumes, a university library with 
270,111)11 volumes, and Several museums, among 
wlfk-h the Museum of Northern Antiriuities 
uuil tlie Tlioivvaldseu Museum are especially 
noteworthy. In 1877 Copenhagen had five 
paying and six free schools for primary educa- 
tion, with a totul numbiT of 11,^00 pupils. 
Tlie expenses of the city for education in 1877 
amounted to @l(id,000. 

From the Tenth Annual Report of the Com- 
missioner of Education f..r llit- ynir 1^*711, re- 
cently given to the I'llMii i\ . I ;ii!i :li;it ilie 

duration of tlje schonl ^ :il>..ut 

170 days) in Conu^^ni M M,,.sa- 

chu8ettB,New Jersey, Ni " iu;U.Ki.uiU I^luiul 
and the Dislricl of Columbia. In tlie latter it 
is 189 days. The total number of teachers 
employed in the public schools of the States 
was 270.103; in the Territories, 2,523— Idaho 
not reporting, and the Cboctaws, only, in In- 
dian Territory. The District of Columbia 
pays the highest average ^alary lo men, viz.: 
$8y.47, and Arizona the highest to women, 
viz.: ftW. Tho lowest averago salary for men 
is in South Carolina, viz.; $25.54, and for 
women, in New Hampshire, viz.: $22.83. The 
expenditure per capiui of school population 
varied from 95 cents iu Georgia to $15.26 in 
MassBchusetts. and per capita uf eurollmeut 
from Sl.41 in North Ciirulimi to §17.17 iu 

Educational Fancie-s. 
"Learning," says a down-easter. "is well 
enough; but it hardly pays to givi- a five- 
thouaand-dollar education to a five-dollar boy." 

■• Master Tom, stand in the corner." " What 
tor t " HU Teacher : " Because you are a bad 
boy." ilatttr Tom: "Can't I be a bad boy 

well ! 

What is the relation of a universiiy to an or- 
dinary college? It is a step farther, 

" My boy." said a conscientious teacher " do 
you know the nsasou I uoi going to whip youT " 
" Yes/' replied the hopeful. " I suppose it's 
because you are bigger than I am." 

" I wish I lived in Anger," said the little boy 
who bad just been reprimanded with a shingle. 
■' What do you mean by that nonseuBet" " I 
beard our teacher 8.\y that children should 
nev^r be punished iu anger.'' 

Ingtractor in Christian Thrlrine : "Well, my 
son, speaking of poetry, what part of the 'Bur- 
ial of Sir John Moore' do you like mostf" 
Smart youik : '' 'Few and short were the 
prayers we said.' " — Xolre JJame Scholastic, 

Force of habit: — "'Why are you so late?" 
asked an Austin school teacher of a little girl, 
who hung her head and said. " Wu have gut a 
little baby at our bouse." " Don't let it bap- 
pen again," said the teacher, fiercely, and the 
lilte girl said she would not and took her seat. 
— Texas Si/tings. 

Sekoolmaater to new tchoUvr : " Now, my boy, 
be industrious. Kemeniber, what you have 
once learned no one can take away from you." 
A'ew boy : " Yes, sir; but it'll be just the same 
if I don't learn anything at all. I'd like to 
know what anybody could take away from me 

Au English critic of the revised New Testa- 
ment thinks that elegant modern English 
should have been adopted, and would bu^m 
the parable uf the prodigal sou as follows 
" A geutlemau of opulence and fortune had two 
oft'spring of widely difl'ei'ontiated chaiuciers 

Scene at Harvard. Chinese class. Studm 
(who lias just failed in a Chinese sentence Ii 
Professor) — " Thou tea-chest ! " /*) ufcsso 
(furious) — '-What! you dare to—" Slutltn 
(calmly proceeds) — " Thou tea-chest a mos 
difficult language." (Red lire, curtain ) 

Said the teacher: "'And it came to pasE 
when King Hezekiah beard it, that he lent 
clothes.' Now what does that mean, cliildu 
' he rent his clothes? ' " Up went a little ban 
"Well, it you know, tell us." " Please ma'ttm 
said the child, timidly, " I s'poso he hired itn 

"Which is the moat delicate sense, fcclm- 
or sightt" asked a professor iu Columbia C < 1 
lege. "Feeliuft," responded the studeni 
"Give a proof of it with an example," said the 
professor. "Well, my chum can feel bic> mus 
tache, but nobody can see it," responded the 

A young lady graduate read ao essay en 
titled "Employment of time." Her compo^i 
tion was based on the text, "Time wasted is 
existence; used is life." The next dn> she 
purchased eight ounces uf zephyr of difteuut 
shades and commenced working a sky blut 
dog with sea-green ears and a pink tail on a 
piece of yellow canvas. She expects to have 
it done by next Christmas. 

The following was evolved recently from 
the brilliant brain of one of uur juniois, who 
lias evidently been thinking seriously of his 
rhetoric: 'Most lies are hyperboles. Hvper 
bole is a figure; hence most lies are figuito 
But figures can't lie. Er<jo, a lie is not a he, 
quod eat demoiiatrandum. 

A gentleman met an " uncertain" aLtpiam 
tance who said : " I'm a little short, and should 
like to ask you a conundrum in meutal arith- 
metic." " Proceed," returned the geiillemeu. 
" Well," said the " short" man, "suppose you 
had ten dollars iu your pocket, and I should 
ask you for five dollars, how much would re- 
main y " " Ten dollars," was tho prompt 

A correspondent of the Pliiladelphia Ledger 
says that " Llanfairpwicbgunyugergobwlcbl- 
landyssiliogogo," the name of a Welsh parish, 
is pronounced as is if written thus : '* Thlau- 
virepoolcbgwingergoboolchhiudisiliogogo," but 
the majority of the people will keep right along 
proDouuciug it as it is spelled. — Fi-te I'rete. 
A pretty young girl full uf pique. 
Got down in the nioulh so to spique. 
And when people laughed 
She thought she was chaughed. 
And she stayed iu the house for a wique. 

M A R T I N' S 

CompenHlitm of Ornamental Art. 


Ill u twtnA niiinlwr "Thn ITnlvonail Penman," a n 
ly inDsnxi'X' tif Canada, hu'b: 
Pnif C. L- Mitrtin's book. lh» '■ CV>mp«»rftiim of 

Ocunls, plriln, 18o. : 3 wisy mafkine nlplmbots. 25n. ; 1 

ciR'"r»r"?6o. ' ™^'' ""^ "a. E. DEWHtPRST. 
11-lt NpwHnrtroM, N.Y. 

Shading T Square. 

"There ar« two boatiog Associations here," 
wrote a Japanese student home, "called Yale 
and Har\'ard. When it rains the members 
read books." 

Mr. "Wbittier, the poet, says he receives 
two-hundred applications for his autograph 
in the course of a year. 

of tin.Uuitiki'^ 

thesquari. with tbt-nipldity o 

D. T. A«KS— flMr ^ 

fiirnt.'d. llespectfully, 

C. E. SlCKKI^. 

Aui. Uaul Nule Co., ^uw 

Nrw YoaK, Sepi. i 

we are (lpii({t"t«l W''h the uerfeciion of Ihe work done, 
auil the faciliiy iviUi whkb ft win be ««^**^;^^ ^^^^^ 

The »bovo c„t « Pho.o-lUI,ogra,>hcd fron, P^n^an;>^i;;k ^I^JJ^'^^^^'J'"^ l',';!'l°'!?^°,; J"f,i° 

The shading around the lei 
of relief cuts received and promptly executed. 

; done with our patent Shading: 


Bryant's New Series. 


Eighth EniTH>N. Copyrighted, 1881, 

Uv J. C. BRYANT, M.D., 


Tarlor & Co., 755 

Broud^vaj-, IVciv Vork. 


tliecnpaclly of beglni 
i-tintnt of nccoiintaiitsliip. 
, iintl no lirelovant dlscus- 

Iglit and vftliK!, nnd only sucb. 

■my othci'sinitlni-t 
Issued fn two editions, pi-lnted 

The Counting House Edition 

35U page, of wliitli M pages niv devoted to Pictliiilnii 
pages to Wholvsalo Mcrchnnrtising: 12 pngoitUt l-'uriii Ainiiin 
pnffcs to MannfncHiring; 13 p-igos V 

V) puges to Banking ; the lemuinlng part of the ^v . . . i 

Kelail price '. $3.50 > . i : i i- , $2.10 

price 2 10 > I nil ii I; .4 i > i hyexpieas 1.00 

Per dozen (tbcroiftcr), per copy -31 SjimpU- lUmk, fur istirniiiiilitin. by miiil... 1.25 

A complete set of Blnnk Books, ruled nnd lnrle-\cd expressly for this work, will bo fiimlslied at 
5 per set net, retail, $*.50. 

The High School Edition 

of til 


devoted to the riidhm 


n Series of 


t attempted, bnt v 


ordinary methods of Ac- 
per copy $1.0 

Retail pi-iee $1.S0 Per dozen {there 

Introdnction price W Ordei-s of Two Dozen, or more .90 

Sample Book, for examination, by mall, 75 cents. 
Blnnk Books, completcfor this edition, $I.T5 net, retail, 82 "W. 
aa- Orders will receive prompt attention. 



79 MADISON Stuket. Chicago, ItJ.. 





VtiOng, Copfh;, Marfclng, IniMlUe, Sbnplng, lapui, 

Stylographlc, Sympathttle, Gotd, Silver. White 

and Tranifef 

pENMAN; We iu« plmsed t» intoni 

T ^ K 8 


^-0 COLORED INKSa-Soirlet. 
t Violet, nndjHIlInck. Thew 


!'"• '-■■• """rK-i I" I 

■ly, po«esiei great pi 
jidi nor IhJckent, li n 

ilver Ink. i-tn. hofifp, hy r>'xp^M.. 

H-gatt. kpm, PMli not 


per gnm (pncVwl In J-gw. wood 
No. 1. 

box. Buy ttyitt 

I«rioas wbm »<il 

k puqilts >-«llfm-, bnimi. gold. 

Setnr" Amerioou" or "Kalian" Cuplruls, ni 


lu, TtooK-KT rrivr 

» TnU Cnl>in 

PKICE, ti.W. 

Contnliw (ho followiiitrlnk.: I - 

ptn-Cnmiliie, IJlite, vT.iIpI. Ow 

I. ktoroinillv, Dnn. 

■"~niirt<^r oiinw 1i 

Dili Gold and Silver Ii 



Ipl. Oreen, CoDtrnXC 
'iMUIe mtto Ink, nnd 

« Ink Cabi 

PRICE, tn.oo. 

'nnlAlns llio following Ink* : S-ob. 

nn1n». Bliiu, Violet, f- 

r«intHo, Doop-ninok. 


bottle White 

t, Nf>. a. 

Unrmlne, Scfirlot 



« M ^iT"^" '"'"''*'°" *f'**'" '" IWBlnl-Piitd R-qiieal 




counting-house book-keeping. 

' ""■' ■■'■'■'•liiillyBtld my tMimnny to 

■ TliB pcTftiot flow, booutihil 

t ymr Janao Ink. aunnlit^ a 

'■n CaRlWritew. TlioPen. 

"I ]>n)frMlonal penmitD. lu it 
'iiri.ry ofdmtrnWe kinds nod col 

11. c' 1^»()\ViJr.' Expert Penman. 

rUtKlli'Ul, Mbbs, Nnv.lMih.llieo. 

™™-T'?? ymir lnk« with gnat snfis- 

Fml D All..,- r^' 1 '.i'' " ■■ '"'"■'■•"'■ 1**1 

j-nnr Ink*. 'imdVni.iv'\i.Vo'|,Vav"n''1n'w"w «'-•"•' 
n»- f^nt. Your "DMn-DIuck " i« Att^bla 
!,"^ . rr •*■■ *'''i"'"? " <Il»l«i« •upcriOT to nny 
ri'iw.1 h. tliB imihuion nod tli* imblfo. 

■AVJ/ral. Your "De*n.DIiwk'' i/lt^^fctadl"." 

mspwiftjlly, L. ASIRE, 1 

frn- fnin 


13S and 140 Gmnd Street, New York 



Class Book of Commercial Law, 

■ ByC. E. CARIiAHT. 
Principal of the Albany BiwinBaB Ciillpge. 



Prom H. E. Hibbard, Pinncipal of Hibbard'* 
Conimei-cml Scbool, BoRtoii, Maeif.: 
" Send ms 100 copia CInu-lwoh at onn." 

convinoed tliiil it ii an tzeelknt wirrkfor tut in our tsoia- 
marcial tchooU, cipeDlull^ In cIiih exon-lEei. 
"Every Bliidentuf biumew should know something of 

knowledge so admirabln arrangtd and tojudiciaiuly am- 
dtiuett aa in yotir ClUH-book on this subject." 

From Robert C. Spencer, Principal of Milwau- 

kee Business College, Milwaukee, Wis,: 
, !_-., :. _,... ._ . . jaiiai^iign^ andjina 

real, and very neatly 
have tun, Hnd ought 

I dupli« 


ij- mj^lali win reflutd 

la^ul book* on I 

Ixien duly n««ivod and thoruugbly examtued. 1 am more 
thnn plMiMd with Iberimj>(*. plain and tentibU manner— 
so euBlly to be comprehended by all— with Tchlrh U deals 
with the BUblect, and have no duubl but (hut it will All a 

From A. D. Wilt, Principal of Miami Commer- 
cial CoUegR, Dayton. Ohio: 
"It iaudmlmblefor its oomprnhensiveaeas. its cfMrncM 
of ttaUmtnt, and tls ndaplubility generally to Itio re<iuire- 
meuts of iuBlruuilwii lu tiiia highly important port of ibe 
cunieuluui of a Buslneca C'dleKe- I luolose Muney-ontcr 
for 10 copies and expect (o need many more." 

Sent postpaid to anr address on receipt of 
One Dollar. Address 

6-U Alban/ Buajnesg College, Albany, N. Y. 

durable binder for th*- JoumfAi.. 
issotonstnittcd as to serve both 
binder. Sent iK»«t paid on recelnl c 

T SK ! A collection o( 

I Inks of Mil kinds, u 

for Wu. In t)tntnu9. Ttieliatii 

wri.inK Inks, tiiks for rubbei and metal suimDa, 
indoltubltt Inks, aympatfaeUo Inks, ^ossy Inln! 
nil colore. Drawing and iUnmlnntlng, siiclt m 
RDtd. silver, white, CArbon and India Inks, lnk»< 
for nirr'cing packages, ^pan Inks, ink powders, 
stencil Inks. Ac. ftc. The materlKls Are Inex- 
lientive wnd eiislly obtolnnble, nnd the directions 
... WELLS SWIFT, Marlonville. 



July, i88l 



riAVO PA<iIiS. 


mongmuny t.( tlie ieaimn criliis country, and kiu ot'lopied ii 
« Buainesa Colleges nod Private Soliooie in tlie United States and Cnnadaa. 




ii,n.,E-ili • . i .1. .V - - 1.. -I Mass.: 

a Chai-les CI»Kl,„in, I'rii,n|,;il I',. , i A - 
1 S. S. Pncliiiril. Pri.»ulratT'i.ik:,..i - I ■..,.,, 


1 O. F. WilliatuB, Prirf. Law antl Matheiiia' 

.rive nmljeoi ol eontmnciai loflra not only piee 
ed pupils. 

1 PfofesBor J. O, Ski'..l8, Principal Allen'. 

1 tn e 

I'rcmi II. C. Spnicev, PiesiilHiii .Sppiicei-iau Bile 

I'l-omS. B..giii-clu«. Pr,..„i,i,i s ,,i„l,l l;i,si„ 

From O. A. Oiiskell. I'li ,1 .1,,., v i ,iv Il„» 

■■ Aiu usiiiK • Sadler's (■..n„i,.,ir-l .'<'"Ar.thmeil.-' i 

nud pupils are dudije luuoli lieti.-r u urk liiuu lormerly with 
lueiie now piiblislied." 

From A. B. Clark. Pi'in,'i|ial Bi'vunt it Slrntlm 
FmraW. A. Fr. . . 1', . , ' i , . , , M - 

Fl'Oln.J.M. M;Mi:M .\ I-.,,,- 1 M, 

■^eliool. Brooklyn, N. Y.: 

.- i'mM.'k". NewYork: 

ill suti.Im'tion to nil who use it. It Is very full on all 

1. Kocln^ter Business l.'n'sity. Rochester, N. Y.: 
proiiounoe them excellent, and liavo found Us varied and 
I. but admimbly adapted to use before large classes of 

rove Hiifli Scl.ool. "Wisconsin : 
A full explunotion is given of business terms, and under 

;t no one look upon it as simply a NEW BOOK. PP IS 
ess College, Wasbington, D. C: 

u best Busini 

3 College, Springfield, III,: 


Jereej City. N. 

id om hiKhlv pleased 





Newark, N 



n. Oil 






Coll.-?.'. (h 



Fi'oni C. F. Carlini'l 

cipal Folsoili's Bitelne. 

rnabled to acooiuplisb 

, Aliiany, N. Y.: 


AdrlrcBs W. H. SADLKR, Publisher, 

So6. 6 and 8 N. Charles Street, Ballimo 



" Entered at the Post Office of New York, K. T., as Mtcond-cJass » 

.00 PER YEAR. 


Vol. v.— No. 12. 



t. a. KIMMBL. ValimmiM 


Thoroughly latight by mail or pentuiiBlly. Siluatinni 
rn,oun-a f..r ,.iip.]i when w.iniwioi.t. Soud for olrcular, 
\V. O. ClUlFitK, 0«wBgo. N. Y. 



I>. T. AMES, 
-.»- - ARTIST.PENMAN A\i> Pl'BLISHF.ll, 

Examiner of UMoatloned Huuttivrltlngr. 

C. N. CRANDLB, VnlranilM 


TUTE, Kwkuk. l(nva. 
Established in 1671. Lifu Memberel 

Lesson in Practical Writing. 
Ko. XVI. 

i* 111 the present lessou we enter upon the 
ciipilftls biisod upon tlic sixth piinciplo of 
the Spenccrian anatysig, ami give with 
the copy the capital lettcre Q, U, and V. It 
is the practice of inniiy wiilere and teachers 
: these letters with; a full loop, 

wliii-h, for professional willing, is adinissi- 
blo. aud often, hs in card and displayed 
\niiing, is desirable ; but for all business 
purposes the abridged form, as given in the 
copy, is decidedly prefcrnble to the in<ire 
complex fi>rm, and should be practised and 
taught outside of professionals exclusively. 
The demands ot business for rapidity in the 
execution of wriiiug calls for the elimination 

of every line or shade not ahsolutely neces- 
sary to the legibility of wriiing. 

The following movement exercises should 
be carefully and extensively practised before 
and during the writing of the regular copy 
of the lesson : 

How to Teach Beginners to 


Editors of Journal ; — Since you invite 
discussion on this subject, I would like to 
offer a few thoughts. As I have often said 
in these columns, I believe the teaching of 
single lines, pieces of letters, or extended 
practice upon whole letters, is bad fur tlio 
beginner who wishes to acquire a knowl- 
edge of writing in tlie quickest and easiest 
On the score of movement, it is 
, as it teaches the raising of the pen 
inually. As each lino, or part of a 

S| e-acentm jy[eamm. 



^^^fM^^^mJMMMM M 

,9/9^7i/rrifj7¥ f- 

OofTHtaHT. ST Iviso:?. BuxzuAU. TA?ua& Co. 

In conneoUon with this lesson, wo pre- 
sent the entii-e Spenccrian analysis of writ- 
ing, which has been engraved specially for 
Hill's new Album of Biography and Art, 
and therein presented in connection with a 
biognipbiral sketch of Piatt R. Spencer, the 
founder of the " Spenccrian." The plate is 
worthy of the careful study of every student 
and teacher of writing. It gives at a glance 
not alone the entire analysis, but the correct 
proportions, spacing and shading of the en- 
tire system. 

letter, or single whole letter, is made, tlie 
pen must be raised — an unnatural way to 
write, and one that should not be encour- 
aged. The beginner will raise his pen 
quite often enough, if combinations nr short 
words are given him as soon as the letters 
of these combinations or words have been 
learned singly, and needs to be drilled iu 
tlie proper movement as early as possible, 
to prevent this ; too much single-letter prac- 
tice is not the practice that produces free 
and easy motion of ih hand .ind arm. It 

is bad on the score of form, as it is neces- 
sary that the beginner see the whole letter 
at the start in order to get a clear mental 
image of its form, and not its disconnected 
fragments. Single letters should be given 
just long enough to gain a fair knowledge 
of their forms, then given in combination 
with some other letter previously learned 
by single practice ; this is «ti/«i^. Com- 
bining letters easily «ilhout raising the pen 
at every step is more difficult to leiirn than 
the forms of letters. I can teach a beginner 
a good knowledge of the form of any letter 
in the alphabet in one-tenth the time re- 
quired to produce that letter in eVen a fair 
manner. Don't trg to teach children the 
minutest details of form. If they under- 
stand these points perfectly, there must 
come the long -continued practice uith the 
pen to execute them perfectly. Expect from 
children about what children are able to do, 
and 7iot what older and more experienced 
ones can do. As they ripen in age and 
practice, those finer points will be better 
comprehended, and the hand will be better 
able to execute. 

In practical writing the finger movement 
is always combined with the lateral motion 
of the forearm ; and this combined move- 
ment should be drilled upon from the start. 
The reason why so many of our public- 
school children are unable to write with 
any degree of facility and rapidity, is, that 
only the finger movement has been taught 
them — that is, to form letters — aud they have 
not learned the combined movemeot, that 
is, to slide the forearm across the paper, 
while the fingers are at the same time ex- 
tending and retracting to make the oblique 
lines of the letters. The tendency of the 
pupil at the start is to draw the letters with 
a slow finger movement, and, instead of 
sliding his hand from letter to letter, to 
twist it round to the right, thus cramping 
bis movement at every step. Exercises 
should be constantly given to counteract 
this tendency, and to call into play the 
lateral motion of the foretmn. Constant 
drill upon lines and single letters calls iuto 
play only the finger movement, and should 
not be relied upon exclusively for ele- 
mentary practice. Letters Id combination 
should be giveu iu the very first lessons; 
as soon as two letters have been learned, 
they should be combined. The combining 
of letters calls into play the combined move- 
ment, that is, the finger movement in/on«- 
ing letters, and the lateral movement in 
connecting them. The pupil ought not to 
be compelled to spend his first two or three 
yeara in school in merely drawing lettera 
for the purpose of the study of form, and 
graduate without having half learned to 
write. It is all very well to say that a 
child must creep before he can walk ; but 
he should learn something besides o-eeping 
before he leaves school. 

It may be asked, Why not take up one 
thing at a time, and let the pupils dratv the 
letters with the finger movement, hundreds 
of them, regulation style, until they become 
familiar w th their fonns, and then drill them 
in the writing movement. Because, iu using 
the finger movement exclusively, pupils 
invariably fall into a cramped drawing 
morement. Practisiug the lateral move- 

acDt right along with the finger movetnent 
coontflracts any each tendenry. As I said 
above, it iw comparatively easy to teach 
form, but to write with flvieocy and ease 
requires conslaot practice from the start in 
the irue writing movement. In this way 
everv letter or eoinbination of letters that 
the Jnipil writes is not only a study of form, 
bat a drill in movenufnt. Form ami move- 
mmt cannot be separated mtiioui injury to 
the one or tlu other. 

Give the child at the rtart "practice in 
the correct writing .novement, just as you 
give him correct forms to imitate. His 
first attempts w'll be erule a 1 very in 
fen r to tl e copy Is no e nent w 11 
be unce ta and wave ng but by con 
-etant pract cc n tl e right d rection he w 11 
ga n strength and onfi le ce n 1 as the 
muscles 1 ec ne gradu Uy tr n d to obey 
tbe w 11 tl c letters w 11 gradually assume 
the f r n tl e pup 1 s a n g f r and the 
wr t ng w 11 grulually assume strength and 
ease T tl e gre 1 1 " ci" w rl 1 wr t ng 
iB»io( ifineirt lut a lan^ age lerftbthtj 
and raj d tj are 8 req s tos and the 
p 1 1 ph Id lenrn to vr te a leg ble han 1 
w th a f r degree of rip d t> bef re lea ng 
sch ol Ifthepuplst gl t to «?n € and 
not t draw htiern by tl e t e he 1 a<( gone 
thro gh a common sol 1 c uree 1 e w 11 
have a pract eal hand rr 1 ng that w 11 be 
h 8 best lett r f ered t 1 "s 1 fe 

Explanat on of Programme B 




8. Philosophy of Motion.— There is a 
certain power or sleight-of-hand that every 
one mmt possess, if he would make the exe- 
cution of capitals easy and graceful. To 
execute any pen-worlt, however, is not, m 
the strictest sense of the word, " diffictilt ' 
or " hard to do." To say that certain work 
requires great sIdU is in proper lieeping, be- 
cause wo can then infer that a systematic 
course of training is the essential through 
which great results arc achieved. Skillfid 
work is the outgrowth of intelligent 
PRACTICE, coupled with patient, earnest, 
determined repetition. If the student, from 
the outset, seeks to learn to write by super- 
ficial scribbling, do not condemn him, but 
rather show him a better way. 

Intelligent practice is the only true guide, 
and every step taken in a well -conceived 
plan of instruction will grow results which 
arc sure to lead to perpetual advancement. 

This power of execution, this sleight-of- 
hand, I givfe the name of Philosophy of 
Motion, and is one strong point embodied 
in Iho phrase, " intelligent pnietice." I con- 
sider it the connecting link bftweeu extend- 
ed movements and capital letters. It is a 
power behind the throne ; and without a 
proper understanding of it, I have failed to 
discover that encouragement attends the av- 
erage student or makes the wf>rk easy for 
even the most precocious. 

In the teaching of lung division all must 
loam that there are four points necessary for 
a full development. So, alfi>, do we find 
four principles in the Pliilosophy of Motion. 
Given in the order of Eimplicity: 

1. Motion off the paper. 

2. Motion larger than results. 

3. Time same on as off the paper. 

4. Going from circle to straight line. 
Motion off the Papeu.— By this is 

meant that in the formation of all capitals a 
certain speed or power must be reached be- 
fore a letter can bo smoothly executed. 
Therefore it is usual to count I, 2, and pro- 
duce the letter or part of a letter on the 3d 
count. For example, take the capital loop 
in its simplest form, or the capital J, and 
count 1, 2, 3, completing tho work on 3d 
count. This is illustrated in jumping, while 
standing at a given point. The arms are 
given a certain momentum, that is, as a rule, 
determined by count, 1, 2, 3, or 1, 2, go. 

Motion Larger than Resclt.— This 
is deemed necessary in order to insure a cer- 

rill be mailed s 


I subscriber to the Journal 

tain amount of capacity, and at the s^.m . iJ , ,! nj. 
time generate enough reserve force to carry , for $1.00. 
the hand through a letter without materially . 
impeding its progress. If you 8 

lliastration.— The laborer must not only and have found it interesting and valuable, 
possess the required strength or capacity do your friends and us a favor by askiog 
to perform a day's work, but must also them to subscribe, 
have reserve force, that 
he may not become ex- 
haustted, but can recup- 

3. Tr: 

on as I 
OFF THE Paper.— This I 
point is explanatory. 

In all mechanism, time i 
has ever been cons lered 
an nd spensable equ s , 

Let n one atte nj t to 
c1 anqe tl e speed and 
then lool for the best 

4 Go 



Live —To produce tl e 
des red cur\e n a cai 
tal t s n ce<«arj to 
move tl e 1 and n a 
(. rcle or neariv s say 
an val form — depend 
ng cni ely on the lette 
to 1 e 1 roduced I efore 
plae ng tl e pen on the 
paper Just pre el ng 
the format on of a lette ' — — — — 
1 ovever t s necessary to attenpt erging 
n o a tra ght 1 ne u order tl it the ] r pe 
curve may be produced. 

Illustration.— The bee, after gathering 
honey, invariably Hies in circles until she has 
her bearings, and then darts away in a ''bee- 
line" to her home. 
Why is this so? 

(Criticisms and questions solicited.) 
To all amateurs I would most earnestly 
recommend the study of this central 
POWER, that you may gain tlie desired goal 
more easily and quickly than by hap-hazard 
practice, while at the same time it may save 
many from discouragement, and perhaps 
abandoning the work altogether, or becom- 
ing only ordinary in their produclious. 

To the professional, who may a>-k this 
question, " Why is it that I can execute 
good capitals and have never heard of the 
I»HiLOSOPHV OP Motion!" I would an- 
swer, that it is possible to do many things, 
among which may be mentioned tho work- 
ing of a problem in cube root without know- 
ing the reasons why. 

Capitals.— These follow in the order of 
simplicity, and, according to the letters given 
in the " Peirceriati " System, are as follows : 
[Note. — Of course yrm will not attempt 
to form the stmplest capitals until the capi- 
tal loop is well formed on the basis of the 
philosophy of motion. In your practice 
notice in what point or points you are most 
deficient, and correct as per rule.] 
V, U, Y, N, M, X, Z, Q, W, J. 
Tlien practice on capital 0, to establish 
philosophy of motion, and follow with capi- 
tal stem. After satisfactory results take 
I, S, L, H, K, C, G.T, F, P, B, R, A, D, E. 
Like all other work, these are passed 
singly for the first time. Second, a line of 
each one to determine the greatest failures, 
or to find out how many good letters can be 
produced out of a certain number. Third 
and last effort, to gain the proper associa- 
tion as to height, slant, spacing, shading, 
general uniformity, comparison of like ports 
in different letters, and a judicious selection 
from the variety of capitals found in No. 
4 of the " New Spencerian Compendium." 
(Tc- f't ronlitititd.) 

Standard Practical Penmanship. 
Owing to the labor of engraving, the pub- 
lication of this work has been delayed be- 
yond expectation, and it is not yet ready; 
but we are contident tliat all orders will be 
filled before Christmas. It will, iu our 
opinion, be the most complete and valuable 
guide to good writing, with or without the 
aid of a teacher, that has ever been pub- 

Daniel T Ames 

E(htor of The Penman s Art Joi'R 

From HilVs Album of Biography and Art. 

Daniel T. Ames, the chirographic artist 
of New York, holds the same relation to 
pen-drawing that Spencer did to practical 
penmanship, and that Williams did to flour- 
ishing. Both of the latter stood at the head 
of their respective departments, and so does 
the subject of this sketch. Both Speucer 
and Williams systematized their work and 
gave it to the world for copy, and Mr. Ames 
has done the same. The town of Vershire, 
Vt, was his birth place in 1835. Here he 
assisted upon a farm in the summer and 
attended a district school in the winter. At 
the age of sixteen he entered as a student 
the Chelsea, (Vt.,) Academy, where he at- 
tended the writing-classes of Prof. S. L. Ly- 
man, and later of 0. W. Smith, then the 
most skilled and successful master of writ- 
ing in Vermont. For several winters he 
taught district and village schools in Ver- 
mont. In the spriog of 1854 he became a 
student and instructor of penmanship and 
other branches at the Topsfield (Mass.,) 
Academy, where he remained four years, 
and, having graduated, he commenced the 
study of law with Judge Cobb, at Stafford, 
Vermont. Finding that the proper under- 
standing and trial of law-suits often required 
a knowledge of book-keeping, he entered, 
in the fall of 1859, a student at the Oswego 
(N. Y.,) Commercial College. Mr. Ames' 
experience and skill as a teacher of writing, 
and othflr branches, led to his almost im- 
mediate employment as an instructor in the 
college of which he soon became part pro- 
prietor and ultimately principal. In 1861, 
having sold his interest in the Oswego Col- 
lege, he purchased two commercial schools 
at Syracuse, (N. Y.,) and opened the Ames 
National Business College, which ho con- 
ducted very successfully until the spring of 
1868, when he sold his college to his com- 
petitors of the Bryant & Stratton College. 
He at once re-entered upon the study and 
practice of law at Syracuse, and became a 
member of the Now York bar in 1869. Sub- 
sequently be became a partner in the firm 
of H. W. Ellsworth & Co., ot New York 
City, and assisted in th© revision and publi- 
cation of the Ellsworth system of practical 
penmanship, then largely used in the New 
York City schools. From this co-partner- 
ship he retired in 1871, and opened rooms 
as a publisher of works upon ornamental 
penmauBbip and u general pen artlBt* 

Since that date with the aid of pboto-OD 
graving and "photo-lithography, Mr. Ames 
has done more than any other person in the 
United States to systematize and utilize the 
art of ornamental penmanship, being as- 
sisted by the Penman's Art Journal, a 
monthly publication of large circulation, 
which he establbihed^in 1977, and " Ames' 
Compendium of (Practical and Ornamental 
Penmanship," which he published in 1878, 
and later, his book of " Alphabets," which, 
like his other works, has attained to a large 
sale and great popularity. 

To the lover of the artistic, and the beau- 
tiful Mr. Ames' studio on Broadway at 
Fulton street lUst I elow the Post-Offioo, is 
one of the nost nte esting places in tho 
c ty to V <* t He e a corps of pen artists 
aret busy engro ng n elegant style f.u 
ra OL. ^albun and in other attractive 
for na resolut on': ne norials, testhnonials. 
d plomas etc as veil as designs to bo 
J 1 oto engraved and used for commercial 
purposes wh le the walls are hung with 
elaborate and ornate specimens of pen-draw- 

Possess ng a good command of language, 
d c s on t purpose clear judgment, legul 
knowledge and a 1 een discernment for d.- 
term n ng the autl orsbip of different hand 
wnt ng-* tl e -^erv ces of Mr. Ames, of late 
year" have of en been sought in the various 
CO rts of in t ce as an expert examiner and 

tness respect ng que tioned writing. Upon 
t f 11 ng piges ay be seen copies of 
two of Mr An s 1 en drawings. 

The drawings above alluded to are tho 
"Garfield Memorial," and the " Lonl's 
Prayer," reduced copies of which appear nii 
another page of this issue. Copies of whidi , 
printed upon fine plate paper, 19x24, 
given free, as premii 
the Journal, 
cents each, 

I subscribers 
sent by mail for fif' 

Commercial Colleges and Writing 
Academies Across the Sea. 

You wanted, you said, some information 
as to Commercial Colleges and writing, 
a*Toss the seas, and you got the easily givt-u 
promise, while I have now the toil of fulfil- 
ment. Tho toil is the greater, because I 
have so little to say. I must be not narra- 
tor only, but to an extent creator also. 
Many things prevented any acquisition ot 
knowledge about foreign " business schools;" 
pleasure was my quest, not teachers, or [lu 
pils, or methods. Truth to say— had I 
been on the hunt for them, tiiere were but 
few such schools to find— of my own knowl- 
edge I can speak of two only. One was in 
Belfast, Ireland's trim, pushing, new world- 
like city, astride the Lagan. The preten- 
tious sign, Belfast Mercantile Academy pro- 
jected itself across a square space, and 
caught iny eye whilst enjoying a carriage 
ride with friends. Bidding them a hasty 
adieu for a time, I was soon in the Academy 
in the presence of the principal, a fine-luok- 
ing Irish gentleman, whose modilied Scotch 
accent proclaimed him of the race which has 
made the North of Ireland what it is, as con- 
tradistinguished from the South, and which, 
be it said in passing, is the peer of any any- 
where. Characteristic Yankee curiosity, in 
its characteristic mode of expression by way 
of questioning, opened to me such informa- 
tion as the gentleman had on the subject of 
business schools, and furnished an opportu- 
nity for an interchange of views. 

The " Mercantile Academy," I soon found 
was not a Mercantile Academy at all, ac- 
cording to American notions j nor indeed, 
according to any well-considered notions of 
what such a title should indicate. Its pupils 
were children — boys and girls, from ten to 
sixteen years of age ; not young men on the 
threshold of lile, getting ready for business 
careers, such as are found with us in insti- 
tutions of this kind, and its curriculum 
was as unmercantile as was the character of 
its students. Latan, Greek, and the Scieacea, 
in fact, the ordinary branches belonging to 





The above cut is photo-engraved, ooe-half size, from a Diploma, lately got up for Napa Collegiate Institute, Napa, Cal., and is given as a specimen of Diploma work 
[iriginal was executed with a pen, at the office uf the Journal. The pen shading aroimd the lettering of the head line, and the tinting in the panel, around the word Diploma wa 

done with our patent T square. Oidera for siniilar work promptly filled. 

a liberal education were those taught in this 
"Mercantile" Academy — the branches dis- 
tinctively Commercial played but an iuci- 
doiitiil part. There were reasons, of course, 
for tlio plan pursued. First uf all was the 
imtiou, as I learned, prevalent amongst the 
Irisli (and among many other people, too, 
the orthodox theory), that education means 
a study of the classic, and that if boys and 
girls are to go to school at all, they must 
study Latin and Greek, or tlie time is alto- 
gether lost. Coupled with this is the other 
notion, which goes naturally with the first, 
that a classical scholar, and even a person 
nu scholar at all, cau easily pick up book- 
keeping in the counting-room. As to pen- 
manship, if one can write legible, it matters 
little whether he cau write neatly or elegant- 
ly. In fact, according to my Irish friend's 
theory, both book-keeping and penmanship 
are mattera of practice, and a little experi- 
ence suffices to make experts in them. 

But he gave me aa a further reason why 
80 much attention was given to the classics. 
This explanation that a competitive exam- 
iuatiou was held in Belfast once a year, par- 
ticipated iu by the scholars from all the 
Bchouls, that school whose representative 
stands highest in Latin, gains the best rep- 
utations. Reputation, of course, brings 
scholars, and scholars brings tuition fees, 
and hence this Mercantile Academy is mer- 
cantile only according to methods, which 
will bring "money to the purse" of my 
Irish friend, its principal. Fearing to carry 
my Yankee proclivities too far with this 
genial pereonage, I did not ask him why he 
named a classical a utercaulilu academy, but 
ooncluded that ho wanted a good sound- 
ing title, and adopted that which with us 

means so much. You must not suppose 
that I gathered all the information, without 
rendering to the giver thereof a quid pro 
quo. So far as my scanty time would per- 
mit, I descaoted upon Mercantile Colleges 
in America — their history, their require- 
ments, the sphere of their influence, and 
their success. The result of my brief lecture 
seemed to be, if not information, at least a 
surprise to my audience of one. I dare not 
hope, however, that it can have any great 
influence towards the establishment of the 
American idea on Irish soil. 

From this oue, a fair sample of the so- 
called Commercial schools iu Great Britain, 
learn them all. Higher education is there, 
it would seem, of the first importance, the 
Commercial only secondary. That of Bel- 
fast was the only .sign announcing a busi- 
ness college that I saw until I had about 
finished my travel. There are numerous 
schools advertising a Commercial in con- 
junction with a Soieutiflc and Classical edu- 
cation, but these I had neither the time nor 
the inclination to investigate. The sign of 
Smart's Wrting Academy, on Regent St., 
London, of which Mr. Packard has giveu 
you a history, caught my eye, but as I was, 
on that particular day, on a special jaunt, I 
deferred attention to it until another time, 
and that time uever came. 

I had but one other commercial school ex- 
perience. On the night before sailing from 
Liverpool for " my own, my native land," 
while taking a stroll through a drenching 
rain, my attention was attracted by a small 
glass sign, with a light inside of it, announc- 
ing " Smart's Wriltng Academy." To in- 
vestigate further was a kind of pastime 
which then suited both the weather and my 

1 mood, and so I wended my way through a 
narrow hall, up a narrow stairway and into 
' a small room, about 18x'20, part of which 
was divided oft' by a green curtain, so as to 
make an office or private room. Hero I 
I found Mr. Smart, a young man of twenty- 
I one or two years of age, engaged with two 
or three pupils. Upon introducing myself, 
we retired, at his invitation, U> the curtained 
space, and there talked an hour or more. 
His fiither, I learned, was a brother of the 
Smart in London, and he, therefore, (my 
informant) was tho " original Smart," while 
the opposition across the street was, as he 
also assured me, a fraud. 

It did not take long to discover that this 
College principal's main fund of conversa- 
tion WHS the opposition across the way. A 
great mistake, as it seems to me, shared in 
by some of our college proprietors, who 
have so much to say against the opposition 
college that they have no lime or breath to 
speak of themselves. I was disposed, how- 
ever, to make due allowance for the mistake 
made by Mr. Smart, as he was young in his 
business as well as of youthful years. Ho 
had au exalted opinion of his ability and 
versatility as a writer, in which respect he is 
not unlike some penmen on our own side of 
the water. He seemed desirous of an op- 
portunity to show his talent \q the New 
World — in my humble opini 
hazardous undertaking for him, 
be likely to find many on the 
outstrip him. 

Ou the Continent, amidst foreign tongues, 
I found such difficulty in the pursuit of 
knowledge as to needful matters, that I gave 
no tliought to Commercial Colleges. Had 
I bethought me that* such a subject waa 

, a rather 
s he would 
I shores to 

likely to have a readable interest 
JouilNAD, I might have made 
into some of the Dutch, German and French 
Schools. As it is, however, I feel sure that 
we are as far ahead of the old countries in 
Commercial Schools, as wo are in hotels, 
railroa<ls and newspapers. So that a dis- 
cussion of foreign experience of this kind; 
while it might amuse, could profit the read- 
ers of the Journal but little. 

In my sight-seeing, I went to Birming- 
ham to visit the Gillot Pen Manufactory, 
and will only add to my already long-drawn 
out article, that if auy of the craft should be 
favored by a trip abroad that they should 
visit this interesting establishment, and see 
how the little instrument, which is bo mighty 
in more than one sense of the word, is made. 

A Little Nonsense.' 

If wit is badinage, what must it be in 
youth ? 

" If Jones undertakes to pull my ears," 
said a loud-spoken young man, " he'll just 
have his hands full." Those who heard 
him looked at his ears and smiled. 

"1 have come to the conclusion," said 
Brown, "that the less a man knows the 
happier he is." "Allow me to congratu- 
late you. Brown," said Fogg. — Boston 

"I'm going to Havrts," quolh Bob to his friend. 

"Buiog ill, it may make nie mucli b-tltfr." 
"I wish you mtich Joy, and may foriime aiitjua. 

'' Who is ehe, and wlitiii du you aei avr 


Btimated tliat only one 

in a himdred 


who engage in busi 

aeas in New 

York, a 


^VH'i' .JoiitN vr.. 

Collection of Autographs. 



Edward W. Bok, of Brooklyn, age eigh- 
teen, lias a hobby wluch_ho rides with deli- 
genre and persistence. IIi« ruling passion 
is ttio collecting 'of autographs. In his 
pursuit ho is duuDted neither by unanswered 
Idlers nor verhal^rffusa!;*. BeKinning on 
August 27, 1p80, with his father's signature, 
bo has accumulated a collection of about .100 
names. This is of except onal merest 
Mr. Bok possciBcs tKe s gnaturos of e 
pcFors, prcsideuta, dul cs pr me m n slers 
generals, poets, novelists b enlists orators 
li Danders, and professional 

list of royal personages is the plain, hold 
signature of Kalakaua, obtained at the Ho- 
tel Brunswick throagh a member of his 
suite. The Duke of Sutherland signed his 
namo in the young collector's book at the 
Windsor, remarking, somewhat irritably, 
" I don't see the sense of collecting auto- 
graphs." Two letters bearing the stamp of 
the Privy Seal Office are signed with a 
name rejemhling Pigott, which is in reality 
Argyl. He was requested to obtain the 
autograph of the Queen and Prince of 
Wales, and replied : " I regret that it is 
not in my power to supply you with the 
autographs referred to in your letter of the 
2')th of June" "WE Gladstone" in 
6rm characters s vr tten on an e elope as 
a frank TI e envelope conta ned a note 
from h 8 secretary say ng tl at Mr Glad 
Btoue received too many apphcat oos to 

and inclosed sheet that came in reply to a 
letter. Mr. Bok has several signatures of 
U. S. Grant with one of his wife, Julia D. 
Grant, and the signatures of several mem- 
bers of his cabinet, including Hamilton 
Fish, W. W. Belknap, B. H. Bristow, and 
George M. Robeson. Accompanymg these 
aro the autographs of ex-President Hayes 
and his wife, W. A. Wheeler and the Cabi- 
nct^Messrs. Evarts, Sherman, Devens, 
lUmsey, Goff, Mayiiard, Key, Thompson, 
and Schurz. Three letters produced no 
effect on Mr. Thompson, but he yielded at 
a personal interview. The late President 
Garfield sent simply his autograph at first, 
but in response to another request through 
Mrs (Jarheld he 

of Riiffering. when his lifv bos heen to bis own 
kn<>n-le<l){« irirmbling in the Ulniice, bnve re- 
vealed iu him a palifut courage, a deplb ot 
tenderness and an unseltieh devotion tooibera; 
a broai charily nf judgment; a trust in God; 
and n loyally to family, friends, and country 
that have bevn known only to the few who 
linve been nearest to him iu hi« hours of trinl, 
and, wbiln developing the true grealneM of 
his characier in ihetr 9yn. have bound him to 
them by ties of the most sincere and aB«ciiou- 

the life of this noble 
iLLiAM H. Hunt. 


nence. Nearly all tl o 
uiimos are those of person<i 
of prominence nt the prcs 
out day. Some have been 
obtained in answer to re 
quests three or four li es 
repeated by letter. Oil crs 
have been secured by per 
sonal interviews, and so no 
have been secured for tl 
collector by h\* friends. 

Mr Bok is employe 1 n 
l',e oiHcc of the nltorney 
of the Western Union 1 cl 
cfiraph Company at \ 
195 Broadway. Hisfathe 
recently deceased, nas 
widely known as a ling st 
abroad, and at the time of 
liis death held the pos i n 
of translator for the sa e 
company. When the a n 
failed in securing ans h 
to his re<iuc3ts, the fi tl cr 
often wrote personally lor 
the autograph, tlius obta n 
ing many names not su 
ally seen. In such collcc 
tions Mr. Bok states tl at 
autograph-lumtiug is n 
creasing here to a surp s 
ing extent, but it is sa d 
by disiinguished vis t rs 
not to have assumed one 
tenth of the propur ns 
hero that it has abroad 
Albion W. Tourgee. ■\ d 
Thomas A. Edison w ote 
Mr. Bok that they accu u 
lated drawers full of re 
quests fur autographs d 
oceassionally devoted a day 
simply to eiguing tl e r 
names. Another prom n nt 
man receives an average of 
30 letters a day asking for 
his autograph. 

The chirography of rnny 
of the distinguished nen 
whose names Mr. Bok pos 
Bosses wunld be the dc i a r 
of a writing-master. H s 
ooUeotion is probably one 
of the hest in the country 
iu the distinction of the 

Mr. Bok has also President Arthur's 
signature, and intends as soon as ovents 
permit to secure those of his Cabinet. A 
letter from Genera) Sherman complains of 
the difficulty of writing with no subject to 
WT te abo t TI e bold s gnature of P. H. 
Slerdan « attaclel t a letter which is 
regarded as a great tr u ph in autograph 
collect ng Three letters drew no response 
f o n to lato General 
Bur le hut his auto- 
graj 1 V s finally procured 
f friend. General 

M Clel I gave his signa- 
tu e after some personal 
jer* a. on. General Han- 
o k s letter is peculiar in 
ts 1 graphy. There are 
long d wn strokes, very 
heav ]y shaded, starting 
abr p ly at different angles. 
Ge e al llosecrans, John 
C Irenont, Fitz John 
P cr ind Generals Kil- 
patr and Banks, aro 
a lie other Union 

Gen Is; and Beauregard, 
Early Johnston, and Long- 
street H nong Cuufj-de rates. 
In c nnection with a letter 
fr Dr Schliemann, iho 
e\\\ rer of Troy, the fact 
s u eres ing tliat Dr. Bok 
resc edl m from the break- 
ers wl en he was wrecked 


of Texel, 
.ast of Ilullrtud, 
itated him, The 
ame, afterward, 

1 lists of poets is 
I d d with "A. Tenny- 
so 1 bis was the result 
f Q ne letters ousting fif- 
te u cents each. Lnng- 
f 11 n the contrary, ia 

kn n among autograph 
hu te as one of the 
I r J p tto reply. Lowell 
bent I b name after one or 
I o 1 tfers. Bryant's was 
I oc r d from a friend. 
R 1 t Browing sent a 
I ot un ; John G. Wbit- 

appende 1 to a verse of po- 
et y and Holmes signs a 

rse of " The Chambered 
Isaut lus " Alexandre Du- 
mas wr ee in Freuchi "I 

ea y nyself, this is how 




document appointing Dr. Bok Vice-Consul 
in Holland appear ihe signatures of the 
Emperor William and Bismarck. Just 
six inches beneath the wavy lines of the 
"Wilhelm" is the crabbed, stiff "Von 
Bismarck." This distance is required by 
law between the signatures of the Emperor 
and a subject. An official document ap- 
pointing Mr. Bok's fatlier Consul in the 
Province of North Holland is signed " Wil- 
lem " iu a rather effeminrite hand, the signa- 
ture of King William III. of Netherlands. 
The only appointments receiving the royal 
signature aro those in the diplomatic corps. 
The latter document is certified by a Minis- 
ter of Justice. The signature " Fredrick, 
Pr des Ntderlandess" appears on an ap- 
pointment of Mr. Bok, Sr., as the Grand 
Blaster of the Dutch Lodge. Next in the 

fend autographs to each, but that the en- 
velope horo one of his regular franks. An 
order of admissicm to the House of C<un- 
mons bears "John Bright" in fine legible 
letters. "At your father's wish, Chas. 
Brndlaogh," was the reply to a letter from 
Dr. Bok after his son had failed. The 
name is almost inclosed in the flourish of 
the ** C." But the letter is to be returned 
to him for the date, as this is a matter of 
prime importance to professional autograph 

When the Marquis de Rochambeau was 
receiving Governor Cornell and his staff at 
ttie Fifth Avenue Hotel, he was astonished 
by the apparition of Mr. Bok, autograph 
book iu hand, and the result is, "A. de 
Rochambeau" in delicate femiume char- 
acters. "Edw. Thornton," in a coarse, 
bold hand, was signed both on the envelope 

An illustration of the high pressure at 
which General Garfield was living at this 
time is found in the repetition of tlie con- 
cluding syllable of pleasure — "pleasureure." 

Mrs. Garfield wrote : 

I have never objected to having niy name 
placed befide Genvrnl Garfield's. It ia pleas- 
ant, thwrefiire, to grunt yiiur requeBt. With 
kind Tfgardt^, very truly yours, 

LucitETiA Randolph Gj 

Signed notes from the members of the 
Cabinet, Messrs. James, MacVeagh, Lin- 
coln, Windom, Hunt, and Kirkwotid, were 
written in July or August, and all dwelt 
upon the conditions of the President. Sec- 
retary Hunt wrote as follows under the 
date of Sept. 1 : 

Sir: Everyone who knew the qualities of 
Prei^ident Gavlield before an attempt wae made 
upon his life by an asBasein, recocnized his 
intellectual power, his enlarged patriotism and 
his generous nature. Bnt two weary mouths 

Jules Ver 
in French, 
note. Anothi 

how it ends. Such 

is in two words the story 

~ of the fault of women." 

and de Lcsseps also answered 

A. C. Swinburne sent a short 

sheet bears the fulluwing : 

nal nppe 

From Iho "The Woman in White," Uy 

WiLKiE Collins. 
Another sheet hears simply: 

Edward \V. Bok, caligrapher, from Chartea 
Read, Kakograplier. 

William Black, Anthony Trollop©, Mrs. 
Oliphant, and George Bancroft are among 
the signatures of other literary persons. 

Professor Max Muller wrote from Oxford : 
" No language without reason. No reason 
without language." Ruskin wrote in re- 
sponse to a letter from Dr. Bok : 

It i 

, great joy I 

these days of diaobedie 

iah I could 

I better ior him; had I better 

Imiuted my own falher m wri 
other lliiiigH it had bwn bt!(l»?r 
your «<m will read what I wr 
yenn with at least a» much i 

of 'iX 

e popular work. 

Charles Dartfio, in i 
vrite* a letter, sayiog 

My collecliiig led me to acience, and I hom 
hnl it may hnvH the ■(niii»> efT.'Cl un ynn; foi 
herv in iiii grfnterintrafnction than to add how- 
iver little to ilie gi-iierul stock of knowlertgv. 

— New York Tribune. 

I, jerky haod, 


Charge of the Lightning 

TTp from the bench the oilier day, 

r wattlate; 

t swift tonffiie !\>1ted 
It iiiicoiit'roiled, 
...til i>i-i-mi'd to pour 

Then Bwift from his pen the rlniihea flowed, 

onls behind. 

s head wero/;r(iupB 

How Postage Stamps are Made. 

r,Uir,e . 

Tlic number of ordinary jxisiage stamps 
issufld in IrtSl u-as 9.i4.|-2:'.^I0rymd value 
*::4,(l4l),i;i:i. Tl.*" ini-iho.l nf printing pos- 
tjii,'c stamps is as f.illnws: 'Die printing is fniin steel plate-s, on which two 
hundred stamps are eoi<raved, and the paper 
used is of a ptciiliftr li'xiure, somewhat re- 
senbling that employed fur bank-notes. 
Two men cover llie iihites with the colored 
inlts and pass ihom to a man and girl, who 
print them witli largo rolling lianil- presses. 
Three of these little stpmds are employed 
all the tin>e, aliliougli ten presses can be 
jiiit in operation, if necessary. Tlie colors 
used in the inks are ultramarine blue, 
Pnissina blue, chrome yellow and Prussian 
blue (green), vermilion, and carmine. 
After the sheets of paper on which the two 
huuilrod stamps are engraved have been 
dried, they are sent into auolhor room and 
gummed. The gum used is made of the 
powder of dried potatoes and other vege- 
tables mixed with water. Gum-arabic is 
not desirable, because it cmclta the paper 
badly. The sheets are gummed separately ; 
they lire placed back upward upon a flat 
wooden support, the edges being protected 
by a metallic frame, and the gum is applied 
Willi a wide brush. After having beeu 
ajjain dried, tliis lime on little racks which 
are fanned by steam-power for about an 
hour, they are put in between sheets of 
pastebuani, and pressed between hydraulic 
presses, cjipable of applying a weight of two 
th'iusaud tons. The slieets are next cut in 
halves ; each sheet, uf course, when cut, 
contains a hundred stamptt, This is done 
by a girl with a largo pair of shears, cutting 
by hand being preferred to tliat of ma- 
chinery, which method would destroy too 
many stamps. They nro then passed to 
ilie porrorating-machine. The perforations 
Itelween the stamps are effected by passing 
tliK sheets between two cylinders pnivided 
with a series of raised hands, which are ad- 
justed to a distance apart eipial to thai re- 
quired between the rows of perforations. 
Eiu-h ring on the upper cylinder has a 
series of cylindrical projections, vt-bioh fit 
oorrespoudiug depressions iQ the^bands of 

the lower cylinder; by these the perfora- 
tions are punched out, and by a simple con- 
trivance the sheet is detached from the 
cylinders, in which it has been conducted 
by an endless band. The rows running 
longitudinally of the paper are first made, 
and then by a similar machine the tranversc 
ones. This perforating uiachine was in- 
vented and patented by a Mr. Arthur, in 
1852, and was purchased by the Government 
for $20,000. The sheets are next dressed 
once more, and then packed and labeled 
and stowed away in another room, prepara- 
tory to being put up in mail bags for dis- 
patching to fulfil orders. If a single stamp 
is torn, or in any way mutilated, the whole 
sheet of one hundred is burned. Five hun- 
dred thousand are burned every week from 
this cause. The sheets are counted no less 
than eleven times during the process of 
manufacturing, and so great is the care 
taken in counting, thai not a single sheet 
has beeu lost during the past twenty years. 
The postage stamp would seem to be 
only a humdrum sort of article, which ful- 
fils a very useful, but withal extremely 
prosaic, purpose. Yet we learn from the 
Chicago Inter-Ocean that it 'can be made a 
delicate and subtle medium of delightful 
fiirtaliun or romantic love, when skillfully 
manipulated by the sender of a letter and 
intelligently interpreted by tlie receiver, 
who by one swift glance at the stamp may 
instantly learn, from the manner of its affix- 
ture, whether to expect bliss or misery from 
the contents of the inclosed missive. The 
explanation of the whole matter, as given 
by the Inter-Ocean, is as follows: "Some 
ingenious persons have given a meaning to 
the location of a postage stamp on a letter. 
For example, ihey say that when a stamp 
is inverted on the right hand upper corner 
it means the person written to is to write 
no more. If the stamp be placed on the 
left hand upper comer and inverted, then 
the writer declares his afl'ection for the re- 
ceiver of the letter. When the stamp is in 
the centre at tlie top, it signifies an affinua- 
tive answer to a tpiestion, or tlie question, 
as tlie case may be; and when it is at the 
bottom, or opposite this, it is a negative. 
Should the stamp be on the right hand 
corner, at a right angle, it asks the question 
if the receiver of the letter loves the sender; 
while in the loft-hand corner means t"hat 
the writer hates the other. There is a 
shade of difference between desiring one's 
acquaintance and friendship, for example: 
the stamp at the upper comer on the right 
expresses the former, and on the lower left- 
hand corner means the latter. The learned 
in this language request their correspondents 
to accept their love by placing the stamp 
on a lino with the surname, and the response 
is made, if the party addressed be engaged, 
by placing the stjunp in the same place but 
reversing it. The writer may wish to say 
farewell to his sweetheart, or vice versa, and 
does so by placing the stamp straight up 
and down in the left-hand corner. And so 
on to the end of the chapter." There are 
in the world about six thousand varieties of 
stamps. The museum at Berlin contains 
between four and five thousjind specimens, 
half, of which are from Europe, and the 
rest are from Asia, Africa, America, and 
Australia. Among ttie many kinds of 
decoration which have been used on stamps 
are coats-of-arms, stars, eagles, Huns, the 
effigies of five emperors, eighteen kings, 
three queens, one grand duke, several titled 
rulers of less rank, and many presidents. 

An American Sailor's Muscle. 

The Penman's Art Journal for May 
is tho handsomest paper that enters our 
sanctum this month. Twelve large four- 
coljmn pages filled with valuable instruc- 
tions, beautiful specimens, and everything 
that tends to promote the art of chi- 
rography. Terms, Sl.OO per year; single 
numbers ten cents. Mention the Mmitor 
when writing. Address Penman's Art 
Journal, 205 Broadway, N. Y.—Bameg- 
Beg Motiitor. 

lllinoia Collt^e has four Egyptian studente, 
and Soanoke baa four Chootawa. 

HOW , 

queen's NAvy. 
We recently heard an interesting anecdote 
by which one can deduce a novel and 
adorn it into a tale, of how second thought 
so oft*-n prevents vast complications. There 
is a Yankee skipper from Maine, well known 
as a coal trader— Captain Pitcher. He is, 
like most Maine men, largely proportioned 
and piwerful. Some years ago he ran the 
Kranz from Washington to Boston, but has 
been abroad since trading between this 
country and the Continent. As the story 
goes, a British troopship, commanded by 
-an irritable, impetuous officer of the Queen's 
" navee," was at anchor in a foreign port. 
Captain Pitcher's bark was being piloted in, 
and through some mismanagement fouled 
the jibboom of the troopship, doing, how- 
ever, little or no damage. The old officer, 
in a fury of r.age, howled ; 
" Come on board, sir." 
The Yankee skipper, not exactly know- 
ing what to do under the circumstances, 
pulled in his gig to the ladder of the troop- 
ship and mounted to the deck. Ho was 
somewhat startled when, as he stood upon 
it, th« old officer called : 
" Sentry, arrest that man." 
The skipper was astounded, but quickly 
answered : 

" I am an American citizen. I am un- 
armed, but no man shall arrest me." 

" Arrest him, sentry. Don't you hear 
met" roared the captain. 

Tlie sentry advanced to seize the skipper, 
but was met with a left-hander that would 
discount a piledriver. Quickly the Yankee 
made for the gangway, striking down every 
man who interfered, leaped iuto his gig, and 
pulled off to his hark. Straight to the 
American Consul he went, and put his case 
before him. The latter told him he would 
attend to the matter, aud the next day the 
slypper called. The Consul sal at the cen- 
tre of the table ; to his right was the English 
officer, no other than Vice-Admiral Sir 
James Hope, K.C.B., in all the splendor 
of his uniform. 

"Admiral Hope, Captain Pitcher," intro- 
duced the Consul. 

"Captain, I am delighted to meet you," 
responded the Admiral. " And now let the 

He spoke in the suavest manner, and with 
the sweetest of smiles. The skipjier blunt- 
ly said that he thought the English officer 
should apologize. 

"Not at all; not at all, my dear friend. 
You came on hoard of my ship, whipped 
the entire Queen's navy, and escaped with- 
out a scratch. Is not that sufficient satis- 
faction ? Don't let us have any Alabama 
claim business; please don't ask an apology ; 
you are too good a fellow, 1 know, to 

" Well, Admiral," began the Captain, 
greatly mollified; "well. Admiral, I sorter 
guess that perhaps it's all right." 

« Of course it is. We are diplomats, and 
I have some splendid brandy in my cabin. 
These are excellent cigars; we will ad- 
journ to our brandy and segars, and onr 
two nations will postpone war. If all of 
your sailors are like you. I should prefer 
that the war be indefinitely postponed. 

The Penman's Art Journal is a pub- 
lication that should be in the hands of every 
lover of true progress in the art of penman- 
ship. The long, varied, and successful ex- 
perience of Prof. D. T. Ames, in all matters 
relating t.. pen art, affords a guarantee that 
his Journal will be in the highest degree 
meritorious. Each number, besides all im- 
portant news about penmanship and pen- 
men, contains one or more elaborate designs 
in lettering or flourishing that to the student 
of pon art are worth more than the subscrip- 

) worth 
tiou for a whole year. 
JouBXAL the ablest peni 

and Business Journal. 


isider the 

The Earth Drying Up. 

There is abundant evidence that the 
amount of water on the surface of tho earth 
has beeu steadily diminishing for many 
thousands of years. No one doubts that 
there was a lime when thy Caspian Sea 
communicated with the Black Sea, aud 
when the Mediterranean covered the greater 
part of the Desert of Sahara. In fact, 
geologists toll us that at one period the 
whole of the earth was covered by water, 
and the fact that continents of dry land now 
exist is proof that thci-e is less water on 
our globe now than there was in its infancy. 
This diminution of our supply of water is 
going on at the present day at a rate sti 
rapid as to be clearly appreciable. Tho 
rivers and smaller streams of our Atlantio 
States are visibly smaller than they were 
twenty-flvo years ago. Country brooks Iq 
which men now living were necustomed to 
fish and bathe in their boyhood, have in 
many cases totally distippeared, not through 
auy act of man, but solely in consequence 
of the failure of tho springs and rains which 
once fed them. The level of tho great 
lakes is falling year by year. There are 
many piers on the shores of lake-side cities 
which vessels once approached with ease, 
but which uo«- hardly reach to the edge of 
the water. Harbors are everywhere growing 
shallower. This is not due to the gradual 
deposit of earth brought down by rivers or of 
refuse from city sewers. The harbor of To- 
ronto has grown shallow in spite of the fact 
that it has be- n dredged out so that the 
bottom rock has beeu reached; and all the 
dredging which can be done to the harbor 
of New York will not permanoitly deepen 
it. The growing shallowness of the Hud- 
son is more evident above Albany than it ia 
in the tide-water region, and, like tho outlet 
of Lake Champlain, which was ouce nav- 
igable by Indian canoes at all seasons, the 
upper Hudson is now almost bare of water 
in many plac-i-s during the summer. In all 
other parts of t!ie world there is tho same 
steady decrease of water in rivers and lakes 
and the rainfall in Europe, wliere scientific 
observations are made, is manirestiy less 
than it was at a period within man's mem- 

What is becoming of our water? Ob- 
viously it is not disappearing through evap- 
oraion; for in that case rains Mould give 
back whatever water the atiiiosphcro might 
absorb. We must accept the theory that, 
like the water of the moon, our water is 
sinlting into the earth's interior. 

The Noise of the Finger. 

;..)/. Hammond says that when you poke 
the end of your finger in your ear, the roar- 
ing noise you hear is the soimd of the cir- 
culation in your finger, which is the fact, 
as any one can demonstrate for himself by 
first putting his fingers in his ears, and then 
stopping them up with other substance. 
Try it, and think what a wonder of a ma- 
chine your body is, that even tho points of 
your fingers are such busy workshops that 
they roar like a small Niagara. Tho roar- 
ing is probably more tbau tho noise of tho 
circulation of the blood. It is the voice of 
all the vital processes together — the tearing 
down and building up processes that are 
always going fonvard in every living body 
from conception down to dvaih.—Madison 
Co. Record. 

The Very Worst Yet. 
A maiden went into the water 
To bathe ; but her mamma she eater, 
And after some effort she cater, 
And back to the seabeach she brater. 
Like a lamb led away to tho slater, 
She told her she always had tliater 
An obedient dutiful dater, 
Aud if she had done as she'd tater. 
She'd have staid on the shore; and she'd atcr 
Resist her desire for tho water. 

See special clob 
page lOd. The 
worth more than the 
large clubs. 

first coluff 

. of 


L of subscription t 

Good Winters who Write Badly. 

Among jounialists and "literary fellers" 

generally, says tlie Brooklyn Eagle, one is 
prepared to ]cM>k for remarkably illegible 
Hcnin-lii. That this U not always the case 
nnmeriiiiH autographs in this collection 
prove. The lalo Bayard Taylor waa a fine 
penman. G»urge William Curtis' signa- 
ture, although tihowing some signs of un- 
usual care, is written in an easy, ninniog 
hand, as legible as print. Whitelaw Reid, 
although not a fancy writer, evidently gives 
Iiis compositors no trouble. Admirers of 
Charles A. Dana would hardly imagine that 
his line editorials arc written in a small, 
neat baud, and with a 
pen dipped in violet 
ink, inetcad of in gall. 
William Cullen Bryant 
wrote legibly in an old- 
fasliioucd style, though 
rutlior nervously toward 
the last. That A. 
Oakey Hall could write 
well, even under trying 
circumstances, appears 
frou) a polite note of 
hii", dated about a week 
before e thought fit to 
ilijiappcar suddenly from 
New Yolk, pomo years 
ago. Eti PcrkiDS is a 

Omaha spends about $80,000 a year in in- 
structiDg 5,000 school children. 

The average expenses per annum of the class 
of '61 of Yale was $956. 

Tht> oldest existing literary society in the 
L'niled Slates is at Yale. It was organized iu 

Harvard College has the largest freshman 
class in its history, numbering 250. Amhtiret 
has 97, Williams 85, Yale 255, Brown 70, 
Tuf^s 33, Dartmouth 45.— &-Aowi Journal. 

Miss Margaret Hicks, who has recently 
graduated from the course iu architecture at 
Coniell University, is said to be the first wo 
man who has ever adopted architecture as a 

The common schools of Germany are well- 
known to be thorough in their methods and ex- 
cellent in the resulu they attain. These are 
won by teaching rather than text-books. The 
cost of text-books for one pupil in a course of 
eiKht years is only $.67.— X F. School Journal. 
The salutalorian at Y'ale last year was a tier- 
man, the voledictoriau, a Hebrew, the prize 
declaimer, a Chinamau. But when it came to 
real classical culture our native land came to 
the frout. The pitcher of the Y'ale Baseball 
Club was an American. — Ex. 

" Y''ou don't know how it pains nie to punish 
you," said the teacher. " I guess there's the 
most pain at my end of the stick," respondud 
the boy, feelingly. " 'T any rate, I'd be willing 

gia, the " E 
pended fur 

ibe Chicago Intfr-Ocean. Geor- 
lire Stale ' of tbe South, ex- 
support of common schools 
n less than one-nineteenth of 

cpended for the same purpose by the 
State of Ohio. 

The average age at which students enter 
American coHt^ges is seventeen; a century ago 
it was fourteen. — The Occident, 

AKiukinnati editor hasjusl written a kolumn 
nbout the pronmikiation of Kickei-o. 

Teacher: " If your father should give you 
ten cents a week for ten weeks, liow much 
money would yon have at the end of that time t" 
Boy : " I shouldn't have nothing. I'd er spent 
it all for a pistol and a box o' caps and a tjuar- 
o' a pound of pow- 
•.'" — N. T. School Jour 



any one would believe 
u])on liisowu nubackcd 
aasertioo. Bob Bur- 
flette, of the Burling- 
ton Ilawkct/e, could, 
with the necessary 
knowledge of mathe- 
matics, obtain a posi- 
tion in any mercantile 
house as book-keeper. 
Longfellow writes in a 
rfally beautiful Italian 
hand, and Whittier and 
Holmes rival him in 
their own peculiar 
styles. George Wash- 
ington Chillis hasastyle 
of penmnnship which 
would appear as well at 
the bottom of a check 


^of r 

ofhis far-famed elegies. 
Murat Halstead is cer- 
tainly the worst writer 
in the world, and the 
sight of M'lnit ])urporls 
to be his signature 
would lead one to doubt 
the truth of his whole 

Good writiug implies 
good judgment, good 
tjiate, a correct eye, 
and power for close 
applications, which are 
the real elements of 
success in any pursuit. 
In these respects good 
writiug is cortanly high- 
ly indicative of thechar- 
acter of the writer. 

ber f Stu- 

-\o el)a eSchol. 


1 1 

ne of the 


a vio 1 

a 1 " been 


le ap 
eVBV d 

f Asia/, 
by his 


r V tl tl e follow 

« r 


What is 



Scholar ; 





>1 B thfl 

arlh corn- 



Scholar : 


Tea 1 



d vate 

r ' Schol- 


Well t 

at makes 


lent ll 

T eacher : 

I a 

>t s ll e 
arl » 

shape of 
Scholar : 
e : "You 



1 I should. 


h e tb 

rough the 



vould I 




Outofttutole '—Notre 


A )wUut 




thmetic : 
dd difier- 

e 1 

fc« og 
S B 1 

tl er," said 

If you add a 

sheep and 

a CO 

V togetJ 

er it does 



sheep or 

t vo 

8 A 1 Hie boy. 


8 ot 

au Austin 


uen Ikn 
and a d B 

a , held up 
ad: "That 


do Ih 

sheep and 

i lent I 

of the 

Thr ahorf cut wri.i phjlo-cnyraird /.-r BilVs Album of Biof/raphy and Art, /mm. a pen and 'uik drawuuj VtxSO, executed at the offi 

of the JouiiNAL. Larger copies have been printed Iry phota-litho<jraphij upon fine plate paper 19z24. one of ivhich is ffivm tw 

premium to every nibacriber to the JOURNAL. Copies maiUd to others than subscribers for fifty cents cacft. 

Educational Notes. 

[CommunicutionB for this Department may 
by addresfli'd lo B. F. KELLEY.t>05 IJnmdway, 
New York. Brief educational items solicitsd.^ 

i of the whole 

Education i-mbraces the cult 
man with all his faculties. 

The School Board of St. Louis has added to 
the course of studies at the public schools of 
that city, a series of oral lessons on etiquette. 

The total expenditures upon industrial 
ecliools in England amount to $1,580,000. 
There atv now about 15,000 of these schools. 

Yale has recently added a curious collection 
of n.OtW Germin pamphlets, many of them 
old and rare, to lit-r library.— TA* Oerident. 

The Pliiladelphia Rerord says, that of the 
56.000 primary scUulars in that city, rarely 
titty pHr cent, go into the secondary schools. 
Kt>riy-lwu pur ceut. of those who do go from 
the primary iuto tbe secondary schools never 
go any further. 

There are now four hundred American 
schools in Turkey, which are attended by about 
15,000 scholars. 

Texas has appropriated $150,000 for the pur- 
pose of erecting buildings for tbe State Univer- 
sity at Austin. 

A Sunday-school boy, upon beiug asked 
what made the Tower of Pisa lean, replied : 
" Because of the famine in the land." 

It is only a schoolboy who can enjoy bad 
health; and even he must have it bad enough 
to keep him out of school. 

Teacher; "What does it mean to say that a 
person bears off the palmT" Boy : " It means 
that he lakes the cake." 

What is the difference between a fixed star 
and a meteor t One is a suu and the other a 

Society : 

said little Johnny, "have 
pie's lives." "How so?" ask 

"May I have the pleasure 
"OuL" Fresh: ■•^Vbal d. 
MisaS. : " O, U, and I." 

T" Miss 

puzzled schoolmaster. "By not swallowing 
them," replied Johnny. 

A Waterloo Sunday-school little miss was 
asked by her teacher : " What must people do 
iu order to go to heaveut" " Die," I suppose," 
replied the little one. 

A school-teacher asked ; " What bird is large 
enough to carry off a man?" Nobody knew ; 
but one little girl suggested " a lark." Aud 
then she exclaimed: "Mamma said papa 
wouldn't be borne until Monday, because he'd 
gone off on a lark." 

Mr. Alcoti is reported by the Portland Jd- 
vertiser to have said at the Concord School, 
that " Actuality is the Tbiugaesa nf the Here." 
The Advertiser adds ; " An ordinary person 
dislikes to set up an opinion against so high 
an authority, but Bometimes it does seem as 
tbough Actuality is really the Hereuess of the 

L rs y of C difomifl, 
1 as tl bn I^Vancisco 
Itulle fU} 8 contrib- 
uted to establish a whole- 
some standard of conduct 
on the pari of the young 
men. These young wo- 

men have been among 

ed the cleverest studenlB of the institution. They 
le I have carried off a large proportion of the prizes 
ig I and honors, and they are workuig with great 



me, combatant, exquisite, myths, 
unist, tympanum, vehement, withes; 
lOtb, gondola, mischievous, cuff, 
elle, simony, sinecure, slough. 

, facade, 

Admixlion, abdomen, 

Althea, alarum, aroma 

Archangel, carotid, enervate, unique. 

Misconstrue. Parisian, precedence, critique. 

A robust jaguar, in a good magazine, 
Is xeeu chewing the queue of a p< 

A merican' Educator. 


r " 


Publi»lied Monthly at SI p« 


6lDitl» M>|>la oX rhe Jovttsxi. amt oa rcoalpt of H 
BliMimra c-oflr* furninhi^ to Agent* free. 


Single luwiliuEi, 2.5 oeiitB p«r Un» nnnpnreiL 

Imonlh. 3m<». 6 m«.. 1 y-. 
leolomn «EU.<K) •55.00 $100.00 |lVj. 

linrh. 19l!o<i!.'.".".' 175 500 siso Is! 


nr. and fortronl, by Tetiim 
of either of the following 
Binon^ tho flnot spiri- 

16x22 In. 

I ivc will forward tlie larite Cen- 
; r..|nil<for»a. 
1 r tr« will fonvntxl a copv of 

luui 6l I'uokord'N Ooins of Ponmaiuhlp "; retaili 

e jouiutAL, on» year, with n okoice from the fum 

r d««iga«d fur iasertiun 
ofllcii Order or by Regia- 

New Youk, December, 1881. 

The Close of Volume V. 
With tho present number the JounNAL 
closes its fifth volume. The past year has 
been quo of substantial progress, both as 
regards the number of its subscriptions, 
whicli hiis nearly doubled, and its own liter- 
ary and urti&tie improvement ; during the 
year it has, upon four occasions, been neces- 
sary to increase tho size to twelve pages, in 
order to give place to the large amount of 
valuable matter that was presented for its 

It has been most gratifying and encour- 
Bgiiig to its publishers to note the growing 
esteeui thftt has been unmistakably mani- 
fested on the part of patrons and the public 
geuernlly during the past year; from every 
q;mrter have come not only kind and flatter- 
ing commendations, but substautial support 
iu ft very general and generous eifort on the 
pan of patrons to induce their friouds and 
others to hccouio subscribers ; in many 
places, where there was a single subscriber 
at the begiuuing of the year, there are now 
many, aud it has been a not unusual occur- 
reuce that clubs, numbering a hundred or 
more, have been forwarded by teachers from 
a single school ; particularly oncouragiug 
has been the growing and very substantial 
support outside of tho " profession," so to 
speak, by teachers and pupils in public 
schools, school otJicers, parents having chil- 
dren whom they desired to interest and im- 
prove ns to their writing, and young and 
luiddjo-aired persons seeking self-improve- 
ment. — 'ndeM so general has become the 
Lntorost in and tho patronage of the Jour* 

NAi, that it can scarcely, with propriety, 
be longer styled a class paper, unless its 
class be construed to comprehend all persons 
who write, for all appear to have become 
about equally interested and liberal as its 

For the future we have no promise to 
make, but point to the record of the Jour- 
nal for the past five years, and say that we 
hope and trust that Volume VI. M-ill give 
satisfactory evidence to patrons that their 
liberality is not only appreciated, but is 
earnestly reciprocated by its publishers in 
an increased eflbrt to render the Journal 
worthy of the art and profession it repre- 

Five years since, when the publication of 
the Journal commenced, it was the pre- 
vailing belief that a "penman's paper" 
could not long survive, that penmen were 
too few and impecunious generally to sus- 
tain such a paper; and many hastened 
slowly and cautiously to its support by re- 
mitting monthly for copies, as if expecting 
that each issue would be the last. But, in 
spite of all doubts and lukewarmness, it has 
made a steady and healthy progress from 
the start, and has now come to bo too firmly 
establislicd to leave ground for a reasonable 
doubt as to its permanency ; nor can there 
be a doubt tliat it has been a most ]iowerful 
agent for awakening a proper interest, on 
the part of teachers, pupils, and school 
officers, respecting the importance of good 
writing and better teaching. It has also 
been fruitful of suggestions from the most 
noted authors and teachers, who have been 
its correspondents, as to the best methods of 
teaching and practicing writing. 

No effort will be sjiared on the part of 
its editors to render it more and more inter- 
esting and valuable to all classes of its 

Failure and Success. 


I, delivered at the late anni- 
versary of Packard's Business College, in 
the Academy of Music, the Hon. Chaunccy 
M. Depew presented in a felicitous manner 
many most valuable suggestions relative to 
the causes which lead to success or failure 
in life. 

Of six young men employed in one of the 
large establishments of ihis city, five arrive 
in the morning a little after the place opens, 
and during the last hour or half their eye is 
on the clock to see when the time will come 
that they can go. Should they be called 
upon to do more, or other work than that 
for which they were not specially employed, 
they decline, or do so with an unpleasant 
degree of reluctance — they were not hired to 
do this or that, etc ! 

They enter as walkers and become 
tramps, in charge of a tape counter — the 
yard-stick will always measure their attain- 
ments and progress. As an assistant book- 
keeper, there they remain ; they will do 
nothing for which they were not engaged, 
and are paid for. Their experience and 
qualifications therefore never extend beyond 
their counter, or special department, and 
since there is little or no increase in the de- 
gree of their usefulness, so there is little or 
no promotion or increase of salary. When 
discouraged or disgusted with their lack of 
promotion, they seek employment elsewhere, 
Their limited experience prevents their ob- 
taining a more desirable position. 

The sixth young man is at the place 
when it opens, and at once sets about doing 
any thing that needs to be doue. Ho does 
not know that there is a clock in the estab- 
lishment, he remains until his work is done. 
If from any cause an employee is absent, he 
volunteers to do extra duty and labor. It 
is not long before he knows about every de- 
partment of the business, and when a place 
more desirable than the one he occupies, is 
vacant, lie is promoted to fill it. 

A manager or head of a department is 
wanted, he is called to the place. A vacancy 
in the firm occurs and be becomes its junior 
member, and, finally, if the senior member 
chances to have a lovely daughter whom he 
deairea to be well provided for, there is sure 

to be a way opened for the young man to 
make her acquaintance, and he ultimately 
or member of the firm. 

" Blows Hot or Blows Cold. 

We clip from the Springfield, (Mass.) 
Sepublican, the following advertisement: 

Ornamental Bosh. — It is unaccountable 
huw any institute, seminary, or other echool of 
standing can advertise as part of its course of 
instruction such useless stuff as oruamental pen- 
mnnsliip and flourishing, neither of whicli ia 
known or admitted among the arts, professions, 
or employments. They are only otTsprinc of 
the " pen and ink tramp," and used by him 
simply to astonish the ignorant, to boom their 
importance, and to eke out a few more dollars. 
Mure than this nothing so utterly ruins retiued 
writing an these parasites that infest it. 

G. C. HiNMAN. 

We remember a few years since, while in 
a city in New Jersey, having our .itten- 
tion attracted by an unusual display of all 
sorts of fancy penmanship, accompanying 
au announcement that the undersigned (6. 
C. Hinman) was about to organize a class 
for instruction in practical penmanship. 

Wo believe, however, that there was a 
failure to secure a class, and that the prin- 
ters still have unliquidated bills for advertis- 
ing against tliis particular *' pen and ink 
tramp." How it is with the boarding-house 
keepers we are not informed. 

In view of these fact-" the above quoted 
advertisement seems suggestive of "sour 
grapes" rather than reformation. 

Had the advertiser passed tho severest re- 
strictions upon the use of flourishes and su- 
perfluities intenningled with practical writ- 
ing, he would have had our most hearty as- 
sent. But when he denounces ornamental 
penmanship, jier se as " useless stuff," "not 
known among the arts, professions or em- 
ployments," he betrays either a lack of sense 
or a smack of tlie knave. 

Ornamental penmanship has come to be 
an art, admired and liberally patronized by 
people of the most cultivated and refined 
tastes. In our large cities numerous pen 
artists are now constantly employed at a 
liberal remuneration, designing and execut- 
ing all manner of artistic pen work. Me- 
morials, testimonials, resolutions, etc., are 
engi-ossed with not only elegant lettering, 
hut ornamented often with highly artistic 
and exquisitely executed pictorial desigus, 
and now since the introduction of tho var- 
ious photographic methods of reproducing 
designs executed with the pen, penmanship 
has largely usurped the work of the brush 
and graver, and is the means not only of 
producing many of tlie more common com- 
mercial forms, such as business cards, letter 
and bill-heads, certificates ot membership, 
stock, diplomas, etc., etc., but most of the 
illustrations in the illustrated periodicals of 
the day, the Daily Graphic is almost ex- 
clusively so illustrated, while Harper's and 
Leslie's great weeklies are largely so. The 
penman's art is looking np, and possibly in 
its rapid strides, has left "the advertiser" 
so hopelessly in the rear as to lead him to 
seek patronage and consolation in falsify- 
ing and denouncing an attainment which he 
evidently does not possess to a degree 
requisite for bestowing upon him either 
honor or profit. Honor consists in rising 
above, rather than degrading competitors. 

Packard's Anniversary. 
On the evening of November 22d, Pack- 
ard's Business College held its twenty-third 
anniversary at the Academy of Music, which 
was filled with the elite of the city. On 
the platform were Mayor Grace and ex- 
Mayor Wickham, Judges Davia, Larremore, 
Cowing and Gedney ; Messrs. Hunter and 
Wood, of the Board of Education; the Rev. 
C. H. Taylor, Professor Doremus, Ma.jor 
Bundy, H. C. Wright, S. R. Hopkins, D. 
T. Ames, and others. After some brief re- 
marks in his usually happy style. Professor 
Packard introduced the Honorable Chaunc-ey 
M. Depew, who delivered the address of the 
evening, which was most able, interest- 
ing, and appropriate to tho occasion, full of 
practical advice fur young men aspiring to 
an honorable business career. The address 
to the graduates, who numbered thirty-six, 

by the Rev. J. M. Buckley, was highly iu- 
terestiug and appntpriate. Excellent music 
was furnished by Eben's 23d Regiment 
Band. The entire exerciser were of rare in- 
terest and highly creditable to Prof. Pack- 
ard and his college. 

Our Premiums for 1882. 
In addition to the premiums offered during 
the past year, we now offer a copy of the 
" Garfield Memorial" (see reduced copy on 
another page), printed on fine plate, lUx24. 
It is among the finest gems of pen art ever 
executed, and iu view of the noble example 
and exalted attainments of President Gar- 
field, it is a most fitting picture for the 
adornment of any home or school-room in 

On other pages of this issue will also bo 
seen copies of three others of the premiums 
offered. The remaining one, the "CentcDui.J 
Picture of Progress," is too large to bo re- 
duced to a size convenient to print in tho 
Journal ; it may, however, ho safely re- 
garded as equal to any here represented, in 
the quality of its execution, while in the ex- 
tent and character of its design it very far 
excels tliem all. 

It will therefore be seen that to every 
subscriber or renewor of a subscription, 
during the present month and 1882, there 
will be given a choice of any ooo of^t;epre- 

The Garfield Memorial, - - - - 19x24 

The Lord's Prayer, 19x24 

The Centennial Picture of Progress, 18x'2fi 
The Flourished Eagle, - - - - 20x^2 

The Bounding Stag, 20x32 

Any premium additional will ho sent for 

25 cents; all five of them, with the JouK- 

kal, for S2.00. 

The King Club 
for tho month comes from F. F. Judd, 
principal of the Commercial Department of 
Jenning's Seminary, Aurora, 111., and num- 
bers f/tij. Mr. Judd is an accomplished 
penman, and evidently a popular teacher. 

The second club in size is sent by Harry 
T. Bidwell, a student at Soule's, Bryant and 
Stratton Business College, Philadelphia, 
Penn., and numbers thirty-fice. Mr. 
Bidwell says: " On Prof. Soule's sugges- 
tion that the Journal would be of advan- 
tage, to us, I undertook to raise a club in 
which I have been successful." Webellevo 
that a college or school principal who in- 
duces a pupil to become a subscriber to the 
Journal does him a substantial service; 
many, and the most appreciative, and suc- 
cessful teachers are recognizing the fact, 
and through their influence large clubs are 
being forwarded. 

The third largest club, numbering seven- 
teen, comes from P. R. Cleary, who has 
been teaching writing with marked success 
during some time past, at Albion, Mich. 

Lesser clubs have been too numerous to 
and sufficient to keep the editors 

Subscribe Now, 

And begiu with tlie new year and new 
volume, while subscriptions may commence 
at any time since December, 1877 it is de- 
sirable to begin with the volume, as tho 
period of subscription is then more readily 
remembered, and the numbers are in better 
and more complete form for binding. We 
are ciuifident that there will he few papers 
published during the coming year that will 
give greater satisfaction to their patrons than 
will the Journal, and none that can offer 
more liberal and valuable premiums to their 
subscribers. Now is the time to subscribe 
and secure clubs. 

Part Six of the New Spencerian 

is now ready, and is one of the most prac- 
tical and valuable yet issued, being devoted 
more largely to practical writing. It gives 
in full the "sixteen lefsou course," which 
the Spencer Brothers have taught with 
marked success in Washington and else- 
where. Mailed to any address fur 60 cents, 
the publishers price. 




jg|!Jf«'«'Ji««lft^-,-''**«'f«K MEMBER or IBK <io*'*^ ^^.,tami«.ial*mi&,C 

Prmmitunt in au xt« i^^ >^. ,- to h i m jtis 

firsts, 205 ei]ti-.L^V ■■.;- . 

The above cut was photo-engraved from oricrlnal nen md ml- .-.r. 

and given as a practical specinfen f enL Inl and T " " "^ ''^ '^''"^^" ^"^^^ ^""'^'^^^' 

P ol engrossing and photoengraving. Size of original,22x 28. 



Penmen's Convention. 

We invite atteotion to a commnDicalion in 
another column, from Robert C. Spencer, 
president of the Bnsioess Educators' Associ- 
ation, in which he suggests that the penmen 
meet in conjuDction with the eonveatiao of 
that Association. We are disposed to favor 
that plan, inasmuch as a large number of the 
most accomplished penmen are identified 
eitheras proprit^torsofor teachers in com- 
mercial c^jlleges, and would bo equally inter- 
ested in the proceedings of both conventions. 
A special convention of pf'nmen might be 
held immediately before or after the conven- 
tion of the B. K. A., which would render it 
convenient for those who de.sired to attend 
the eessions of both iissociations. 

Wc shall be pleased to hear from penmen 
rektive to the plan proposed by Mr. Spen- 
cer, or suggestive of any other plan which 
they may deem preferable. 

A Double Nunnber. 
In order that readers may he better in- 
formed respecting the character and value 
oftlie premiums which we offer with the 
Journal, we have deemed it proper so far 
as was practical, to give fac-similes of them 
in The Journal. Accordingly we have 
printed that double size, and there will be 
found in this issue reduced copies of four of 
the premiums, the fifth— The Centennial 
Picture of Progress— is too large to admit 
of the necessary reduction. It should be 
borne in mind, however, that larger prints 
of Ihese works on fine plate paper present a 
far better appearance than can the smaller 
copies, printed on inferior paper, and on a 
common press. Either of the prints offered 
are fine pictures, and worth to any admirer 
of fine penmanship, more than the yearly 
subscription price of the Journal. 

Newspapers of the World. 
It is estimated that there are publisiied iu 
the world about 20,(100 newspapers, divided 
nearly as follows : In North America, 9,12fl : 
in Europe, including Great Britain, 0,000; 
in Asia, '^^7 ; in Africa, 50. It will he seen 
by this estimate that the Americans are de- 
cidedly the leaders in the uewspapi^r worid, 
there being on the average a newspaper pub- 
lished to every 0,000 of its people ; whUe 
Europeans are supplied at the rate of a pa- 
per to each 34,000; the Asiatics indulge 
their propensity for news to the extent of a 
paper to every 2,050,000; and 4,000,000 of 
Africans appeage theii' literary hunger with 
a single newspaper. No wouder that mis- 
sionaries go out from the New to the Old 
Worid. ^^^ 

Giving Credit. 

It is the desire and ixirpose (if the pub- 
lishers of this journal to give the full and 
proper credit to all who contribute to its 
columns, and to all sources from which mat- 
tor is selected. In some instances this has 
not been done, from the unknown origin of 
articles, they having been taken from old 
scrap-books or inclosed in letters to the 

We hereby request all parties, inclosing 
clippings for insertion in the Journal, to 
note, when known, their origin. 

1878, can be supplied. No number prior to 
that date can be mailed. 

AU the 48 back numbers, with any four 
of the premiums, will be mailed for 83.25, 
inclusive of 1882, with the five premiums, 
for $4.00. 

Exchange Items. 

We acknowledge with pleasure the re- 
ceipt of other exchanges and periodical as 
follows : 

The Penman's Gazette, published by G. 
A. Gaskell.of Jersey City, N. J., is full o 
good reading. . 

The Scieutifw News, published by Munn 
&. Co., 37 Park Row, is one of the finest 
illustrated, most attractive and valuable of 
our exchanges. 

The Pennsylvania Business College Jour- 
nal, published by J. N. Curry, of Harris- 
burgh, is gotten up with rare good taste^ 
and filled with interesting reading matter. 

The Students Journal, published by A. 
J. Graham, 744 Broadway, is devoted prin- 
cipally to the interest of Graham's Stan- 
dard Phonography, and is one of the best 
edited papers among our exchanges. 

What has become of the Bookkeepei- and 
Penman. It is now some months since we 
have seen a copy. Has it gone where the 
" woodbine twineth," or has it disdainfully 
skipped our sanctum iu its monthly rounds? 
Browne's Phonographic Monthly and Re- 
porters Journal is a twenty-page paper de- 
voted exclusively to short-hand writing, and 
is full of interesting matter. It is published 
by T>. L. Scott Browne, 23 Clinton Place, 
New York, for $2 per year. 

Bengough's Cosmopolitan Short-hand 
Writer, Toronto, Canada, is a sixteen-page 
monthly magazine devoted to short-baud 
writing. It is ably edited, spicy and in- 
teresting, and contains much valuable read- 
ing matter to those interested in shorthand. 
Mailed one year for $1. 

The Universal Penman, published hy 
Sawyer & Brothers, Ottawa, Canada, for $1 
per year, is a sixteen- page monthly maga- 
zine, devoted to penmanship, phonography, 
and drawing. It is well-edited, and it must 
be interesting and valuable to all persons 
interested iu these subjects. 


To Advertisers. 

•egret the necessity of calling the 

attention of many parties who have sent 
copy for small advertisements in the Jour- 
nal unaccompanied by cash, to the fact 
that our terms for all advertising are posi- 
tively casli ill advance, and that it is en- 
tirely useless to send copy upon any other 
terms. Bills have been at once sent for 
such advertisements, and whore not paid 
advertisements have been, and will be 
omitted fi-om the Jounal. 

Back Numbers. 

All or any of the back numbers of the 

Journal, since and inclusive of January, 

Penman^s Monthly Bugle is a large four- 
page sheet devoted chiefly to industrial mat- 
ters. It starts off with a creditable degree 
of editorial skill and vim, aud at the low 
price of thirty-five cents, or fifty cents with 
premium for a year, it is the cheapest publi 
cation that we know, and should be read by 

The Short-hand Busmest, Journal by 
John B. Holmes, Laport, Ind is oue of 
the most reliable school jouiuals that has 
ever come into our hands His storj of 
Melville FairbauU & Co , i^ a happy and 
truthful presentation of the value and nete*! 
sity of a practical business education. Prof. 
Holmes ranks deservedly high as a practi- 
cal educator, and especially as a teacher of 
short-hand. Many of the best short-hand 
reporters of the country are indebted to him 
for skillful instruction. 

Minneapolis Weekly, Minn. 

The School Journal, New York. 

The Buyby Journal, Wilmington, Del. 

The Human Appeal, Cincinnati, 0. 

The Occident'tf, Berkley, Cal. 

Hinman's College Journal, Worcester, 

Our Second Century, New York. 

La Voz Del Nuevo Muudo, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

EducationM Review, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Davenport Business College Journal, 
Davenport, Iowa. 

Great Wentem Business College Journal, 
Omaha, Neb. 

Guyer's Stationer, Teachers' Guide, 
Teaclier's Institute, Scholar's Companion, 
aud The Algis, Sailors Magazine. 

Jennie E. Hanson, of X 
writes a handsome letter. 

C. N. Crandall is having good success 
teaching penmanship at Valparaiso, Ind. 

Wm. McClave is teaching writing in the 
public schools of Scranton, Pa., and also 
conducting evening classes. 

L. Fellers is principal of the commercial 
department of the University of the Pacific, 
he writes a good practical hand. 

Fred F. Judd is teaching writing, and the 
commercial branches at Jenning's Seminary 
and Aurora {111.) Normal School. 

L. Madarasz is teaching writing at the 
Sterling (111.) Business College. He is one 
of the best card-writers in the country. 

The Gulf Coast Progress pays a high 
compliment to penmanship exhibited at the 
late Exposition, Atlanta, Ga., by Eugene 

E. W. Burns, of Holyoke, Mass., recent- 
ly favored us with a call, he is a fine, prac- 
tical writer, aud is now dealing in paper 

In our last issue we noticed " Martin's 
Compendium of Ornamental Art," giving 
as author, J. M. Martin, which was a mis- 
take, it should have been C. L. Martin. 

The Titusville (Pa.) Morning Herald 
speaks highly of the Business College lately 
opened in that city by H. C Clark, aud 
which has nearly one hundred pupils in at- 

Messrs. Josh & Bemish, proprietors of 
the Island City Business College, Galves- 
ton, Texas, are highly praised by the Gal- 
veston Daily Journal for their faithful and 
succ essful school work. 

c'lt Cochran, who for several yearsRJTS" 
held the position of Prof, of Commercial 
Science in the city schools ot Pittsburgh, 
Pa., is conducting a Business Night School 
in that city. Prof. Cochi 
plished and successful teacher of commercial 

0. C Vernon, who has for some time 
past been teaching writing classes at Sigo- 
nier, Ind., is highly commended by the 
press, and .was at the close of a recent 
courae of lessons, the recipient of a very 
eomplimentary set of resolutions from the 
members of his class. 

^Ifpt^"^ id) 

T H McCool, ot Plnladelphia, Pa , sends, 
a superbly executed flourished bird. 

An elegantly written letter comes from 
J. F. Whiteleather, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Mary H. Jenkins, public school teacher, 
in Pittsburgh, Pa., writes a beautiful let- 

W. P. Macklin, of St. Louis, Mo., sends 
a creditable specimen of lettering and draw- 

D. Clinton Taylor, in the U. S. Surveyors 
Office, Virginia City, Nev., writes an (^e- 
gant letter. 

A. G- Ward, Rock Island, 111., writes a 
handsome letter, and incloses sevenil skill- 
fully executed drill exercises. 

Jas. Foeller, Jr., sends an imperial pho- 
tograph of a very skillfully executed piece 
of lettering and pen-drawing. 

G. R. Demary is teaching writing at Me- 
dina, N. Y. He encloses several creditable 
specimens of practii-al writing. 

C. H. Peirce, of Keokuk, Iowa, sends a 
package of exercises in figures by 45 of his 
pupils, which 

J. W. Pierson, of Mercer, Ohio, writes 

very handsome letter, in which be inclosoi^ 

several superior specimens of practical writ- 

F. H. Hall, teacher of writing in Shields 
Troy (N- Y.) Business College, writes one 
of the most elegant letters received during 
the month. 

A photograph of what appears to be a 
very fiuely executed pen drawing of a lion 
scroll -i.ud lettering, comes from G. T. Op- 
huger, Slatington, Pa. 

An elegantly written letter aud sever;i I 
superior specimens of flourishing aud draw- 
ing comes from L. A. Barron, associate pro- 
prietor of Rockland (Me.) Commercial Col- 

E. A. Morgan, Washington, Ind., who 
advertises hy mail in another column, writes 
a letter in good style, and is highly com- 
mended by the press where he has taught 

Ceo. C. Cook, a student at the Pennsyl- 
vania Business College, Hamsburgh, Pa., 
sends a very handsomely executed specimen 
of flourishing and lettering, also of practical 

A beautifully written letter comes from 
Lyman D. Smith, teacher of writing in the 
public schools of Hartford, Conn., and au- 
thor of ''Applcton's Standard System of 

Several well executed specimens of pra*'- 
tieal writing, and a skillfully executed 
flourish, was received from J. W. Harkinp, 
a pujiil at A. H. Hiiiman's Business Cnl- 
oge, Worcester, Mass. 

S. Ed. Riley, of Colasa, 111., who has 
just completed a coiu'se of instructiou at 
Mussehnan's Business College, Quiucy, 111., 
writes a handsome letter, in which the ease 
and grace of movement displayed is <iuite 

An elegautly written letter comes from 

our friend, W. H. Duff", of Duff's Colh-ge, 

Pittsburgh, Pa., whicli goes wilh his por- 

also inclosed, into our scrap hook 

they can be seen and admired by all 

vho may honor our sauctum with a visit. 

P. R. Cleary, teacher of writing, Albion, 
Jich., sends a photograph of a fiuely exe- 
cuted piece of pen-drawing. The centra! 

:, a female head, is exquisitely drawi 
while tlie lettering and scrolling that sm 
rounds it are iu good taste, and well i^m 

H. A. Mumaw, with the Menmuiitr 
Publishing Co., Elkhart, lud., incloses p!i.'- 
tographic copies of three very fiuely exr 
cuted pen drawings, two of which are p^r- 
tiaits of Lmcoln and Washington. Mr. 
Mumaw has also compiled and published a 
V [Itubk little book of 112 pages, entithii 

1 irpMdt Readings," which is composed •>( 
sel( (lions from various well-known ami 
popular authors. The work issent by mail, 
m cloth for 50 cents, in paper for aO cents. 

Special Inducement. 

To iiuy person rt 

a specnneu ci-\i\ 
of this issue, we offer to mail the reuiaiuiiii; 
two numbers for 1881 and all the numlifi -i 
for 1882, (iu all, fourteen numbers of tin- 
paper), and a choice of the four premium-- 
for $1.00. Give it a trial. 

Carhart's Class-Book of Commer- 
cial Law. 

Is meeting with almost nnprecedenteil 
success as a text book in Business Schouls. 
This is no more than it deser\'es. It meets a 
want loug felt by teachers of short courses 
of Commercial Law. Such teachers w),u 
have not seen a copy, should send fur ii. 
Advertisement in another columu. 

A good haodwritiug opens more avemn . 
for employment, and more frequently l(:n! 
to business success than any other one a-- 

Show your " hand," if it is clear, li-gibU-, 
and rapid, there ai'e plenty of places oprn 


W. G. II., AiiguMa, Mo.— Do wrillCD 
eardu refjuirc postage at letter rattsf AnJi. 
Vc-s ; cverytliiDg that is entirely in writing 
muHt paj at tlic rate of tbrce cents for every 
hair ounce. 

E. n. W., Atlanta, Gn.— Which is beat 
adapted to left-hand writcre, tbo back or 
forward slope f Am. — Wu believe that the 
direet slope is the best and easiest to .tc- 
qiiire and practice, and especially will that 
be the fact irtien one in ttcpdved of the use 
of the right hand after having learned to 
write with it. 

H. C. D., Baltimore, Md.— In the exe- 
cDtion of large ppociineng of pen-work, 
would you commend the use of a drawing 
board, or would you work with the sheet 
loose upon the tablet ,-ljw. -We should 
never execute any kind of pen-work without 
fastening the paper upon a drawing board ; 
work can ho done better and with greater 

D. C. J., San Jose, Cal— Ta it practical 
to execute good business writing with the 
whole arm movement? Am.~Ii is not. 
Writing so executed will lack precision, it 
will be sprawly, and will usually abound 
Ti-ith floiirishes; the whole arm constitutes 
a lever too long for proper control in com- 
mon writing, and is adapted only to making 
large capitals, and writing upon a large 
ecule, aiid otf-hand flourishes. 

We are regularly in receipt of the Pen- 
sian's Journal, one of the most useful 
monthly publications upon the entire sub- 
ject of ppumauship to be found in the world. 
The nriistic pen drawings that illustrate the 
pages of this superb i)eriodical, are any one 
of them worth more than the subscripliou 
price. Teachei's send for it by all means. 
Published at 205 Broadway, N. Y., price $1 
per year. — Claysi-ilk [Pa.) Sentinel. 

" I don't SCO how you can have been 
working all day like a horse!"' exclaimed 
the wile of a lawyer, her husUand having 
declared that ho had been thus working. 
"Well, my dear," ho replied, " I'vf 
drawing a conveyance all day, anyho 

Penman's Convention. 



Editor Penman's Art Journal :— I no- 
tice that there' is some agitation through 
your columns in favor of a distinctively Pen- 
men's Convention. 1 am, I think, by no 
means indifferent to the best interests of a 
profession in which I have had the honor 
for some years tu labor, and shall be glad to 
co-operate in all practicable ways for its ad- 
vancement. It is possible that a strictly 
Penmen's Convention would be successful, 
and the best, all things considered, for that 
briuicli of art and education ; but on that 
point I entertain grave doubts. It seems to 
mo that a much better plan would be to or- 
ganize a Penmen's Section of the Business 
Educators' Association, to meet at the same 
time and place. In this way I think a iimch 
m<*o general attendance iwd greater inter- 
est would bo secured in both, and much mu- 
tual advauti^re would result. 

The next meeting of the Business Educa- 
tors' Association will be held in Cincinnati. 
The date is not yet fixed, but the last of 
May, or tiret of June, has been suggested. 

As President of the Association, I venture 
to oiler the above fiuggcstiou to my brethren 
of the pen, and volunteer my ser\'ices iu 
making such arrangements in their behalf at 
Ciuoinnati as will be most jigreeablc to them. 
What say you to this f 


il. C. Sfences. 

Complimentary to the Journal. 

As an evidence of the great popularity 
and univerwl apprcctatiou of the Journal, 
wp take the liberty of presentiog, through 
few of the multitude of kind 

and flattering scutimcuut v^preMt 

behalf by the press and its pittrons 

it ■ lanp: uircuUiim.— (Notn) Dmuu, lod., 

Iby I 

imMnnd B, F. KcUvy. V& BnxulwBy, Nxir Y( 

JIT prica of It por jrcar, » uniloulilwlly the bandsoaivst 
11(1 tMSt p«ri>xU(Ul uf its kinil publbhed In Die EnglUh 
ingtioffn. Wo tiave do faMitstion In wyinp thnt IbrM 
iimben lyfo^ bofura in ore irortli ft yoor's «uh*criplii>n. 

Iw at unoo u:id send on Ihoir sub* 

a Oame, Ind., Scholnsllo.] 

nbor of Iho PRXU.lN'ti ART JOUR- 

linal nnil onuunentvl in p^niniuisliip. tl is «n ««it«rtainlng 
(uiilo from lluM pertuining to tlii' lut of pMtiu&ntbip. and 

The produclg ol hii skillful pen (m mnny nod beautiful, 
nod »boiT (hut h« i< inily nn U. P^-oot Slumber of Par 
liameoi, but Uatltr of Ptnmanthip.—\Stui\:i!tA'» Journal.) 

It is n splendid tight -po^ monllilf , onutiiiniii^lusMns in 
poiiiiiunship./ar limilitt of Ih(< flnnsi penivurk, nnd onre- 
fkilly wriuen urtidra uii penmanship and Ibo oomiuercial 
bninchrs, niahing it a most valuable and Interesting Jitnr- 
nal^lTIw Teat-hew' Oitidc] 

It is the lending publtuuiion TVpresonling prvfculuunl 
ponmi^n. and aa oxooediogly alltaolire and helpfkiljour- 
nnl fbr all irho would beoomo good wrlteu. lis numor- 

niisUed his r«<adora n-llli a laosl pra^tlivil 
irriling: Its Caufo, EIToot. and Corroo- ' 
B cnrcfully oxomincd Diis nrlii^to nnd are i 
of ill practical utility and valUL' to good 

il ubiy disoufised iu thia 


rkne«' Miignsine.] 

e, prnclica) Jmmml, dovotod nio»i cxuIumvi'I}-' 
ibip. It is proftianly lUiisinited, and liniidiM 
leglccied subjrut in o masterly mnnnor.— [Can- 

Mnlnnts are invaluable t( 
-(My Maryland.! 

nochtio to rvcommrnd it — (Voung CanadJoii, Monlruil. 

It is aa oxoeedingly handsome monthly. — [Buslon 
Home Jonmal.) 

It is a \-Bl«HhIe pubIi«tion.— [Kansas City, Mo.. Pio- 


Henry C. Sp^nwr. Sp«iioerfan IIiisin«s9 Collq^ Wash- 
ington, O. C-: "The JomXAL is the m«lium of fresh 
news, uselbl iafttmmtion. bt«t idcus of gvninl c1eer>hoad«d 

repository ofbnBtlful and Mltraetivo ilhistmlfons ofp«n 
art from your tnm porttblio. nnd utiicn. Wiitiont thought 
of Hntlorj-, I soy alnouvly, I think you baro tbe talent, 
breadth, tact, nnd spirit of ipmd will requUite for the man- 
agcmrnt of tho JOt;HSAI-." 

Hon. Int Muf ho\r, Uelrolt. Mlcb.; " I have been nioro 
nnd more Inlonslod In tho suc<wuivo issueaof the JOUic- 
KAi. fhim th« Href ImmlM•^ Il soeias to mo to te&IUng ati 
important iitiftftion. I tnist It will hcrenller not only aid 
peninnnthlp as an Art, but that applird pcnmnnsliip, a* a 
commetolal branch, shall, by its Inflncacc niuturiolly pio- 
mole the Interests of buKittCM education, whose great ini- 
portaneo is not y«t fully appreciated." 

H. nussoll, Juliet Biuifnoa College : " I nm more than 
pleased with Its flne appoainnoe, and it certainly seems 
got tlio right 

e Shall 1 

i long I 

The above cut is photo-engraved from an or'ujinal specimen executed I 
College. Mr. Shaglor has long Juld a froni rank amomj 

Principal of the Portland, (Me.) But 
'era and teachers of the countrtj. 

I of II 


. Those 
rill find 

II is uui' III ih( .uiiioi i-i.iiihuiiiid and host pnlronUcd 
papers hi Anicritu, its lyintgrupliicid appNimnco is, In- 
diiKl, fine, nnd tbe beautiful di3sigiis and fluoly flnisliod 
cuts illikslmllvo of the art of penmanship nro » credit 
tu the publisben. Auj- persons wishing tu receive a 
bigratum on their investment will fuel well paid by 
sending 81 for the Pksuas's Akt JoukNAL.— [Great 

It hus boon our pririlege to hare iwrnsed some of 
nlmosl all |tuhUcuttoos Ihat have been befuiv the puhUo 
on Ibis subjctit fur the post twenty j-onra, and nre Irnvo 
never yet stwa anjlhing to equal the Pbmian's AllT 
JoeiiXAL In artistic d»lgn, and valuable Information in 
n^ferenee to pmctlcol and omnmootal penmanalilp.— 
[Tcrre Uanto, Ind., College Juumul.] 

It gives tnoat practical lesaciis in penmanship. All its 
melhoiLi are explnlnod iu the most simlglttfbm-nrd man- 
ner, and Instead of the grout amount »f Iw-hnlcal aualysea 
that lioji ave^loadl!d the subjeci of penmanship, Ihe JOLIt- 
NAi.givM«imple,uaturalles«ons.— ThePlousouloa, Kan., 

Jouu^iAU— [Eliauhcth, N. 
J., Daily Journal j 

Ku liellcr paper of tlio kind has over nppuurtHl iu Ill's 
country, and its cireuloiiun is alreadj' buootnlng large and 
wel. distributed. It desorvca and will no doubt recoivo 
the hearty support of every oatcrprislngpeuimin.— [Homo 

It Is nbly edited ond skUlfkilly ilhistnitod. IU editor. 
Mr. Aines, is a muster in hia profession, and will undoubt- 
edly make the JoUilNAL the abler oflis ctuiss, and u valn- 

> aU I 


Journal -1 

Tho Prvuan'b Art JounitAt. is an InteiwtIng nnd 
beoutifully illustnrtod i>«per devoted exclusively to the 
Alt of Pcnman>liip. Sir. Ames, as its editor, is a pen 
anisi of marvelous skill.— ITheEiilerprise, Now York.| 

It fiisters and extends a love for good penniaoshlp and 
cunlnins beautiful spueimons of the nrt which shoidd bo 
seen and studied.— [Kingston, Out., Dally News.} 

It la one of the nuatcst and most inter(»tiug pubhoatlous 

had t 

long tl 

KuckoirsCo Hcndd, Kelson. Nebl 

It Is a valuable paper for all the lovers of pen art, and 
throughout we cnn see the genius of Ames, wlilch is suy* 
ing enougli.-[ Penman's Help I 

II is benutifully printed, and IllusUntcd with Una pen- 
manship, and is of great value lo everybody.- (Now Ham- 
den. Ohi 


t ofb 


u writing and pea diuning.— Uatoon, IIL JoumoL] 

". P. Cooper, Kitigsvllle. C 

;unius and Iraluod si 
J. C. Bryant. Prw 

beautifully gotten i 

m lint it will 1) 

uu fuihi 

keep up tho preseut slandord." 
G. A. Ouskoll: •'TUcrarioty ofthe cxccllent/acj 
iltM of your peu-work )i>ii are ^ving, ns well us Its I'll 
reoitiog mailer, makes It. In my opinion, superior lo 
of its predecessors. Xu penman, old or young, vetem 
beginner in llio prnfi^wiun, con road the Journal wltl 
deriviog great hcnoflt." 

J. Vr. Swank. tTiilled Slaloa Treasury Dcporlm 
Washlngloii, D. C: " Your JOUltXAl. is a 'Jewel.' 
Is tho best drutsed, tbe most nbly edited, and cent 

paper of iia class thot Ims e 

cr been publis 


a this 


D. J. B. Sawyer. Principal 

of Dcmlui 

n E 


ss In- 

Btitute. Olluwit. Cnnn lUi : " ' 

is d 



Work by keeping up n spirit o 

ely unsein 



geneiutions will bless and chc 


A me 

8. 8. Pnaknr<l. New York : 




posillon ns well as ihe ability 

and issle 




class luper for one dollar a Sfta 

r. which In 




appearance, and general luLip 

iliou to its 



ceUed by any pubUoolioa iu Ui 

a oountry.' 

CuDtribiitod by R. L. Mekedith. 
Copy-books arc iotCDdeil to aid the in- 
telligent tcaclicr ID Ilia work and give to the 
stodent n series of systematic and graded 
cojiies. Yet it hIiouM be underatood that 
they are merely an aid to Auccessful teach- 
ing. They can never take the place of the 
living teacher. Xeressity demanded for our 
public achooU a graded courae of writing, 
and copy-books have practically surceeded 
in supplying the demand. It is well known, 
however, that they cannot, in and of them- 
aclves, produce practical business penmen. 
There must bo something more than a mere 
copy for the student. The copy represents 
the science of penmanship applied, but it 
does not teach the science; hence the pupil 
who has naught but copy-book practice can 
never expect 1o .tttain the science of pen- 
manship. He learna no law, except that of 
similarity, and when the copy-hook is laid 
.a?ido ho lijis only an iudislinct memory of 
the forms of letters left to guide him. His 
motto must necessarily be, "So high and so 
wide," to the exclusion of all freedom of 

In my humble opinion there is altogether 
too much copy-hook practice in the public 
schools of our country. The copy-book is 
taking the place of the live, ouergetlo 
teacher, and, instead of advancing the cause 
of penmanship, it becomes the inenna of 
retarding it. 

Teaohers and Boards of Education, hav- 
ing adopted a system of copy-books, place 
them in the baiiils of the pupils and expect, 
by giving a luilf-liour's daily practice, with- 
out any inslrucliou in movement or analysis, 
and very little in position, that the pupil 
will acijuiro a stylo of writing that will be an 
honor t<i the schools of this grand Uepublic. 

It is refreshing to know that in some of 
our schools a special teacher of penman- 
ship is employed who can guide the pupil 
to inlelligent practice, but the majority of 
our schools give littlo or no attention to the 
Uachintj of writhtg. 

Tlie High Schools of our country ought 
to graduate business penmen, and when 
they fnil to do so the public ought to de- 

New Books. 

Hill's Alih;m ok Dior.HAPiiy and 
AllT, by I'rof. Thomas E. Hill, author of 
Hill's "Manual of Social and Business 
Forms," published by The Hill Standard 
Book Publishing Co., Chicago, III. This 
is a work of \in finely printed and. elegant- 
ly illustrated quarto pages, giving biograph- 
ical sketches of six hundred and twenty- 
eight, and portraits of two hundred and 
tivculy-two of the most renowned religion- 
ists, warriors, inventors, financiers, scien- 
tists, humorists, actoi-s, explorers, poets, 
lawyers, physicians, stalcanieo, orators and 
ariisis of the world. The subjcet-iuattcr of 
the work, in its extent and skillful manner 
of presentation, bears unmistakable evi- 
dence of great labor and profound research, 
as well as a liberal expenditure of money 
on the part of the author. The embellish- 
ments are up.m a scale most liberal and ex- 
cellent in taste. The work, as a whole, is 
one that must be largely sought and highly 
prized by all classes, not alone as a hand- 
book of vahiablo and iuteresliug iufonna- 
tion, but as a beautiful and approjiriato ur- 
uameut for the parlor or dmwing-room. It 
is a fitting oompauiou of Hill's Manual, 
which has proved the most popular 
and ready-selliug work of its day, having 
already reached its thirtieth edition, and 
into the hundreds of thousands of copies 
sold. Liko the Jlanunl, the new work is to 
be sold only on subscription through agents. 
Tereons wishing to become agents or de- 


gonerilly to bt tl e ot o j Iens\e \ I i I c 

ninnsh ] e r ] 1 1 bl e 1 Sent post paid to any 1 1 Iress on 
prein urn for a tl b of t elve subscr 1 s to tl t Journal 

The abo^e cut icpicijonts the title p.igo of the noik, «hich 

Ames' Compendium. 

of Practiefll and Onianicntal Pcnmnnahip 
is designed especially for the use of pro- 
fessional penmen and artists. It gives an 
unusual number of alphabets, a well graded 
scries of practical exercises, and specimens 
of oif-hand flourishing, and a great number 
of specimen sheets of engrossed title-pages,~ 
resolutions, certificates, meinorials, etc. It 
is the moat comprehensive, practical, useful, 
and popuhir work to all classes of profes- ' 
sional penman ever published. Sent, post- 
paid, to any address on receipt of $4.50, or 
as a premiuiii for a club of 12 subscribers hi 
the Journal. ^^ 

The following are a few of Ihu many I 
flattering notices from the press and pa 

r our iioik-c— r/i« Hawifaclurt 

wimitlolp and artistic wort nf tbo ki 
!, lil.. Morniiiff JVnoi. 

nmanahip is triuiiipliiiiit iti Mr. 

II1U' li(>furo pcnmon am 

flilbil tbeitenrn 


liwivv lines, floiii 

ling the Work, 

may pmcure all desired i 

ation by addressing the publishci 
t? street, Chicago, III. 

, lU^ 

If you waut cnrd stock of any kind ad- 
diess the Now Euglaud Card Co., Wooo- 
Bocket, K. I. Sec adveitisoment in another 

im of pracUoiil niii 
the best dcstiriu.- 

rUopt, Wiltiamtjxirt, Pa, 

)1d ohinurmphlo cRtiGls and new piil 

s, and all n-oiidomil poii aniljc«^iii>: 

if exnmlued.~~iVe« 

It is the most complete hondbook of 

mnnHliiii extnni. In the pre|>anitiun of bucIi a 
|>i<niiiaii s skill finds its cniciaf test.— ,Sci'CTl((fe A 

of reinnrkably II 

1 of hoauly, and du 
u—Dailji XcUgram 
mouDoing it (a be 
bo n-ltbout it— r/ii 

^rn/. O. C. SUxkwtH. Nt 
rknblc for its tni\tv. vorlel 
7urtit, itinntapolit, Min 

rork on pfininanihlp publudicd.- 

Ibinjiexei^Heut. — 0. C. Canii 

Prqf. it. B.^maTf^naa, iVore 
II U n work tliof no penman 

out.— Pr-iA E. L. liarntli, £\ 
It iiirniHoi 

St snugtilDo cxpeotolioiiB.— PriiA > 
jentiil but Inslruullre. — Prof. B. i 

Not Responsible. 

It should bo distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to bo 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- , 
lisbod; if any person diflbrs, the columns I *"**^'' 

Educational Fancies. 

"Can I give my son n QoXUaa education at 
hornet" nsks a fond parent. " \V«I1, yuii may 
be able to tuach him iw much of Greek and 
Latin, and Mathemauca as the collpge could, 
but you never can so ihoroiiglily imbue him 
with the idea that everybody else U a blamed 

! equally open to him to say so and toll 

The Hertford Cotirant saye of the Chinese 
student in this country, that when they have 
entered a school or college, or taken np a study, 
they ha%-e foribwith proceeded to step to the 
head of the school and to maaler the whole of 
the study. It has been amazing to see how ia a 
strange country, speaking a foreign and pecu- 
liarly ditficull language, they have managed lu 
80 iiiaiiy ways, on so many occaaions, to beat 
th«ir Ametican boy 

Teacher, to a little giit to whom he is endeav- 
oring to explain subsl nn.-I i<>u of fpactioas :. " If 
you had a pie and I should ^sk you for a quar- 
ter of it, and you eboiild give me what I 
wanted, how tnuch wouM y.,r. Imv,- left t" " I 
wouldn't Iiave any left." «aid the little girl, 
t" Correct.") 

A beautiful maid in CuiHsle 
On the back uf her neck had a Vulej 
Wbeii her lover furgot, 
And hugged the eoi^ spot, 
Her screama could be heard for a tnlele. 


,npi«ilCWe» 2 

. Dliiimto between Uie Pen and Swonl.... 3 

bi'iit Inks 3 

wfully Lovfly PbiloKn>hy. .. 4 

Few Tlinnglits upon Toncbioff 8 

Schoolin Dungal g 

Peep into Uncle Sam'B MaU Ba^ 10 

Story olSiwlPona 10 

Pixjiul DislinMion lO 

Senator's Cunl u 

Uiid Wriling : \X» Cause. EfTeot. und Currca- 

HnsineKtColliV*!" EutDpo 10 

Baynnl Tnjlrii'« Writing lO 

nurdett*» Advice to ConeipondonlK 10 

tliul Wriling Ma Mark ufClciiius 11 

Bank Nainbew ig 

Cliimgr.iphio Cdaeation \ 

llmeiitary to tlie Joumnl i 

Cj-nlhlii's Victory. g 

Conunvrei(d (\)ll<igc.sand Writiujf Academioa 

rctiun* of Aiittaogm])h9 jg 

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Books 12 

Duniel T. Ames (a sketcbl la 

illonal Kelley \ 


Geiiend Dire. i.»i,-> i.., .Ui.1,1,.;; 1- 

ng Credit '„ 

to T.wli Writing 

fu Tencli Upgiancr« to Writ. 
Postngo Sinmps uro Made. . 

Jiidglug Clianieter by Wriling... 

Bfnn of Many SlIlllonB ... 

Slnllamln Parvo 

Mailing IlieJounml 

Twafu'* Advico to Scribbtcra 

YourOwn Bu«Iuvu 1 

New Yoor Canto. 

Xcno force (n I'cnmansliip 

Ninuly.ninit Tons or Gold 

^''"P T'caiM fls A Mcona of Identifying 
NW Cuity Uooki ji 

Xeivspapi-n. oflbe World .,'..„ n 

Onr Most ValMblo and Prm-oklog Writing 

Our frtuumaslorlSSC.. .,..,, . i 



I'MidMii OiirtlHd 7